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Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.), BOOK VI., CHAPTER I. (search)
received its name from this city. It together with the Hipponiates Sinus forms the isthmus which we have mentioned above.Book vi. cap. i. § 4. DionysiusPliny seems to attribute to Dionysius the elder the project of cutting not walling off the isthmus: Itaque Dionysius major intercisam eo loco adjicere Siciliæ voluit. Hist. Nat. lib. iii. § 15. Grimaldi also is of opinion that the circumstance mentioned by Strabo should be referred to the first years of Dionysius the younger, about B. C. 366–359. undertook to build a wall across the isthmus, at the time he was carrying on war against the Leucani, assigning as a pretext that it would afford security to the inhabitants of the peninsula from the inroads of the barbarians dwelling beyond it; but in truth his intention was to cut off the communication of the Greeks with each other, and to have the greater power over those who dwelt within the peninsula, but those who dwelt withoutBy those who dwelt without, Strabo doubtless inten
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.), BOOK XVII., CHAPTER III. (search)
hood of Cyrene are Apollonia, Barca, Taucheira, Berenice, and other small towns close by. Bordering upon Cyrenaica is the district which produces silphium, and the juice called Cyrenaic, which the silphium discharges from incisions made in it. The plant was once nearly lost, in consequence of a spiteful incursion of barbarians, who attempted to destroy all the roots. The inhabitants of this district are nomades. Remarkable persons of Cyrene were Aristippus,Flourished about B. C. 366. The Cyrenaïc system resembles in most points those of Heracleitus and Protagoras, as given in Plato's Theætetus. The doctrines that a subject only knows objects through the prism of the impression which he receives, and that man is the measure of all things, are stated or implied in the Cyrenaic system, and lead at once to the consequence, that what we call reality is appearance; so that the whole fabric of human knowledge becomes a fantastic picture. The principle on which it rests, v
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK II. AN ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD AND THE ELEMENTS., CHAP. 113.—THE HARMONICAL PROPORTION OF THE UNIVERSE. (search)
lumella as having written on rural matters, and is praised by Censorinus. the philosopher who wrote on Gnomonics, EuclidOf Alexandria, the great geometrician, and instructor of Ptolemy I. He was the founder of the mathematical school of Alexandria., CoeranusHe was a Greek by birth, and lived in the time of Nero. He is extolled by Tacitus, B. 14, for his superlative wisdom, beyond which nothing is known of him. the philosopher, EudoxusOf Cnidus, an astronomer and legislator who flourished B.C. 366. He was a friend and disciple of Plato, and said to have been the first who taught in Greece the motions of the planets. His works on astronomy and geometry are lost, but his Phænomena have been preserved by Aratus, who turned his prose into verse., DemocritusBorn at Abdera in Thrace, about B.C. 460. He was one of the founders of the atomic theory, and looked upon peace of mind as the summum bonum of mortals. He wrote works on the nature and organization of the world, on physics, on contagiou
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 31 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh), chapter 4 (search)
xpenditures of this sort were considered necessary for an aspirant to political distinction. As early as the middle of the fourth century B.C., dramatic performances were added to the other spectacles, at least in the ludi Romani. Since these were religious ceremonies, admission was free. in that year were given with splendour and magnificence by the curule aediles,The office of plebeian aedile was created with the tribunate in 494 B.C., and that of curule aedile, reserved to patricians, in 366 B.C. By this time both were open to patricians and plebeians alike. The supervision of the games was one of their chief functions. Lucius Valerius Flaccus and Lucius Quinctius Flamininus; the performanceB.C. 201 of two days was renewed;Religious flaws in the performance, unfavourable omens, and similar occurrences might cause the partial or total repetition of the games. The aediles might also desire to gain increased prestige by expenditures on a grand scale, and so find or manufacture causes f
Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 31 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh), chapter 6 (search)
Macedonia was assigned by lot to Publius Sulpicius as his province, and he submitted to the popular assembly the question whether they wished and ordered that war be declared upon King Philip and the Macedonians over whom he ruled, on account of the injuries he had inflicted and the war he had made on the allies of the Roman people. To the other consul, Aurelius, the province of Italy was assigned. Next the praetorsThe praetorship had been established in 366 B.C.; a second praetor was added in 242 B.C. (Per. XIX), and two more in 227 B.C. (XXII. xxxv. 5). One of them, the praetor urbanus (see note to iv. 1 above), tried cases in which only Roman citizens were involved; a second was frequently assigned to to preside over cases between citizens and aliens (praetor peregrinus); the rest were given the less important territorial provinces. received theirB.C. 200 assignments, Gaius Sergius Plautus the praetorship of the city, Quintus Fulvius Gillo the governorship of Sicil
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., The Roman Constitution. (search)
provinces. See p. lxi. The civil powers of the consuls were analogous to those of any chief magistrate. Most important among them were the right to call together, consult, and preside over the Senate, and the right to convene the comitia centuriata and preside over the election of the higher curule magistrates. For the consular auspicia, see p. lxiii, below. Praetors. Praetor was the original Italic title of the consuls, but, as the result of the agitation for the Licinian Laws, in B.C. 366, a special magistrate of that name was elected "who administered justice, a colleague of the consuls and elected under the same auspices." He was, however, inferior in rank to the consul, who had major potestas. Gradually other praetors were added, until in the time of Cicero there were eight. They were essentially judicial officers, and their functions were assigned by lot. See p. lxv. As curule magistrates, however, they could on occasion command armies or assist the consuls in emergenc
Anti'sthenes (*)Antisqe/nhs), a CYNIC philosopher, the son of Antisthenes, an Athenian, was the founder of the sect of the Cynics, which of all the Greek schools of philosophy was perhaps the most devoid of any scientific purpose. He flourished B. C. 366 (Diod. 15.76), and his mother was a Thracian (Suidas, s.v. D. L. 6.1), though some say a Phrygian, an opinion probably derived from his replying to a man who reviled him as not being a genuine Athenian citizen, that the mother of the gods was a Phrygian. In his youth he fought at Tanagra (B. C. 426), and was a disciple first of Gorgias, and then of Socrates, whom he never quitted, and at whose death he was present. (Plat. Phaed. § 59.) He never forgave his master's persecutors, and is even said to have been instrumental in procuring their punishment. (D. L. 6.10.) He survived the battle of Leuctra (B. C. 371), as he is reported to have compared the victory of the Thebans to a set of schoolboys beating their master (Plut. Lyc. 30), an
ri/stippos), son of Aritades, born at Cyrene, and founder of the Cyrenaic School of Philosophy, came over to Greece to be present at the Olympic games, where he fell in with Ischomachus the agriculturist (whose praises are the subject of Xenophon's Occonomicus), and by his description was filled with so ardent a desire to see Socrates, that he went to Athens for the purpose (Plut. de Curios. 2), and remained with him almost up to the time of his execution, B. C. 399. Diodorus (15.76) gives B. C. 366 as the date of Aristippus, which agrees very well with the facts which we know about him, and with the statement (Schol. ad Aristoph. Plut. 179), that Lais, the courtezan with whom he was intimate, was born B. C. 421. Though a disciple of Socrates, he wandered both in principle and practice very far from the teaching and example of his great master. He was luxurious in his mode of living; he indulged in sensual gratifications, and the society of the notorious Lais; he took money for his
Autocles, and the only pertinent and sensible one of the three. (Xen. Hell. 6.3. §§ 3, 10, &c.; see Diod. 15.38, 51, who in the former passage assigns the mission of Callistratus to B. C. 375, confounding the peace of 371 with that of 374, and placing the latter a year too soon.) Again, in 369, the year of the invasion of Laconia by Epaminondas, Callistratus induced the Athenians to grant the aid which the Spartans had sent to ask. (Dem. c. Neaer. p. 1353; comp. Xen. Hell. 6.5.33, &c.) To B. C. 366 we may with most probability refer his famous speech on the affair of Oropus,--a speech which is said to have excited the emulation of Demosthenes, and caused him to devote himself to the study of oratory. It would seem that, after the seizure of Oropus by a body of Oropian exiles and the consequent loss of it to Athens, the Athenians, having sent an army against it under Chares, were induced by Chabrias and Callistratus to compromise the matter by delivering the place as a deposit to the
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Licinius Calvus Stolo or Calvus Stolo (search)
apital, and that the remainder of the latter should be paid back in three yearly instalments. 4. That the Sibylline books should be entrusted to a college of ten men (decemviri), half of whom should be plebeians, that no falsifications might be introduced in favour of the patricians. These rogations were passed after a most vehement opposition on the part of the patricians, and L. Sextius was the first plebeian who, in accordance with the first of them, obtained the consulship for the year B. C. 366. Licinius himself too received marks of the people's gratitude and confidence, by being elected twice to the consulship, in B. C. 364 and 361; but some years later he was accused by M. Popilius Laenas of having transgressed his own law respecting the amount of public land which a person might possess. Avarice had tempted him to violate his own salutary regulations, and in B. C. 357 he was sentenced to pay a heavy fine. (Plin. Nat. 17.1, 18.4 ; Varro, De Re Rust. 1.2; Liv. 6.35, 42, 7.1, 2,
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