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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Arbuthnot, Marriott, -1794 (search)
Arbuthnot, Marriott, -1794 British naval officer; born about 1711; became a post-captain in 1747. From 1775 to 1778 he was naval commissioner resident at Halifax, Marriott Arbuthnot. Nova Scotia. Having been raised to the rank of vice-admiral in 1779, he obtained the chief command on the American station, and was blockaded by the Count d'estaing in the harbor of New York. In the spring of 1780 he co-operated with Sir Henry Clinton in the siege of Charleston, S. C. In February, 1793, he became admiral of the blue. He died in London, Jan. 31, 1794.
d the melting-away of the army gathered at Cambridge unless a more efficient leader might be found, and, to avoid giving offence, they asked the Continental Congress to assume the regulation and direction of that army. Joseph Warren, in a private letter to Samuel Adams, wrote that the request was to be interpreted as a desire for the appointment of a new chief commander of all the troops that might be raised. Just then the news arrived of the approach of reinforcements for Gage, under Generals Clinton, Howe, and Burgoyne, and Congress felt the importance of acting promptly. At the suggestion of John Adams, the army was adopted as a continental one; and, at the suggestion of the New England delegation, Thomas Johnson. of Maryland, nominated George Washington, of Virginia, for commander-in-chief of the armies of the inchoate republic. He was elected (June 15, 1775) by unanimous vote, and on the following morning John Hancock, president of Congress, officially announced to Washington
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Arnold, Benedict, 1741-1801 (search)
elicacy, but the disgrace aroused in the bosom of Arnold a fierce spirit of revenge. He resolved to betray his country, and, making treasonable overtures to Sir Henry Clinton, kept up a correspondence on the subject for a long time with Maj. John Andre (q. v.), the adjutant-general of the British army. This correspondence was carHaverstraw, on the west side of the river, where, in bushes, he met Arnold for the first time. Before they parted (Sept. 22. 1780) the whole matter was arranged: Clinton was to sail up the river with a strong force, and, after a show of resistance, Arnold was to surrender West Point and its dependencies into his hands. But all din up the James River, in April, and then returned to New York, for Cornwallis, who came into Virginia from North Carolina, refused to serve with him. When Sir Henry Clinton found that the allied armies were actually going to Virginia, he tried to alarm Washington by threats of marauding expeditions. He sent Arnold, with a band
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Asgill, Sir Charles, 1762-1823 (search)
shington to retaliate. A council of his officers decided in favor of retaliation, and that Lippincott, the leader, ought to suffer. He was demanded of Sir henry Clinton. Congress authorized retaliation, and from among several British officers, prisoners of war, Capt. Charies Asgill was chosen by lot, to be executed immediately. Washington postponed the execution until he should hear from Clinton about the surrender of Lippincott. Clinton at once condemned the action of Lippincott, and ordered (April 26) the Board of Associated Loyalists not to remove or exchange any prisoners of war without the authority of the commander-in-chief. He caused the arrest in tried to get him to sign a paper that he had acted without their orders or approbation, but he stoutly refused. and was acquitted. Sir Guy Carleton succeeded Clinton, and he promised that further inquiry in the matter should be had. Meanwhile months elapsed and the execution was postponed. Lady Asgill appealed to the king in
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bemis's Heights, battles of. (search)
ged Gates to attack him at dawn, but that officer would not consent. Burgoyne was hoping to receive good news from Sir Henry Clinton, who was preparing to ascend the Hudson with a strong force. So he intrenched his camp, put his troops in better spirits by a cheerful harangue, and resolved to wait for Clinton. The next morning he was himself cheered by a message from Clinton, who promised to make a diversion in his favor immediately; also by a despatch from Howe, announcing a victory over WClinton, who promised to make a diversion in his favor immediately; also by a despatch from Howe, announcing a victory over Washington on the Brandywine (see Brandywine, battle of). Burgoyne gave the glad tidings to his army, and wrote to Clinton that he could sustain his position until Oct. 12. But his condition rapidly grew worse. The American army hourly increased inClinton that he could sustain his position until Oct. 12. But his condition rapidly grew worse. The American army hourly increased in numbers, and the militia were swarming on his flanks and rear. His foraging parties could get very little food for the starving horses, the militia so annoyed them. In his hospitals were 800 sick and wounded men, and his effective soldiers were f
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bunker Hill, battle of. (search)
Bunker Hill, battle of. By reinforcements from England and Ireland, General Gage's army in Boston, at the close of May, 1775, was 10,000 strong. With the reinforcements came Gens. William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, and John Burgoyne, three officers experienced in the military tactics of Europe, but little prepared for service in America. Thus strengthened, Gage issued a proclamation (June 12) of martial law, and offering pardon to all who should return to their allegiance, except Samuel Adte of the redoubt. The form of the redoubt is seen in the diagram a in the map. The entrance to it was at a. which was on the end towards Charlestown Neck. The British again advanced, and were again driven back to their landing-place. Then General Clinton passed over from Boston to aid Howe and Pigot, and the troops were led to the assault a third time. The powder of the provincials, scanty at the beginning, now failed. Some British artillery planted pieces near the breastwork and swept it
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Burgoyne, Sir John, 1723-1792 (search)
a battle at Oriskany (Aug. 6). Schuyler was superseded by Gates in command of the northern army. Gates formed a fortified camp on Bemis's Heights to oppose the Burgoyne addressing the Indians. onward march of Burgoyne down the Hudson Valley. There he was attacked (Sept. View of the encampment of the convention troops. 19) by the British; and, after a severe battle, the latter retired to their camp on the heights of Saratoga (afterwards Schuylerville) to await the approach of Sir Henry Clinton from New York. The latter captured forts on the Hudson Highlands, and sent marauding expeditions up the river that burned Kingston. Again Burgoyne advanced to attack Gates. He was defeated (Oct. 7), and again retired to his camp. Finding it impossible to retreat, go forward, or remain quiet, he surrendered his whole army, Oct. 17, 1777. The vanquished troops made prisoners to the Americans by a convention for the surrender of them, made by Gates and Burgoyne, were marched throug
he task performed by a colonial army alone. They would not comply, for the colonists, thus perceiving their own strength, might claim Canada by right of conquest, and become too independent; so they authorized an expedition for the purpose after the old plan of attacking that province by land and sea. An English fleet was prepared to go against Quebec; a land force, composed of troops from Connecticut, New York, and colonies farther south, gathered at Albany, to march against Montreal. Governor Clinton assumed the chief command of the land expedition. His unpopularity thwarted his plans. The corporation of Albany refused to furnish quarters for his troops, and his drafts on the British treasury could not purchase provisions. Meanwhile, Massachusetts and Rhode Island had raised nearly 4,000 troops, and were waiting for an English squadron. Instead of a British armament, a French fleet of forty war vessels, with 3.000 veteran troops was coming over the sea. New England was greatly a
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Champe, John 1752-1798 (search)
oudon county, Va., in 1752; sent to New York as a spy after the treason of Arnold, at the request of Washington. As it was also rumored that another American officer (supposed to be General Gates) was a traitor, Champ was instructed to discover the second traitor, and, if possible, to take Arnold. He left the American camp at Tappan at night, in the character of a deserter, was pursued, but reached Paulus Hook, where the British vessels were anchored. After he had been examined by Sir Henry Clinton, he was sent to Arnold, who appointed him a sergeant-major in a force which he was recruiting. He found evidence which proved that the suspected general was innocent, and forwarded the same to Washington. He learned also that Arnold was accustomed to walk in his garden every night, and conceived a plan for his capture. With a comrade he was to seize and gag him, and convey him as a drunken soldier to a boat in waiting, which would immediately cross to the New Jersey shore, where a n
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Charleston, S. C. (search)
asts of the Southern provinces. This armament joined that of Sir Henry Clinton at Cape Fear. After some marauding operations in that regionee, who had been ordered by Washington to watch the movements of Clinton, had made his way southward, and arrived at Charleston on June 4, and the fleet, and the latter was terribly shattered. Meanwhile Clinton had endeavored to pass over to Sullivan's Island with 2,000 men, bended, was called Fort Moultrie in honor of its commander. Sir Henry Clinton sailed from New York on Christmas Day, 1779, for the purpose t entered the harbor, unmolested, April 9. On the following day Clinton and Arbuthnot demanded the surrender of the city, which was promptwar. The latter were paroled; and by this extraordinary proceeding Clinton could boast of over 5,000 captives. The city was given up to pillwas appraised for distribution, it aggregated in value $1,500,000. Clinton and his major-generals each received about $20,000. Houses were ri
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