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t will be necessary to attend to the correct date. Athenaeus, the mechanician, mentions that Ctesibius dedicated his work to Marcellus. This Marcellus has been supposed to be the illustrious captor of Syracuse, without any evidence. Again, the epigrammatist Hedylus speaks (Athen. 11.497c.) of Ctesibius in connection with a temple to Arsinoe, the wife and sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Hence it has been stated that Ctesibius flourished about the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus and Euergetes I B. C. 285-222, and Athenaeus, in that of Archimedes, who was slain B. C. 212. The inference drawn from the hydraulic invention of Ctesibius is untenable, as he might well be employed to ornament a temple already existing, and there is no ground for believing that the Marcellus, to whom Athenaeus dedicated his work, is the person assumed. On the contrary, Philon, and therefore the rest, must have lived after the time of Archimedes, as we learn from Tzetzes (Chil. 2.5.152) that Philon, in one of his
t will be necessary to attend to the correct date. Athenaeus, the mechanician, mentions that Ctesibius dedicated his work to Marcellus. This Marcellus has been supposed to be the illustrious captor of Syracuse, without any evidence. Again, the epigrammatist Hedylus speaks (Athen. 11.497c.) of Ctesibius in connection with a temple to Arsinoe, the wife and sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Hence it has been stated that Ctesibius flourished about the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus and Euergetes I B. C. 285-222, and Athenaeus, in that of Archimedes, who was slain B. C. 212. The inference drawn from the hydraulic invention of Ctesibius is untenable, as he might well be employed to ornament a temple already existing, and there is no ground for believing that the Marcellus, to whom Athenaeus dedicated his work, is the person assumed. On the contrary, Philon, and therefore the rest, must have lived after the time of Archimedes, as we learn from Tzetzes (Chil. 2.5.152) that Philon, in one of his
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Ptolemaeus or Ptolemaeus Ceraunus (search)
Ptolemaeus or Ptolemaeus Ceraunus (*Ptolemai=os), surnamed CERAUNUS, king of Macedonia, was the son of Ptolemy I. king of Egypt, by his second wife Eurvdice. The period of his birth is not mentioned ; but if Droysen is right in assigning the marriage of Eurydice with Ptolemy to the year B. C. 321 (see Hellenism. vol. i. p. 154), their son cannot have been born till B. C. 320. He must, at all events, have been above thirty years old in B. C. 285, when the aged king of Egypt cane to the resolution of setting aside his claim to the throne, and appointing his younger son, Ptolemy Philadelphus, his successor. (Appian. Syr. 62 ; Julstin. 16.2.) To this step we are told that the old king was led not only by his warm attachment to his wife Berenice and her son Philadelphus, but by apprehensions of the violent and passionate character of his eldest son, which subsequent events proved to be but too well founded. Ptolemy Ceraunus quitted the court of Egypt in disgust, and repaired to that of Ly
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Ptolemaeus Soter (search)
racter of the young man himself, now led him to conceive the project of bestowing the crown upon the last of these three princes, to the exclusion of his elder brothers. Such a design met with vehement opposition from Demetrius the Phalerian, who now held a high place in the counsels and favour of Ptolemy : but the king, nevertheless, determined to carry it into execution, and even resolved to secure the throne to his favourite son by establishing him on it in his own lifetime. In the year B. C. 285 accordingly, he himself announced to the assembled people of Alexandria that he had ceased to reign, and transferred the sovereign authority to his youngest son, whom he presented to them as their king. His choice was received, we are told, with the utmost favour, and the accession of the new monarch was celebrated with festivities and processions on a scale of unparalleled magnificence, during which the aged monarch himself appeared among the officers and attendants of his son. (Just. 16.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Ptolemaeus Philadelphus (search)
his former marriage in favour of Philadelphus. In order to carry this project into execution, and secure the succession to this his favourite son, the king at length resolved to abdicate the sovereign power, and establish Philadelphus (at this time 24 years of age) upon the throne during his own lifetime. The young prince appears to have been personally popular with the Alexandrians, who, we are told, welcomed the announcement with the utmost joy, and the accession of the new monarch (Nov B. C. 285) was celebrated with festivities and processions of the utmost magnificence. (Just. 16.2 ; Athen. v. pp. 196-203; Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Arm. p. 113.) It is probable that the virtual authority of king still remained in the hands of Ptolemy Soter, during the two years that he survived this event ; but no attempt was made to disturb his arrangement of the succession. Ptolemy Cerannus and Meleager quitted Egypt, and Philadelphus found himself at his father's death (B. C. 283) the undisputed ma
Pyres (*Pu/rhs), of Miletus, a writer of that lascivious species of poetry denominated Ionic, and in which Sotades of Maroneia, who lived after Pyres, was principally conspicuous. As Sotades lived in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, Pyres must have lived previous to B. C. 285. (Athen. 14.620e.) Suidas (s. v. *Swta/dhs) erroneously calls him *Pu/rros [W.M.
se questions, we would hazard the conjecture, that the date above mentioned, of Ol. 124. B. C. 284-280, marks the period, either when Theocritus first went to Alexandria, or when, after spending some time there in receiving the instruction, or studying the works, of Philetas and Asclepiades, he began to distinguish himself as a poet; that his first efforts obtained for him the patronage of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who was associated in the kingdom with his father, Ptolemy the son of Lagus, in B. C. 285, and in whose praise, therefore, the poet wrote the Idyls above referred to, which bear every mark of having been composed in the early part of Ptolemy's sole reign (from B. C. 283), and of being productions of the poet's younger days. The manner in which Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, is alluded to, in Id. 17.14, confirms the supposition that Theocritus had lived under that king. From the 16th Idyl it is evident that Theocritus returned to Syracuse, and lived there under Hiero II., but the co
Timo'sthenes (*Timosqe/nhs), the Rhodian, was the admiral of the fleet of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who reigned from B. C. 285 to 247. He may therefore be placed about B. C. 282. He wrote a work on Harbours (peri\ lime/nwn), in ten books, which was copied by Eratosthenes, and which is frequently cited by the ancient writers. Strabo says (ix. p. 421) that Timosthenes also wrote poetry. (Marcian. Heracleot. p. 63; Strab. 2.92, iii. p. 140, et alibi; Harpocrat. s. v. e)f) i(ero/n ; Schol. ad Theocr. 13.22; Steph. Byz. s. vv. *)Aga/qh, *)Arta/kh, et alibi; Vossius, De Hist. Graec. pp. 147, 148, ed. Westermann; Clinton, Fast. Hell. vol. iii. p. 508
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