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give way to the guerrilla army of plunderers. Greencastle being but five miles north of the Maryland line,lf. He then demanded to know what forces were in Greencastle, and what fortifications. Major Rowe told him the to burn and destroy, and that he would begin at Greencastle. Major Rowe informed him that he could burn GreeGreencastle, but that he would end his depredations and his mundane career at about that point. Jenkins pondered ae same intensely strategic movements exhibited at Greencastle were displayed here. Several were thrown forward Many escaped in various ways, and the people of Greencastle captured the guard of one negro train and discharn of the county. From this point he fell back to Greencastle and south of it, thence he proceeded to Mercersbuof the county, spending several days in and about Greencastle and Waynesboro, and giving Welsh Run a pretty int A concentration of our men at Chambersburgh, or Greencastle, or Mercersburgh would have left twenty-five thou
o this point in Pennsylvania, are remarkably fine. Considerable corn has been planted, but wheat seems to be the grain best adapted to the soil. You see no such fields, in extent, as we have in Virginia. A lot rarely exceeds fifty acres. Middleburgh, five miles from Hagerstown, is on the dividing line between Maryland and the Keystone State. About half of it is in the former, and in this part of the town I was glad to witness one or two secession demonstrations. From this point to Greencastle, where we encamped on Friday night, distant nine miles, we passed a succession of Dutch farms, all small, but highly improved, with grain nearly ready for the sickle. The North and South-Mountain, a continuation of the Virginian mountains, causes this country to resemble the Virginia Valley very much. The lands are no better than ours. The people are exceedingly ignorant. I saw no houses indicating refinement. Were I to tell you how profoundly ignorant some of these Dutch are, you
h-east of Gettysburgh until that time. In the mean time our cavalry were rapidly developing the line of the enemy's retreat. Instead of moving toward Chambersburgh, which is almost south-west of Gettysburgh, Lee took a shorter line of retreat, and at once seized the two upper gaps in the South-Mountain, namely, the gap leading from Fairfield through Jack's Mountain to Waynesboro, known as Fountaindale Gap, and the gap through which passes the road from Emmnittsburgh to Waynesboro and Greencastle, known as Monterey Gap. Then by the country roads, in a south-westerly direction, toward Hagerstown. There were then left to General Meade two routes to pursue-one to follow directly on the heels of the enemy, and fight him in these gaps, or march at once for Harmon's, Braddock's, Turner's, and Crampton's Gaps, in South-Mountain range-all below those occupied by the enemy. The latter route was adopted, involving an average of march of from fifteen to twenty miles further than the e
Rebellion Record: a Diary of American Events: Poetry and Incidents., Volume 7. (ed. Frank Moore), Border war, as seen and experienced by the inhabitants of Chambersburgh, Pa. (search)
[slept When we marched back to camp, and like soldiers we stept, Only stopping to drink to our chief, The provost, who'd shut up the bars, though by stealth We still had enough to drink to his health. The provost (I dreamed) I could never forget, And his aids I would always remember, How from morning till night they were sorely beset In that terrible month of September; When the foe in Middletown Valley was seen, As the sun went down in the west, And at dark had advanced already between Greencastle and Marion at least. But the provost (I dreamed) was a man who would have His will and his way in his station, And to show that the town he would certainly save, He issued a strict proclamation: “No citizen armed for the common defence,” His bitters could get of a morning; But the citizen-soldiers scorned abstinence, As their mode of attack was by horning. “In case the foe approaches the town,” The command was, “Destroy all the brandy,” But it did not say how, so my friend Mr. Bro
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The Confederate retreat from Gettysburg. (search)
Instead of going through Chambersburg, I decided to leave the main road near Fairfield after crossing the mountains, and take a near cut across the country to Greencastle, where daybreak on the morning of the 5th of July found the head of our column. We were now twelve or fifteen miles from the Potomac at Williamsport, our pointclose the town on two sides, and back of it about one mile there is a low range of hills that is crossed by four roads converging at the town. The first is the Greencastle road leading down the creek valley; next the Hagerstown road; then the Boonsboro' road; and lastly the River road. [See map, p. 246.] Early on the morning od distant guns on the enemy's rear and right on the Hagerstown road. They were Stuart's, who was approaching on that road, while Fitzhugh Lee was coming on the Greencastle road. That settled the contest. The enemy broke to the left and fled by the Boonsboro' road. It was too dark to follow. When General Fitzhugh Lee joined me
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 3., Chapter 13: invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania-operations before Petersburg and in the Shenandoah Valley. (search)
c enemy, and the destruction of his house was incited wholly by the finding, in a newspaper office at Lexington, a handbill, issued and signed by him, calling on the people of that region to bushwack Hunter's men, that is to say, murder them by bullets from concealed places. The citizens of Chambersburg were non-combatants, and innocent of all crime in relation to the Confederates. The incendiaries did not remain long, for General Averill, who, with twenty-six hundred cavalry, was at Greencastle, ten miles distant, when Chambersburg was fired, charged by General Couch to watch the raiders, was moving against them. He pursued them to Hancock, on the Potomac (where they crossed), smiting them on the way with sufficient effect to save McConnellstown from the fate of Chambersburg. All Western Pennsylvania and Upper Maryland were filled with a panic. It was the general belief that Early was again north of the Potomac in full force. The alarm was intensified by a dash across the ri
tion and our retreat to an inferior position, considerably nearer the Ferry, and of course more exposed to and commanded by McLaws's guns on Maryland Heights. At 9 P. M., Sept. 14. our cavalry, some 2,000 strong, under Col. Davis, 12th Illinois, made their escape from the Ferry, across the pontoon-bridge, to the Maryland bank; passing up the Potomac unassailed, through a region swarming with enemies, to the mouth of the Antietam, thence striking northward across Maryland, reaching Greencastle, Pa., next morning; having captured by the way the ammunition train of Gen. Longstreet, consisting of 50 to 60 wagons. Miles assented to this escape; but refused permission to infantry officers who asked leave to cut their way out: saying he was ordered to hold the Ferry to the last extremity. Next morning at daybreak, Sept. 15. the Rebel batteries reopened from seven commanding points, directing their fire principally at our batteries on Bolivar Heights. At 7 A. M., Miles stated to
residence near Baltimore, and ex-P. M. General Blair's, near Washington. It was not in accordance with Lee's orders nor his practice in either of his invasions; for, though he burned Thaddeus Stevens's iron-works near Gettysburg (as we burned manufactories of warlike material, clothing, &c., throughout the South), he sternly forbad wanton devastation; and he was obeyed. Averill, with 2,600 cavalry, perplexed by the enemy's bewildering demonstrations, had fallen back from Hagerstown to Greencastle, and was but 9 miles from Chambersburg while Johnson and McCausland, with but part of the Rebel cavalry north of the Potomac, sacked and burned that town. He arrived that day but they had left; moving westward to McConnellstown, whither he followed; arriving in time to save it from a similar fate. He promptly charged; but there was not much of a fight; the enemy hurrying southward to Hancock, and thence across the Potomac. The panic throughout southern Pennsylvania had ere this becom
ssary to proceed further in that direction. The battle of South-Mountain was fought on Sunday, the fourteenth. On the same day, Sunday, during the afternoon, the enemy at Harper's Ferry attacked the extreme left of the line on Bolivar Heights, but after some time were repulsed by the troops under command of General White. Sunday night the cavalry at Harper's Ferry made their escape, under Colonel Davis of the Twelfth Illinois cavalry, by permission of Colonel Miles, and reached Greencastle, Pa., the next morning, capturing an ammunition-train belonging to Gen. Longstreet, consisting of some fifty or sixty wagons. The Commission regard this escape of the cavalry, etc. Several of the infantry officers desired permission to cut their way out at the same time the cavalry made their escape, but Col. Miles refused, upon the ground that he had never been ordered to hold Harper's Ferry to the last extremity. On the morning of the fifteenth the enemy opened their batteries from
ssary to proceed further in that direction. The battle of South-Mountain was fought on Sunday, the fourteenth. On the same day, Sunday, during the afternoon, the enemy at Harper's Ferry attacked the extreme left of the line on Bolivar Heights, but after some time were repulsed by the troops under command of General White. Sunday night the cavalry at Harper's Ferry made their escape, under Colonel Davis of the Twelfth Illinois cavalry, by permission of Colonel Miles, and reached Greencastle, Pa., the next morning, capturing an ammunition-train belonging to Gen. Longstreet, consisting of some fifty or sixty wagons. The Commission regard this escape of the cavalry, etc. Several of the infantry officers desired permission to cut their way out at the same time the cavalry made their escape, but Col. Miles refused, upon the ground that he had never been ordered to hold Harper's Ferry to the last extremity. On the morning of the fifteenth the enemy opened their batteries from
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