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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gerry, Elbridge 1744-1814 (search)
Gerry, Elbridge 1744-1814 Signer of the Declaration of Independence; born in Marblehead, Mass., July 17, 1744; graduated at Harvard in 1762; took part in the early strife before the Revolution, and in 1772 represented his native town in the State legislature. Gerry was the first to propose, in the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, a law for fitting out armed vessels and establishing a court of admiralty. He took a seat in the Continental Congress early in 1776, signed the DeclarationGerry was the first to propose, in the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, a law for fitting out armed vessels and establishing a court of admiralty. He took a seat in the Continental Congress early in 1776, signed the Declaration of Independence, and remained in that body, with few intermissions, until 1785. He was an efficient member of finance committees in the Congress, and was president of the treasury board in 1780. A delegate in the convention that framed the national Constitution, he was one of those who refused to sign the instrument. He was a member of Congress from 1789 to 1793, and in 1797 was sent as one of the special envoys on a mission to France. He was elected governor of Massachusetts by the Democ
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gerrymandering, (search)
er a bitter contest for power in Massachusetts between the Federalists and Democrats, the latter succeeded, in 1811, in electing their candidate for governor, Elbridge Gerry, and a majority of both Houses of the legislature. In order to secure the election of United States Senators in the future, it was important to perpetuate thature proceeded to rearrange the senatorial districts of the State. They divided counties in opposition to the protests and strong constitutional arguments Elbridge Gerry. of the Federalists; and those of Essex and Worcester were so divided as to form a Democratic majority in each of those Federal counties, without any apparent regard to convenience or propriety. The work was sanctioned and became a law by the signature of Governor Gerry, for which act the opposition severely castigated him through the newspapers and at public gatherings. In Essex county the arrangement of the district, in relation to the towns, was singular and absurd. Russell, th
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Henry, John 1812-1829 (search)
hat there were leaders in favor of it. He did not mention any names. Henry went to England for the reward for his services, when he was treated coolly by the officers of the government, and, in a letter from Under-Secretary Peel, he was referred to Craig's successor in the Canadian government. Offended at this treatment. Henry did not go to Canada, but landed in Boston, accompanied by a Frenchman who called himself Count de Crillon, but who was an impostor and swindler. Henry visited Governor Gerry, and from him obtained a letter of introduction to President Madison. He then went to Washington, and laid the whole matter before the President, who was so well satisfied of the great value of Henry's disclosures, at the moment when war was about to be declared against England—overwhelming proof of the secret designs of the British government to destroy the new republic— that he gave Henry $50,000 out of the secret service fund in his possession for the entire correspondence of the p
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Marshall, John, Ll.d. 1755- (search)
stitution, where he distinguished himself by his eloquence and John Marshall. logic. He became also a conspicuous member of the Virginia Assembly. President Washington offered Marshall the post of Attorney-General, but he declined. On the return of Monroe from France, Washington offered the mission to Marshall, but it, too, was declined. He afterwards accepted the post of special envoy to France from President Adams, and was associated in that fruitless mission with Messrs. Pinckney and Gerry. In 1799 Mr. Marshall was in the Congress, and in 1800 was made Secretary of War, which office he held only a short time. He succeeded Timothy Pickering as Secretary of State, May 3, 1800, and on the resignation of Chief-Justice Ellsworth he was appointed his successor, June 1, 1801, and held the office until his death, in Philadelphia, Pa., July 6, 1835. Chief-Justice Marshall was president of the American Colonization Society and vice-president of the American Bible Society. He was also
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Massachusetts, (search)
homas Hutchinson1769 to 1771 Thomas Hutchinson1771 to 1774 The Council1774 to 1780 Governors under the State Constitution. Name.Party.Term. John Hancock1780 to 1785 James Bowdoin1785 to 1787 John Hancock1787 to Oct., 1793 Samuel Adams1793 to 1794 Samuel Adams1794 to 1797 Increase Sumner1797 to June, 1799 Moses Gill1799 to 1800 Caleb StrongFederal.1800 to 1807 James SullivanDem.-Rep.1807 to Dec., 1808 Levi LincolnDem.-Rep.1808 to 1809 Christopher GoreFederal.1809 to 1810 Elbridge GerryDem.-Rep.1810 to 1812 Caleb StrongFederal.1812 to 1816 John BrooksFederal.1816 to 1823 William EustisDem.-Rep.1823 to Feb., 1825 Marcus MortonDem.-Rep.Feb. to July, 1825 Levi LincolnDemocrat.1825 to 1834 John DavisWhig.1834 to March, 1835 Samuel T. ArmstrongWhig.March, 1835. to 1836 Edward EverettWhig.1836 to 1840 Marcus MortonWhig.1840 to 1841 John DavisDemocrat.1841 to 1843 Marcus MortonWhig.1843 to 1844 George N. BriggsDemocrat.1844 to 1851 George S. BoutwellWhig.1851 to
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Presidential administrations. (search)
ton and Sedgwick, speakers. 1801-5: Jefferson; Burr, Vice-Presi- dent, Republican; Madison, State; Gallatin, Treasury. Congress, Republican; Macon, speaker. 1805-9: Jefferson; George Clinton, Vice-President, Republican; Madison, State; Gallatin, Treasury. Congress, Republican; Macon and Varnum, speakers. 1809-3; Madison; Clinton, Vice-President, Republican; Robert Smith, later Monroe, State; Gallatin, Treasury. Congress, Republican; Varnum and Clay, speakers. 1813-17: Madison; Gerry, Vice-President, Republican; Monroe, State, Gallatin, at first, Treasury. Congress, Republican; Clay, speaker. 1817-21: Monroe; Tompkins, Vice-President, Republican; J. Q. Adams, State; Crawford, Treasury; Calhoun (and others), War, Congress, Republican, Clay, speaker. 1821-25: Monroe; Tompkins, Vice-President; J. Q. Adams, State; Crawford, Treasury; Calhoun, War. Congress, Republican; P. P. Barbour and Clay, speakers. 1825-29: J. Q. Adams, National Republican; Calhoun, Vice-Presid
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Presidential elections. (search)
Hampshire, 9; James Madison, 3; James Monroe, 3. Vacancy, 1. Madison was chosen President and Clinton Vice-President. 1812. For President, James Madison, Republican, 128; De Witt Clinton, of New York, Federalist, 89. For Vice-President, Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, 131; Jared Ingersoll, of Pennsylvania, Federalist, 86. Vacancy, 1. Madison was chosen President and Gerry Vice-President. 1816. For President, James Monroe, of Virginia, Republican, 183; Rufus King, of New York, FederaGerry Vice-President. 1816. For President, James Monroe, of Virginia, Republican, 183; Rufus King, of New York, Federalist, 34. For Vice-President. Daniel D. Tompkins, of New York, Republican, 183; John Eager Howard, of Maryland, Federalist, 22; James Ross, of Pennsylvania, 5; John Marshall, of Virginia, 4; Robert G. Harper, of Maryland, 3. Vacancies, 4. Monroe was chosen President and Tompkins Vice-President. 1820. For President, James Monroe, of Virginia, Republican, 231; John Q. Adams, of Massachusetts, Republican, 1. For Vice-President, Daniel D. Tompkins, Republican, 218; Richard Stockton, of New
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Senate, United States (search)
ing a vacancy in the office of Vice-President, and while the Vice-President exercises the office of President of the United States, Whether a vacancy in the office of Vice-President is occasioned by that officer's exercising the office of President of the United States has not been determined. the president pro tempore of the Senate receives the salary of a Vice-President, but he has no vote other than that of a Senator. Of the twenty-four Vice-Presidents, one (Calhoun) resigned; four (Gerry, King, Wilson and Hendricks) died in office; and five (Tyler, Fillmore, Johnson, Arthur, and Roosevelt) exercised the office of President of the United States during vacancies in that office occasioned by death. All of the twenty-four Vice-Presidents except two (Morton and Stevenson), are dead. Their average age was seventy years. Sixty-three Senators have served as presidents pro tempore. They belonged to twenty-two different States, Virginia leading with six; Connecticut, Georgia,
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), United States of America. (search)
enate expels William Blount, of Tennessee......July 9, 1797 First session adjourns......July 10, 1797 President appoints John Marshall, of Virginia, and Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, with C. C. Pinckney, as commissioners to treat with France; they meet at Paris......Oct. 4, 1797 [Commissioners asked to bribe members ongress adjourns......March 3, 1813 seventh administration—Democratic-Republican, March 4, 1813, to March 3, 1817. James Madison, Virginia, President. Elbridge Gerry, Massachusetts, Vice-President. Russia offers mediation between the United States and Great Britain......March, 1813 United States divided into nine mil The Star-Spangled banner first sung at the Holliday Street Theatre, Baltimore......October, 1814 General Jackson occupies Pensacola......Nov. 6, 1814 Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, fifth Vice-President of the United States, dies at Washington, D. C., aged seventy......Nov. 23, 1814 Hartford Convention meets at Hartf
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Warren, Joseph 1741- (search)
vigilance of Dr. Warren. He was commissioned major-general by the Massachusetts Congress, June 14, 1775. Warren opposed the project of fortifying Charlestown Heights—Bunker (Breed's) Hill—because of the scarcity of powder, and to this cause the defeat of the provincials is chiefly chargeable. When a majority of a council of war and the committee of safety decided to fortify Bunker Hill, he resolved to take part in the enterprise. I beg you not to expose your person, Dr. Warren, said Elbridge Gerry, for your life is too valuable to us. I know that I may fall, replied Warren, but where's the man who does not think it glorious and delightful to die for his country? Just before the battle began he went to the redoubt on Breed's Hill with a musket in his hand, and was offered the command by Colonel Prescott and General Putnam, but declined, and fought as a volunteer in the ranks. He was one of the last to leave the redoubt. As he moved away towards Bunker Hill an officer of the B
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