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Varina Davis, Jefferson Davis: Ex-President of the Confederate States of America, A Memoir by his Wife, Volume 1 2 0 Browse Search
Francis B. Carpenter, Six Months at the White House 2 0 Browse Search
The Daily Dispatch: April 8, 1864., [Electronic resource] 2 0 Browse Search
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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Algonquian, or Algonkian, Indians, (search)
n 1699. That domain is upon the shores of Green Bay, and there the tribe remains. The Miamis and Piankeshaws inhabited that portion of Ohio lying between the Miami or Maumee, on Lake Erie, and the watershed between the Wabash and Kaskia rivers. The English and the Five Nations called them the Twightwees. The Kickapoos were on the Wisconsin River when discovered by the French. The Illinois formed a numerous tribe, 12,000 strong, when discovered by the French. They were seated on the Illinois River, and composed a confederation of five families — namely, Kaskaskias, Cahokias, Tamaronas, Michigamies, and Peorias. The Shawnees occupied a vast region west of the Alleghany Mountains, and their great council-house was in the basin of the Cumberland River. The Powhatans constituted a confederacy of more than twenty tribes, including the Accohannocks and Accomacs, on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. The confederacy occupied the region in Virginia consisting of the navigable portion
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), America, discoverers of. (search)
ears his name as far as Albany. The region of the Great Lakes and the upper valley of the Mississippi were discovered and explored by French traders and Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth century. So early as 1640 the former penetrated the western wilds from Quebec. Father Allouez set up a cross and the arms of France westward of the lakes in 1665. Father Marquette, another Jesuit missionary, pushed farther in 1673, and discovered the upper waters of the Mississippi. Father Hennepin, who accompanied La Salle, explored the Mississippi in a canoe from the mouth of the Illinois River, northward, in 1680, and discovered and named the Falls of St. Anthony. A little later Robert Cavelier de la Salle, an enterprising young trader, penetrated to the Mississippi, and afterwards visited the coast of Texas from the sea and planted the germ of a colony in Louisiana. See Americus Vespucius; Cabeza De Vaca; Cabot, Sebastian; Columbus, Christopher; Verrazzano, Giovanni da; Vasquez De Allyon.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Canals. (search)
ke Michigan. St. Mary's Falls7,909,66718961 1-3Connects Lakes Superior and Huron at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. Susquehanna and Tidewater4,931,345184045Columbia, Pa., to Havre de Grace, Md. Walhonding607,269184325Rochester, O., to Roscoe, O. Welland 23,796,353....26 3-4Connects Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. Chicago drainage Canal A canal intended chiefly for carrying off the sewage of Chicago, but which may be used for commercial purposes; begun in September, 1892; completed in January, 1900. The main channel is 29 miles long, extending from Chicago to Locksport on the Illinois River, into which stream it discharges. About 9 miles of the channel is cut through solid rock, with a minimum depth of 22 feet and a width of 160 feet on the bottom in rock, which makes it the largest artificial channel in the world. The length of the waterway from the mouth of the Chicago River to its terminus south of Joliet is about 42 miles. The cost of the canal was estimated at about $45,000,000.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Edwards, Ninian, 1775-1833 (search)
Edwards, Ninian, 1775-1833 Jurist; born in Montgomery county, Md., in March, 1775. William Wirt directed his early education, which was finished at Dickinson College, and in 1819 he settled in the Green River district of Kentucky. Before he was twenty-one he became a member of the Kentucky legislature; was admitted to the bar in Kentucky in 1798, and to that of Tennessee the next year, and rose very rapidly in his profession. He passed through the offices of circuit judge and judge of appeals to the bench of chief-justice of Kentucky in 1808. The next year he was appointed the first governor of the Territory of Illinois, and retained that office until its organization as a State in 1818. From 1818 till 1824 he was United States Senator, and from 1826 to 1830 governor of the State. He did much, by promptness and activity, to restrain Indian hostilities in the Illinois region during the War of 1812. He died in Belleville, Ill., July 20, 1833.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Engineering. (search)
n, Paris, Berlin, Boston, Chicago, and New Orleans. A very difficult work was the drainage of the City of Mexico, which is in a valley surrounded by mountains, and elevated only 4 or 5 feet above a lake having no outlet. Attempts to drain the lake had been made in vain for 600 years. It has lately been accomplished by a tunnel 6 miles long through the mountains, and a canal of over 30 miles, the whole work costing some $20,000,000. The drainage of Chicago by locks and canal into the Illinois River has cost some $35,000,000, and is well worth its cost. Scientific research has been applied to the designing of high masonry and concrete dams, and we know now that no well-designed dam on a good foundation should fail. The dams now building across the Nile by order of the British government will create the largest artificial lakes in the world. The Suez Canal is one of the largest hydraulic works of the last century, and is a notable instance of the displacement of hand labor by
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Garfield, James Abram 1831-1881 (search)
rated mass on New Year's Day, 1680. Before the winter was ended he became certain that The Griffin was lost. But, undaunted by his disasters, on March 3, with five companions, he began the incredible feat of making the journey to Quebec on foot in the dead of winter. This he accomplished. He reorganized his expedition, conquered every difficulty, and on Dec. 21, 1681, with a party of fifty-four Frenchmen and friendly Indians, set out for the present site of Chicago, and by way of the Illinois River reached the Mississippi, Feb. 6, 1682. He descended its stream, and on April 9, 1682, standing on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, solemnly proclaimed to his companions and to the wilderness that, in the name of Louis the Great, he took possession of the Great Valley watered by the Mississippi River. He set up a column, and inscribed upon it the arms of France, and named the country Louisiana. Upon this act rested the claim of France to the vast region stretching from the Alleghany t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hennepin, Louis 1640- (search)
674. The next year he was ordered to Canada, and made the voyage with Bishop Laval and Robert Cavalier de la Salle. After preaching in Quebec, he went to the Indian mission at Fort Frontenac, and visited the Mohawk country. In 1678 he accompanied La Salle to the Western wilds, with Chevalier de Tonti and the Sieur de la Motte. Left by La Salle a little below the present site of Peoria to prosecute discoveries, he and two others penetrated to the Mississippi in a canoe, by way of the Illinois River, in February and March, 1680. They explored the Mississippi northward until, in April, they were captured by a party of Sioux and carried to their villages. Hennepin, at the beginning of the voyage, had invoked the aid of St. Anthony of Padua, and when he discovered the great rapids of the upper Mississippi he gave them the name of Falls of St. Anthony. He claimed to have discovered the sources of the Mississippi, but never went above the Falls of St. Anthony, where he carved the arms
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Illinois. (search)
mposed of two small companies of United States regulars, with a small body of mounted militia under Gov. Ninian Edwards (who assumed the chief command), in all 400 men, penetrated deeply into the Indian country, but, hearing nothing of Hopkins, did not venture to attempt much. They fell suddenly upon the principal Kickapoo towns, 20 miles from Lake Peoria, drove the Indians into a swamp, through which they pursued them, sometimes waist-deep in mud, and made them fly in terror across the Illinois River. Some of the pursuers passed over, and brought back canoes with dead Indians in them. Probably fifty had perished. The expedition returned, after an absence of eighteen days, with eighty horses and the dried scalps of several persons who had been killed by the savages, as trophies. General Hopkins discharged the mutineers and organized another expedition of 1,250 men, composed chiefly of foot-soldiers. Its object was the destruction of Prophetstown. The troops were composed of Ke
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Internal improvements. (search)
improvements in the Northwest until 1824, when (May 26) Congress authorized the State of Indiana to construct a canal, giving the right of way, with 90 feet of land on each side thereof. Nothing was done under the act; but in 1827 (March 2) two acts were passed, giving to Indiana and Illinois, respectively, certain lands in aid of the construction of canals, the first to connect the navigation of the Wabash River with the waters of Lake Erie, and the second to connect the waters of the Illinois River with those of Lake Michigan. A quantity of land equal to onehalf of five sections in width, on each side of the canals, was granted, reserving to the United States each alternate section. It was not an absolute grant of land in fee, for, under certain restrictions, the States had a right to sell the awards, and from the proceeds they were to repay the government. On the same day (March, 1827) there was granted to Indiana a certain strip of land formerly held by the Pottawattomie Indi
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Marquette, Jacques 1637- (search)
rrived June 17. Near the mouth of the Ohio River savages told them it was not more than ten days journey to the sea. Voyaging down the great river until they were satisfied, when at the mouth of the Arkansas River, that the Mississippi emptied into the Gulf of Mexico, and not into the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean, they concluded to return, to avoid captivity among the Spaniards farther south. They had accomplished their errand, and travelled in open canoes over 2,500 miles. Passing up the Illinois River instead of the Wisconsin, they reached Green Bay in September. There, at a mission, Marquette was detained a whole year by sickness. In 1674 he sent an account of his explorations of the Mississippi to Dablon, the superior of the Jesuit mission in Canada, and set out on a journey to Kaskaskia, but was compelled, by his infirmities and severely cold weather in December, to stop at the portage on the Chicago, and there he spent the winter. At the close of March, 1675, he resumed his jou
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