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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), General Armstrong, the (search)
General Armstrong, the A noted privateer, fitted out in New York in 1812. The merchants of New York fitted out no less than twenty-six fast-sailing privateers and letters-of-marque within 120 days after the declaration of war (1812), carrying about 200 pieces of artillery, and manned by over 2,000 seamen. Among the most noted of these privateers was the General Armstrong, a moderatesized schooner, mounting a Long Tom 42-pounder and eighteen carronades. Her complement was 140 men; her first commander was Captain Barnard; her second, Capt. G. R. Champlin. Early in March, 1813, while Champlin was cruising off the Surinam River, on the coast of South America, he gave chase to the British sloop-of-war Coquette, mounting twenty-seven guns and manned by 126 men and boys. They engaged in conflict between nine and ten o'clock (March 11, 1813). Supposing his antagonist to be a British letter-of-marque, Champlin ran the Armstrong down upon her, with the intention of boarding her. When
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Germantown, battle of. (search)
lphia, which the Americans still held. Perceiving the weakening of Howe's army, and feeling the necessity of speedily striking a blow that should revive the spirits of the Americans, it was resolved to attack the British army at Germantown. Washington had been reinforced by Maryland and New Jersey troops. His army moved in four columns during the night of Oct. 3, the divisions of Sullivan and Wayne, flanked by General Conway's brigade on the right, moving by way of Chestnut Hill, while Armstrong, with Pennsylvania militia, made a circuit to gain the left and rear of the enemy. The divisions of Greene and Stephen, flanked by McDougall's brigade (two-thirds of the whole army), moved on a circuitous route to attack the front of the British right wing, while the Maryland and New Jersey militia, under Smallwood and Forman, marched to fall upon the rear of that wing. Lord Stirling, with the brigades of Nash and Maxwell, Map of battle. formed the reserve. Howe's force stretched acro
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Kittanning, destruction of (search)
Kittanning, destruction of In consequence of repeated injuries from the white people of Pennsylvania, the Delaware Indians had become bitterly hostile in 1756. They committed many depredations, and early in September Col. John Armstrong marched against the Indian town of Kittanning, on the Alleghany River, about 45 miles northeast from Pittsburg. He approached the village stealthily, and fell upon the Indians furiously with about 300 men at 3 A. M., Sept. 8, 1756. The Indians refusinnning, on the Alleghany River, about 45 miles northeast from Pittsburg. He approached the village stealthily, and fell upon the Indians furiously with about 300 men at 3 A. M., Sept. 8, 1756. The Indians refusing the quarter which was offered them, Colonel Armstrong ordered their wigwams to be set on fire. Their leader, Captain Jacobs, and his wife and son were killed. About forty Indians were destroyed, and eleven English prisoners were released. Main Street, Dawson City, July, 1897.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Neutrality. (search)
the Continental nations seemed inevitable. The United States approved the measure, and towards the close of 1780 sent Francis Dana as ambassador to the Court of St. Petersburg to negotiate a treaty of amity and commerce. The alliance neither awed nor in any sensible way affected England. The known fickleness and faithlessness of Catharine made other powers hesitate in going to war, and the league resulted in inaction. When the Berlin decree (see orders in council) was promulgated, John Armstrong, American minister at Paris, inquired of the French minister of marine how it was to be interpreted concerning American vessels, and was answered that American vessels bound to and from a British port would not be molested; and such was the fact. For nearly a year the French cruisers did not interfere with American vessels; but after the peace of Tilsit (July 7, 1807), Napoleon employed the released French army in enforcing his Continental system. According to a new interpretation of t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), New York, State of (search)
The governor and lieutenant-governor must be thirty years of age, a citizen of the United States, and five years a resident of the State. United States Senators. Name. No. of Congress.Term. Philip Schuyler1st1789 to 1791 Rufus King1st to 4th1789 to 1796 Aaron Burr2d to 5th1791 to 1797 John Lawrence4th to 6th1796 to 1800 Philip Schuyler5th 1797 to 1798to John Sloss Hobart5th1790 William North5th1798 James Watson5th to 6th 1799 to 1800 Gouverneur Morris6th to 7th1800to 1803 John Armstrong6th to 8th1801to 1804 He Witt Clinton7th to 8th1802 to 1803 Theodore Bailey8th1803to 1804 Samuel L. Mitchell8th to 11th 1804 to 1809 John Smith8th to 13th1803 to 1813 Obadiah German11th to 14th1809to 1815 Rufus King13th to 19th1813 to 1825 Nathan Sanford14thto 17th1815 to 1821 Martin Van Buren18th to 20th1823 to 1828 Nathan Sanford19th to 22d1826 to 1831 Charles E. Dudley20th to 23d 1828to 1833 William I. Marcy22d1831to 1832 Silas Wright, Jr.22d to 28th 1832 to 1844 Nathaniel
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Newburg addresses, the (search)
was compact, patriotic, clear in expression and meaning, mild yet severe in its rebuke, and withal vitally important in its relations to the well-being of the infant republic as well as the army. When it was concluded, Washington retired and left the officers to discuss the subject unrestrained by his presence. Their conference was brief. They passed resolutions, by unanimous vote, thanking the commander-in-chief for the wise course he had pursued; expressing their undiminished attachment to their country; their unshaken confidence Washington's headquarters at Newburg. in the good faith of Congress; and their determination to bear with patience their grievances until, in due time, they should be redressed. The proceedings were signed by General Gates, as president of the meeting, and three days afterwards Washington, in general orders, expressed his entire satisfaction. The author of the Newburg addresses was Maj. John Armstrong (q. v.). See Washington and the Newburg address.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Pensacola. (search)
alarm, and the punishing of the Spaniards for such perfidy. At the beginning of the Civil War the United States had a navy-yard at the little village of Warrington, 5 miles from the entrance to Pensacola Bay. It was under the charge of Commodore Armstrong, of the navy. He was surrounded by disloyal men, and when, on the morning of Jan. 10, 1861 (when Fort Pickens was threatened), about 500 Florida and Alabama troops, and a few from Mississippi, commanded by Colonel Lomax, appeared at the navy-yard and demanded its surrender, Armstrong found himself powerless. Of the sixty officers and men under his command, he afterwards said more than three-fourths were disloyal, and some were actively so. Commander Farrand was actually among the insurgents, who demanded the surrender to the governor of Florida. The disloyal men would have revolted if the commodore had made resistance. Lieutenant Renshaw, the flagofficer, one of the leaders among the disloyal men, immediately ordered the N
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Pickens, Fort (search)
l Jackson. Nearly a mile eastward of the Barrancas was the navy-yard, then in command of Commodore Armstrong. Before the Florida ordinance of secession was passed (Jan. 10, 1861) the governor (Perrtacked, and he took immediate measures to save it and the other forts near. He called on Commodore Armstrong (Jan. 7) and asked his co-operation, but having no special order to do so, he declined. ved instructions from his government to use all diligence for the protection of the forts, and Armstrong was ordered to co-operate with Slemmer. It was feared that the small garrison could not hold more than one fort, and it was resolved that it should be Pickens. It was arranged for Armstrong to send the little garrison at the Barrancas on a vessel to Fort Pickens. Armstrong failed to do hisArmstrong failed to do his part, but Slemmer, with great exertions, had the troops of Barrancas carried over to Pickens, with their families and much of the ammunition. The guns bearing upon Pensacola Bay at the Barrancas we
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Rambouillet decree. (search)
Rambouillet decree. Professing to be indignant at what seemed to be partiality shown to England by the Americans in their restrictive acts, Napoleon caused the seizure and confiscation of many American vessels and their cargoes. John Armstrong, then United States minister to France, remonstrated, and when he learned that several vessels were to be sold, he offered to the French government a vigorous protest, in which he recapitulated the many aggressions which American commerce had suffered from French cruisers. This remonstrance was answered by a decree framed at Rambouillet March 23, 1810, but not issued until May 1, that ordered the sale of 132 American vessels which had been seized, worth, with their cargoes, $8,000,000, the proceeds to be placed in the French military chest. It also ordered that all American vessels which should enter French ports, or ports occupied by French troops, should be seized and sequestered.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Reid, Samuel Chester 1783-1861 (search)
Reid, Samuel Chester 1783-1861 Naval officer; born in Norwich, Conn., August 25, 1783; went to sea when only eleven years of age, and was captured by a French privateer and kept a prisoner six months. Acting midshipman under Commodore Truxtun, he became enamoured of the naval service, and when the War of 1812-15 broke out he began privateering. He comhanded the General Armstrong in 1814, and with her fought one of the most remarkable of recorded battles, at Fayal (see General Armstrong, the). Captain Reid was appointed sailing-master in the navy, and held that office till his death. He was also warden of the port of New York. Captain Reid was the inventor of the signal telegraph that communicated with Sandy Hook from the Narrows, and it was he who designed the present form of the United States flag. He died in New York City, Jan. 28, 1861.
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