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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Barclay, Robert, 1648-1690 (search)
Barclay, Robert, 1648-1690 Author; born in Gordonston, Scotland, Dec. 23, 1648. At the age of nineteen, he embraced the principles of the Society of Friends. In 1670 he vindicated them from false charges in a pamphlet entitled Truth cleared of calumnies. He also published, in Latin and English, An apology for the true Christian Divinity, as the same is held forth and preached by the people called, in scorn, Quakers. Barclay dedicated it to King Charles, with great modesty and independence, and it was one of the ablest defences of the doctrines of his sect. His writings attracted public sympathy to his co-religionists. The first remonstrance of Friends against war was put forth by Barclay in 1677, entitled a Treatise on universal love. Barclay made many religious journeys in England, Holland, and Germany with William Penn, and was several times imprisoned on account of the promulgation of his doctrines. Charles II. was Barclay's friend through the influence of Penn, and ma
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Berkeley, Sir William, (search)
thought it to be his duty to suppress them in his colony as enemies to royalty. So he first decreed that no Puritan minister should preach except in conformity to the rules of the Church of England and, finally, all nonconformists were banished from Virginia. In the war with the Indians in 1644, in which Opechancanough (q. v.) led the savages, the governor behaved with promptness and efficiency, and soon crushed the invaders. Then the colonists had peace and prosperity for some years. In 1648 they numbered 20,000. The cottages were filled with children, as the ports with ships and emigrants. The people were loyal to the King; and when the latter lost his head, and royalty was abolished in England, they opened wide their arms to receive the cavaliers (many of them of the gentry, nobility, and clergy of the realm) who fled in horror from the wrath of republicans. They brought refinement in manners and intellectual culture to Virginia, and strengthened the loyalty of the colonists.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cambridge (search)
of the Continental army on July 2, 1775; as the seat of Harvard University (q. v.); and as the place where the sons of Alvan Clark carry on the manufacture of astronomical instruments which have a world-wide reputation. In 1900 the city had a total assessed valuation of taxable property of $94,467,930, and the net city and water debt was $6,226,182. The population in 1890 was 70,028; in 1900, 91,886. The second Synod of Massachusetts met at Cambridge in 1646, and was not dissolved until 1648. The synod composed and adopted a system of church discipline called The Cambridge platform, and recommended it, together with the Westminster Confession of Faith, to the general court and to the churches. The latter, in New England, generally complied with the recommendation, and The Cambridge platform, with the ecclesiastical laws, formed the theological constitution of the New England colonies. The seeming apathy of Congress in respect to the army besieging Boston greatly perplexed Wa
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cambridge platform. (search)
Cambridge platform. The second Synod of Massachusetts met at Cambridge in 1646, and was not dissolved until 1648. The synod composed and adopted a system of church discipline called The Cambridge platform, and recommended it, together with the Westminster Confession of Faith, to the general court and to the churches. The latter, in New England, generally complied with the recommendation, and The Cambridge platform, with the ecclesiastical laws, formed the theological constitution of the New England colonies.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cannon, (search)
Cannon, In the United States, were cast at Lynn, Mass., by Henry Leonard, in 1647, and at Orr's foundry, Bridgewater, 1648. In 1735 the Hope Furnace was established in Rhode Island, where six heavy cannon, ordered by the State, were cast in 1775. The heaviest guns used at this time were 18-pounders. William Denning makes wrought-iron cannon of staves bound together with wrought-iron bands, and boxed and breeched, 1790. Colonel Bomford, of the United States ordnance department, invents a cannon called the columbiad, a long-chambered piece for projecting solid shot and shell with a heavy charge of powder, 1812. West Point foundry established under special patronage of the government, 1817. First contract of Gouverneur Kemble, president, for the West Point Foundry Association, for thirty-two 42-pounders, long guns, July 11, 1820. First gun rifled in America at the South Boston Iron Company's foundry, 1834. Cyrus Alger patents and makes the first malleable iron gu
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Charles I. 1600- (search)
of kings and the sanctity of the royal prerogative, led to an outbreak in England which cost him his life. Civil war began in 1641, and ended with his execution at the beginning of 1649. His reign was at first succeeded by the rule of the Long Parliament, and then by Cromwell—halfmonarch, called the Protector. After various vicissitudes during the civil war, Charles was captured, and imprisoned in Carisbrooke Castle, in the Isle of Wight, from whence he was taken to London at the close of 1648. He was brought to trial before a special high court in Westminster Hall on Jan. 20, 1649, on the 27th was condemned to death, and on the 30th was beheaded on a scaffold in front of the banqueting-house at Whitehall. Charles had eight children by his queen, Henrietta, six of whom survived him. His family was driven into exile; but a little more than eleven years after his death his eldest son, Charles, ascended the throne as King of Great Britain. The son held much more intimate relation
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Clarke, or Clerke, Jeremy (search)
Clarke, or Clerke, Jeremy One of the settlers of Newport, R. I., in 1639; became constable of the new plantation in 1640, and treasurer in 1647. He was elected as an assistant to the president in 1648, and when the president-elect, William Coddington, failed to enter upon his office and to answer certain accusations brought against him, Clarke, who was a republican, was chosen by the assembly as president-regent, and served as such till the following May.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Day, or Daye, Stephen 1611-1668 (search)
Day, or Daye, Stephen 1611-1668 The first printer in the English-American colonies; born in London in 1611; went to Massachusetts in 1638, and was employed to manage the printing-press sent out by Rev. Mr. Glover. He began printing at Cambridge in March, 1639. He was not a skilful workman, and was succeeded in the management, about 1648, by Samuel Green, who employed Day as a journeyman. He died at Cambridge, Mass., Dec. 22, 1668.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fox, George 1624-1691 (search)
son, who George Fox. was grave and contemplative in temperament, was apprenticed to a shoemaker, and made the Scriptures his constant study. The doctrines he afterwards taught were gradually fashioned in his mind, and believing himself to be called to disseminate them, he abandoned his trade at the age of nineteen, and began his spiritual work, leading a wandering life for some years, living in the woods, and practising rigid self-denial. He first appeared as a preacher at Manchester, in 1648, and he was imprisoned as a disturber of the peace. Then he travelled over England, meeting the same fate everywhere, but gaining many followers. He warmly advocated all the Christian virtues, simplicity in worship, and in manner of living. Brought before a justice at Derby, in 1650, he told the magistrate to quake before the Lord, and thereafter he and his sect were called Quakers. Taken before Cromwell, in London, that ruler not only released him, but declared his doctrines were saluta
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gorton, Samuel 1600-1677 (search)
ious acts. In 1641 he was compelled to leave the island. He took refuge with Roger Williams at Providence, but soon made himself so obnoxious there that he escaped public scorn by removing (1642) to a spot on the west side of Narraganset Bay, where he bought land of Miantonomoh and planted a settlement. The next year inferior sachems disputed his title to the land; and, calling upon Massachusetts to assist them, an armed force was sent to arrest Gorton and his followers, and a portion of them were taken to Boston and tried as damnable heretics. For a while they endured confinement and hard labor, in irons, and in 1644 they were banished from the colony. Gorton went to England and obtained from the Earl of Warwick an order that the clergyman and his followers should have peace at the settlement they had chosen. He called the place Warwick when he returned to it in 1648. There he preached on Sunday and performed civil service during the week. He died in Rhode Island late in 1677.
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