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Cincinna'tus 9. T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus, consular tribune in B. C. 368, and in the following year master of the horse to the dictator M. Furious Camillus, when the Licinian laws were carried. Livy calls him T. Quinctius Pennus, and as we have the surnames Cincinnatus Capitolinus in the Capitoline Fasti, his full name may have been T. Quinctius Pennus Cincinnatus Capitolinus. (Liv. 6.38, 42; Diod. 15.78.) [C.P.M]
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Crassus, Papi'rius 7. L. Papirius Crassus, consular tribune in B. C. 368. (Liv. 6.38; Diod. 15.78.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Diony'sius or Diony'sius the Elder or the Elder Diony'sius (search)
ge led to a renewal of hostilities. Two great battles, the sites of both of which are uncertain, decided the fortune of the war. In the first Dionysius was completely victorious, and Mago, the Carthaginian general, fell; but in the second the Syracusans were defeated with great slaughter. Peace was concluded soon after, by which the river Halycus was fixed as the boundary of the two powers. (Diod. 15.15-17.) Dionysius seems to have been again the aggressor in a fresh war which broke out in B. C. 368, and in which he a second time advanced with his army to the extreme western point of Sicily, and laid siege to Lilybaeum. Hostilities were however suspended on the approach of winter, and before they could be resumed Dionysius died at Syracuse, B. C. 367. His last illness is said to have been brought on by excessive feasting; but according to some accounts, his death was hastened by his medical attendants, in order to secure the succession for his son. (Diod. 15.74; Plut. Dion, 6; Corn. N
Euphron (*Eu)/frwn), a citizen of Sicyon, who held the chief power there during the period of its subjection to Sparta. In B. C. 368 the city was compelled by Epameinondas to join the Theban alliance; and, though its constitution appears to have remained unchanged, the influence of Euphron was no doubt considerably diminished. In order, therefore, to regain it, he took advantage of the dissatisfaction of the Arcadians and Argives with the moderation of Epameinondas, in leaving the old oligarchical governments undisturbed [EPAMINONDAS], and, representing to them that the supremacy of Lacedaemon would surely be restored in Sicyon if matters continued as they well as were, he succeeded, through their assistance, in establishing democracy. In the election of generals which followed, he himself was chosen, with four colleagues. He then procured the appointment of his own son, Adeas, to the command of the mercenary troops in the service of the re public; and he further attached these to hi
Maluginensis 9. Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis, P. F. M. N., seven times consular tribune: the first time in B. C. 386, the second time in B. C. 384, the third time in B. C. 382, the fourth time in B. C. 380, the fifth time in B. C. 376 (Livy does not mention the consular tribunes of this year, see Diod. 15.71, and Anonym. Noris.), the sixth time in B. C. 370, and a seventh time in B. C. 368. (Liv. 6.6, 18, 22, 27, 36, 38.)
Mamerci'nus 7. L. Aemilius Mam. N. Mamercinus, L. F., son of No. 6, was magister equitum to the dictator M. Furius Camillus, B. C. 368;. He was consul in B. C. 366 with L. Sextius Lateranus, who was the first plebeian elected to this dignity, in accordance with the Licinian law, which had been recently passed. He was again elected to the consulship in B. C. 363, with Cn. Genucius Aventinensis. (Liv. 6.38, 7.1, 3; Diod. 15.82; 16.2.)
Pausa'nias 6. A pretender to the throne of Macedonia. According to the scholiast on Aeschines (p. 754, ed. Reiske), he belonged to the royal family. He made his appearance in B. C. 368, after Alexander II., the son of Amyntas II., had been assassinated by Ptolemaeus; and, being supported by numerous adherents, gained possession of several towns. Eurydice, the widow of Amyntas, sent to request the aid of the Athenian general, Iphicrates, who expelled Pausanias from the kingdom. (Aeschines, de falsa Leg. 100.23, p. 31, ed. Steph.; Corn. Nepos, Iphicr. 100.3.)
Band, which he commanded. In B. C. 369, he was one of the generals of the Theban force which invaded the Peloponnesus, and he united with Epamimnondas in persuading their colleagues not to return home till they had carried their arms into the territory of Sparta itself, though they would thus be exceeding their legal term of office. For this, Epaminondas and Pelopidas were impeached afterwards by their enemies at Thebes, but were honourably acquitted. [EPAMINONDAS; MENECLEIDAS.] Early in B. C. 368, the Thessalians who were suffering under the oppression of Alexander of Pherae, applied for aid to Thebes. The appeal was responded to, and Pelopidas, being entrusted with the command of the expedition, occupied Larissa, and received the submission of the tyrant, who had come thither for the purpose, but who soon after sought safety in flight, alarmed at the indignation shown by Pelopidas at the tales he heard of his cruelty and profligacy. From Thessaly Pelopidas advanced into Macedonia,
as a hostage for the payment of some stipulated tribute, and that by them he was sent to Thebes, where he sojourned in the house of the father of Epaminondas, and was educated with the latter in the Pythagorean discipline. The same author, however, tells us, in another passage (15.67), that he was one of those whom Pelopidas brought away with him as hostages for the continuance of tranquillity in Macedonia, when he had gone thither to mediate between Alexander II. and Ptolemy of Alorus, in B. C. 368; and with this statement Plutarch agrees (Pelop. 26); while Justin says (7.5), that Alexander, Philip's brother, gave him as a hostage, first to the Illyrians, and again a second time to the Thebans. Of these accounts, the last-mentioned looks like an awkward attempt to combine conflicting stories; while none of them are easily reconcileable with the statement of Aeschines (de Fals. Leg. pp. 31, 32 ; comnp. Nep. Iph. 3), that, shortly after the death of Alexander II., Philip was in Macedon
Philiscus (*Fili/skos), a citizen of Abydus, who in B. C. 368 was sent into Greece by Ariobarzanes, the Persian satrap of the Hellespont, to effect a reconciliation between the Thebans and Lacedaemonians. He came well supplied with money, and in the name of Artaxerxes II.; but in a congress which he caused to be held at Delphi, he failed to accomplish his object, as the Thebans refused to abandon their claim to the sovereignty of Boeotia, and Lacedaemon would not acknowledge the independence of Messenia. Upon this Philiscus, leaving behind him a body of 2000 mercenaries for the service of Sparta, and having been honoured, as well as Ariobarzanes, with the Athenian franchise, returned to Asia. Here, under cover of the satrap's protection, he made himself master of a number of Greek states, over which he exercised a tyrannical and insolent sway, till he was at last assassinated at Lampsacus by Thersagoras and Execestus (Xen. Hell. 7.1.27 ; Diod. 15.70; Dem. c. Aristocr. pp. 666, 667).
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