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t, an unknown subaltern, led a gallant charge at Chepultepec, Lee was a favorite on the staff of General Scott, and he had remained there till after secession had called for the preparations of war, and then, turning traitor to the government which had educated and honored him, carried the secrets of that government to its enemies, and joined them in their infamous rebellion. The subaltern who had once received only his contemptuous notice, was now his conqueror and the greatest general of America. The one had received the just rewards of patriotism, loyalty, and faithful service; the other the humiliation, but not the punishment, of treason. The interview was not a protracted one. While the officers who accompanied their respective chiefs mingled in conversation as pleasant as the circumstances would allow, the latter conversed apart. Lee's endeavor to secure terms which should include the rebel government, and settle the conditions of peace, was firmly resisted by Grant, and
gh to buy, but for which they soon found themselves utterly unable to pay. They were almost exclusively an agricultural people, and their products, save only Tobacco and Indigo, were not wanted by the Old World, and found but a very restricted and inconsiderable market even in the West Indies, whose trade was closely monopolized by the nations to which they respectively belonged. Indian Corn and Potatoes, the two principal edibles for which the poor of the Old World are largely indebted to America, were consumed to a very limited extent, and not at all imported, by the people of the eastern hemisphere. The wheat-producing capacity of our soil, at first unsurpassed, was soon exhausted by the unskillful and thriftless cultivation of the Eighteenth Century. Though one-third of the labor of the country was probably devoted to the cutting of timber, the axe-helve was but a pudding-stick; while the plow was a rude structure of wood, clumsily pointed and shielded with iron. A thousand bu
he accord of priest and noble was complete, and that serf and peasant groaned and suffered beneath their iron sway. The invention of Printing, the discovery of America, the Protestant Reformation, the decline and tell of Feudalism, gradually changed the condition and brightened the prospect of the masses. Ancient Slavery was de West Indies, sold it for twenty-five thousand ducats, to some Genoese merchants, who first brought into a regular form the commerce for slaves between Africa and America. --Holmes's Annals of America, vol. i., p. 3.5. In 1563, the English began to import negroes into the West Indies. Their first slave-trade was opened the preAmerica, vol. i., p. 3.5. In 1563, the English began to import negroes into the West Indies. Their first slave-trade was opened the preceding year on the coast of Guinea. John Hawkins, in the prospect of a great gain, resolved to make trial of this nefarious and inhuman traffic. Communicating the design to several gentlemen in London, Who became liberal contributors and adventurers, three good ships were immediately provided; and, with these and one hundred men,
mer slaves. It is not at all wonderful that the change of the relations of master and slave took place, under such circumstances, without violence and bloodshed, and that order and peace should have been since preserved. Very different would be the result of Abolition should it be effected by her influence and exertions in the possessions of other countries on this continent — and specially in the United States, Cuba, and Brazil, the great cultivators of the principal tropical products of America. To form a correct conception of what would be the result with them, we must look, not to Jamaica, but to St. Domingo, for example. The change would be followed by unforgiving hate between the two races, and end in a bloody and deadly struggle between them for the superiority. One or the other would have to be subjugated, extirpated, or expelled; and desolation would overspread their territories, as in St. Domingo, from which it would take centuries to recover. The end would be, that th
itish Parliament and Lord North sent armies here to enforce them. But what did Washington say in regard to the enforcement of those laws.? That man — honored at home and abroad more than any other man on earth ever was honored-did he go for enforcing the laws? No, he went to resist laws that were oppressive against a free people, and against the injustice of which they rebelled. [Loud cheers] Did Lord Chatham go for enforcing the laws? No, he gloried in defence of the liberties of America. He made that memorable declaration in the British Parliament, If I was an American citizen instead of being as I am, an Englishman, I never would submit to such laws — never, never, never! [Prolonged applause.] A single voice was raised in dissent from these inculcations. A Mr. Elseffer having proposed to amend one of the reported resolutions by an assertion that, if the Federal Government should undertake to use force, under the specious and untenable pretense of enforcing the laws
Prince Regent, explained and justified the conduct of his Government touching the matters in controversy between it and our own, this doctrine is set forth as follows: The Order in Council of the 23d of June being officially communicated in America, the Government of the United States saw nothing in the repeal of the Orders which should, of itself, restore peace, unless Great Britain were prepared, in the first instance, substantially to relinquish the right of impressing her own seamen, when found on board American merchant ships. * * * If America, by demanding this preliminary concession, intends to deny the validity of that right, in that denial Great Britain cannot acquiesce; nor will she give countenance to such a pretension, by acceding to its suspension, much less to its abandonment, as a basis on which to treat. * * * The British Government has never asserted any exclusive right, as to the impressment of British seamen from American vessels, which it was not prepared
assault repulsed the siege vigorously pressed Pemberton calls a parley surrenders Grant drives Jo. Johnston from Jackson fight at Milliken's Bend Holmes assails Helena, and is routed. Vicksburg, on the lower Mississippi, about midway between Cairo and its mouth, was the natural center and chief citadel of the Slave-holders' Confederacy. Located on an almost unique ridge of high, rolling land adjoining the great river, surrounded by the richest and best cultivated Cotton region in America, whereof the slave population considerably outnumbered the free, it had early devoted itself, heart and soul, to the Rebel cause. Its natural strength and importance, as commanding the navigation of the great artery of the South-west, were early appreciated; and it was so fortified and garrisoned as to repel — as we have seen See pages 57 and 101.--the efforts of our fleets and expeditions, which, after the fall of New Orleans and that of Memphis, assailed it from below and from above r
Pollard very fairly says: Chickamauga had conferred a brilliant glory upon our arms, but little else. Rosecrans still held the prize of Chattanooga, and with it the possession of East Tennessee. Two-thirds of our niter-beds were in that region, and a large proportion of the coal which supplied our founderies. It abounded in the necessaries of life. It was one of the strongest countries in the world, so full of lofty mountains. that it had been called, not unaptly, the Switzerland of America. As the possession of Switzerland opened the door to the invasion of Italy, Germany, and France, so the possession of East Tennessee gave easy access to Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. and was abundantly able to retain and defend it. Chattanooga being unattainable, Bragg was urged to anticipate a gigantic, fatal folly in moving by his left across the Tennessee and advancing on Nashville. He answered, like a soldier and man of sense, that half his army consisted of reenf
William Tecumseh Sherman, Memoirs of General William T. Sherman ., volume 1, chapter 14 (search)
mber 17, 1863. H. W. Halleck, Commander-in-Chief, Washington, D. C. dear General: I have received your letter of August 29th, and with pleasure confide to you fully my thoughts on the important matters you suggest, with absolute confidence that you will use what is valuable, and reject the useless or superfluous. That part of the continent of North America known as Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas, is in my judgment the key to the whole interior. The valley of the Mississippi is America, and, although railroads have changed the economy of intercommunication, yet the water-channels still mark the lines of fertile land, and afford cheap carriage to the heavy products of it. The inhabitants of the country on the Monongahela, the Illinois, the Minnesota, the Yellowstone, and Osage, are as directly concerned in the security of the Lower Mississippi as are those who dwell on its very banks in Louisiana; and now that the nation has recovered its possession, this generation of
William Tecumseh Sherman, Memoirs of General William T. Sherman ., volume 1, chapter 15 (search)
, and then turned more than a hundred and twenty miles north and compelled Longstreet to raise the siege of Knoxville, which gave so much anxiety to the whole country. It is hard to realize the importance of these events without recalling the memory of the general feeling which pervaded all minds at Chattanooga prior to our arrival. I cannot speak of the Fifteenth Army Corps without a seeming vanity; but as I am no longer its commander, I assert that there is no better body of soldiers in America than it. I wish all to feel a just pride in its real honors. To General Howard and his command, to General Jeff. C. Davis and his, I am more than usually indebted for the intelligence of commanders and fidelity of commands. The brigade of Colonel Bushbeck, belonging to the Eleventh Corps, which was the first to come out of Chattanooga to my flank, fought at the Tunnel Hill, in connection with General Ewing's division, and displayed a courage almost amounting to rashness. Following the
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