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Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK II. AN ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD AND THE ELEMENTS., CHAP. 4. (5.)—OF THE ELEMENTSThe account of the elements, of their nature, difference, and, more especially, the necessity of their being four, are fully discussed by Aristotle in various parts of his works, more particularly in his treatise De Cœlo, lib. iii. cap. 3, 4 and 5, lib. iv. cap. 5, and De Gener. et Cor. lib. ii. cap. 2, 3, 4 and 5. For a judicious summary of the opinions of Aristotle on this subject, I may refer to Stanley's History of Philosophy; Aristotle, doctrines of, p. 2. 1. 7, and to Enfield, i. 764 et seq. For the Epicurean doctrine, see Lucretius, i. 764 et seq. AND THE PLANETSAlthough the word planeta, as taken from the Greek planh/ths, is inserted in the title of this chapter, it does not occur in any part of the text. It is not found either in Lucretius, Manilius, or Seneca, nor, I believe, was it used by any of their contemporaries, except Hyginus, p. 76. The planets were generally styled stellæ erraticæ, errantes, or vagæ, sidera palantia, as in Lucretius, ii. 1030, or simply the five stars, as in Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 51, and in Seneca, Nat. Quæst. vii. 24. Pliny, by including the sun and moon, makes the number seven. Aratus calls them pe/nt' a)/steres, l. 454.. (search)
64 et seq. AND THE PLANETSAlthough the word planeta, as taken from the Greek planh/ths, is inserted in the title of this chapter, it does not occur in any part of the text. It is not found either in Lucretius, Manilius, or Seneca, nor, I believe, was it used by any of their contemporaries, except Hyginus, p. 76. The planets were generally styled stellæ erraticæ, errantes, or vagæ, sidera palantia, as in Lucretius, ii. 1030, or simply the five stars, as in Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 51, and in Seneca, Nat. Quæst. vii. 24. Pliny, by including the sun and moon, makes the number seven. Aratus calls them pe/nt' a)/steres, l. 454.. I do not find that any one has doubted that there are four elements. The highest of these is supposed to be fire, and hence proceed the eyes of so many glittering stars. The next is that spirit, which both the Greeks and ourselves call by the same name, air"Aër." "Circumfusa undique est (terra) hac animabili spirabilique natura, cui nomen est aër; Græcum illud qui
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Burlingame, Anson, 1820- (search)
Burlingame, Anson, 1820- Diplomatist; born in New Berlin, Chenango co., N. Y., Nov. 14, 1820. His father, a farmer, removed to Seneca county, Ohio, when Anson was three years of age. Ten years later the family were in Michigan. Anson entered the University of Michigan in 1837, and was graduated at Harvard in 1846. He began the practice of law in Boston, and subsequently became an active member of the free soil party (q. v.), acquiring a wide reputation as an effective speaker. In 1849-50 he was in Europe. In 1852 he was chosen a member of the Massachusetts Senate, and became an active supporter of the American party in 1854, by which he was elected to Congress the same year. Mr. Burlingame assisted in the formation of the Republican party in 1855-56; and he was regarded as one of the ablest debaters in Congress on that side of the House. Severely criticising Preston S. Brooks for his attack upon Charles Sumner (q. v.), the South Carolinian challenged him to fight a duel.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Foster, Charles 1828- (search)
Foster, Charles 1828- Financier; born in Seneca county, O., April 12, 1828; was first elected to Congress as a Republican in 1870; elected governor of Ohio in 1879 and 1881; was appointed Secretary of the United States Treasury in February, 1891. He was concerned in a number of financial enterprises in which he acquired a large fortune, but in 1893 was obliged to make an assignment of his vast interests for the benefit of his creditors.
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