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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Burgoyne, Sir John, 1723-1792 (search)
Windsor, Conn. In the course of 1782 they were all dispersed, either by exchange or desertion. Many of the Germans remained in America. The disaster to Burgoyne's army produced a profound sensation in England. This was intensified by indications that France was disposed to acknowledge the independence of the colonies. Efforts were made to supply the place of the lost troops by fresh recruits. Liverpool and Manchester undertook to raise each 1,000 men, and efforts were made to induce London to follow the example. The new lord mayor worked zealously for that purpose, but failed, and the ministry had to be content with a subscription of $100,000 raised among their adherents. Nor did the plan succeed in the English counties. In Scotland it was more successful; Glasgow and Edinburgh both raised a regiment, and several more were enlisted in the Scotch Highlands by the great landholders of that region, to whom the appointment of the officers was conceded. The surrender created de
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Colonial settlements. (search)
onies, in the following order of time: St. Augustine, Fla., was settled by Spaniards, under Menendez, 1565, and is the oldest settlement by Europeans within the domain of the United States. It was permanently occupied by the Spaniards, excepting for a few years, until Florida passed from their control (see Florida and St. Augustine). Virginia was first settled by the English temporarily (see Raleigh, Sir Walter). The first permanent settlement was made by them in 1607, under the auspices of London merchants, who that year sent five ships, with a colony, to settle on Roanoke Island. Storms drove them into the entrance to Chesapeake Bay, when they ascended the Powhatan River 50 miles, landed, and built a hamlet, which they called Jamestown. The stream they named James River—both in compliment to their King. After various vicissitudes, the settlement flourished, and, in 1619, the first representative Assembly in Virginia was held at Jamestown. Then were laid the foundations of the St
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Connecticut (search)
ries so as to include the New Haven colony and a part of Rhode Island on the east, and westward to the Pacific Ocean. The New Haven colony reluctantly gave its consent to the union in 1665, but Rhode island refused. A dispute concerning the boundary-line between Connecticut and Rhode Island lasted more than sixty years. The charter, engrossed on parchment and decorated with a finely executed miniature of Charles II. (done in Indiaink by Samuel Cooper, it is supposed, who was an eminent London miniature painter of the time), was brought across the sea in a handsome mahogany box, in which it is still preserved in the State Department of Connecticut. It was of so general a character, and conferred such large powers, that when Connecticut became an independent State it was considered a good fundamental law for the commonwealth, and was not changed until 1818. It provided for the election of the governor of the colony and the magistrates by the people, substantially as under the pre
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Pilgrim fathers, the (search)
Cushman and John Carver to England in 1617 to treat with the London Company, and to ascertain whether the King would grant them liberty of conscience in that distant country. The company were anxious to have these people settle in Virginia, and offered them ample privileges, but the King would not promise not to molest them. These agents returned to Leyden. The discouraged refugees sent other agents to England in February, 1619, and finally made an arrangement with the company and with London merchants and others for their settlement in Virginia, and they at once prepared for the memorable voyage in the Mayflower in 1620. Several of the congregation at Leyden sold their estates and made a common bank, which, with the aid of their London partners, enabled them to purchase the Speedwell, a ship of 60 tons, and to hire in England the Mayflower, a ship of 180 tons, for the intended voyage. They left Delft Haven for England in the Speedwell (July, 1620), and in August sailed from So
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Postal service, colonial (search)
nsport letters and packets at such rates as the planters should agree to give. Rates of postage were accordingly fixed and authorized, and measures were taken to establish a post-office in each town in Virginia, when Neale began his operations. Massachusetts and other colonies soon passed postal laws, and a very imperfect post-office system was established. Neale's patent expired in 1710, when Parliament extended the English postal system to the colonies. The rate on a single letter from London to New York was one shilling, and four pence additional for each 60 miles. The chief office was established in New York, to which letters were conveyed by regular packets across the Atlantic. A line of post-offices was soon after established on Neale's old routes, north of the present city of Portsmouth, N. H., and south to Philadelphia, and irregularly extended, a few years later, to Williamsburg, Va. The post left for the South as often as letters enough were deposited to pay the expens
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Sala, George Augustus Henry 1828-1895 (search)
Sala, George Augustus Henry 1828-1895 Journalist; born in London, England, in 1828; was educated in art, but turned his attention to literary work, and contributed to London magazines; was the American correspondent of the London Telegraph in 1863-64, and published America in the midst of War and America revisited. He died in Brighton, Dec. 8, 1895.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Talbot, John 1645-1727 (search)
s to Virginia. He soon afterwards left the service of the admiralty and became a missionary among the Indians, sometimes travelling 500 miles on horseback to attend to their spiritual wants. Satisfied that the Church of England needed a bishop in America, he frequently spoke of it. In 1703 he was made rector of St. Mary's Church, New Brunswick, N. J. The next year the clergy of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania petitioned for a bishop, and Talbot was persuaded to carry the petition to London himself. He was favored by Queen Anne in his efforts to have the prayer of the petition granted, but failed to obtain the appointment of a suffragan, and he resolved to ask for consecration for himself by non juring bishops. This was done by two bishops, and in 1722 he returned to America and assumed episcopal authority. The governor of Pennsylvania (Keith) complained of him to the Lords of the Privy Seal, and he was summoned to England, but did not go. He died in Burlington, N. J., Nov
ished with the distance. It was reserved for Newton to determine that it decreased as the square of the distance. Alhazen determined correctly the relation between the velocities, spaces, and times of falling bodies. The University of Cordova was the intellectual center of Europe in his day. The Khalif Alkamen's library was so large that its catalogue filled 40 volumes. The people of Cordova could walk paved streets at night 10 miles in a straight line, by the light of public lamps, when London and Paris were dark and dismal mud-holes. Galileo, born 1564, considered the subject of acceleration of force, and determined the relation between the spaces of descent and the times. He used inclined planes, by the aid of which he conveniently diminished the velocity without changing the nature of the result. Auger. The first boring-tool may be assumed to have been an awl of some kind. Pliny states that Daedalus invented the gimlet, — 1240 B. C. It was destitute of a screw-point,
and their names are derived from their (a) material, (b) structure, or (c) purpose, as, — a. Gold, steel, galvanized iron, etc. b. Twisted link, flat link, etc. c. Top-chain, curb-chain, surveyor's chain, mooring-chain, etc. Chains in olden times had three purposes. (1.) They were worn as emblems of investiture or badges of office, as in the cases of Joseph and Daniel, in Egypt and Babylon. The idea was preserved in Persia, and blossoms yearly in the civic ceremonies wherein London rejoices that she has found another mayor. (2.) For ornament. Necklaces, girdles, and anklechains were used by various nations of antiquity. Jewels were worked into the links or strung upon cords. To the chains which hung from the neck, fancy or fashion suspended cowries, mirrors, round tires like the moon, trinkets, amulets, emblems, and scent-bottles. The Midianites, who invaded Palestine in the time of Gideon, ornamented with chains the necks of their camels. The modern uses of or<
, are relied on so far as he is concerned. The near-wheeler, being ridden, is controlled in the usual way; and the middle span between the leaders and wheelers have no choice but to go with the others and pull when they are told to. The single-line mode of driving is also used by the farmers in the Netherlands, the near horse being guided by the line and the bridles of the middle and off horse (three abreast) being connected to the near horse, in a manner surprizing to a stranger, says London. Besides the different kinds of harness depending upon quality and mounting, other varieties are known by the names of buggy, coach, cart, or wagon, according to the vehicle, and the latter have a familiar division into lead, hip-strap, breeching, or yankee, according to the construction and arrangement. The latter is perhaps somewhat local, but is as extensive as the West, as we call it. For a list of the tools and implements of the saddle and harness maker, and the kinds and parts o
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