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some five thousand inhabitants, lying on the Virginia side of the Potomac, and on either side of its principal tributary, the Shenandoah, which here enters it from the South. Its site is a mere nest or cup among high, steep mountains; the passage of the united rivers through the Blue Ridge at this point having been pronounced by Jefferson a spectacle which one might well cross the Atlantic to witness and enjoy. Here the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad crosses the Potomac; and the rich valley of the Shenandoah is traversed, for a considerable distance hence, by the Winchester and Harper's Ferry Railroad. Washington is fifty-seven miles distant by turnpike; Baltimore eighty miles by railroad. Modest as the village then was, space had been with difficulty found for its habitations, some of which were perched upon ground four hundred feet above the surface of the streams. One of its very few streets was entirely occupied by the work-shops and offices of the National Armory, and had an iro
ceeded in getting to Winchester, where he found Lieut. Taylor, of company B, who had been on detached service, and was to join his company the next morning. He assisted Quartermaster Lyeth in getting the horses from Winchester. Our little band of patriots only numbered a little over seven hundred, while the rebels had near eight thousand. Your obedient servant, George W. Thompson, Second Lieutenant Co. D, First Md. Regt. A rebel account. in camp, Jackson's division, valley of the Shenandoah, May 27, 1862. We got to Front Royal, where we met the First Maryland regiment, and after a fight and a charge we captured every man of them save fifteen. Our cavalry then dashed ahead and took two hundred more prisoners, at a little town between Front Royal and Strasburgh, on the railroad. In all we took nine hundred prisoners at Front Royal, including one colonel, one lieut.-colonel, one major, two pieces of cannon; horses, arms, etc., in abundance, and $300,000 worth of quar
forces, and retreated down the Valley. The rapid movements of Jackson, the eaglelike swoop with which he had descended upon each army of the enemy, and the terror which his name had come to inspire, created a great alarm at Washington, where it was believed he must have an immense army, and that he was about to come down like an avalanche upon the capital. Milroy, Banks, Fremont, and Shields were all moved in that direction, and peace again reigned in the patriotic and once happy Valley of the Shenandoah. The material results of this very remarkable campaign are thus summarily stated by one who had special means of information: In three months Jackson had marched six hundred miles, fought four pitched battles, seven minor engagements, and daily skirmishes; had defeated four armies, captured seven pieces of artillery, ten thousand stand of arms, four thousand prisoners, and a very great amount of stores, inflicting upon his adversaries a known loss of two thousand men, with a
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Virginia, (search)
Oct. 5, 1869 Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments ratified......Oct. 8, 1869 Act admitting Virginia into the Union without further conditions, approved......Jan. 26, 1870 General Canby turns the State over to the civil authorities......Jan. 27, 1870 Governor Walker proclaims the final reconstruction of the State......Feb. 8, 1870 Capitol at Richmond falls, the galleries giving way; about sixty persons killed and 120 injured......April 27, 1870 Freshets in the James and Shenandoah valleys; $5,000,000 worth of property destroyed......September, 1870 Burning of the Spotswood Hotel at Richmond......Dec. 25, 1870 State board of health organized in Virginia......1872 General Grant has a majority for President of 1,975 over Horace Greeley......1872 State board of immigration established......1873 Completion of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad between Richmond and Huntington on the Ohio, length 421 miles......1873 Richmond and Atlantic Air line Railroad opene
f wharves at each new base from which to conveniently discharge vessels. Too much credit cannot therefore be awarded to the quartermaster and commissary departments for the zeal and efficiency displayed by them. Under the general supervision of the Chief Quartermaster, Brigadier-General R. Ingalls, the trains were made to occupy all the available roads between the army and our water base, and but little difficulty was experienced in protecting them. The movement in the Kanawha and Shenandoah Valleys, under General Sigel, commenced on the first of May. General Crook, who had the immediate command of the Kanawha expedition, divided his forces into two columns, giving one, composed of cavalry, to General Averell. Whey crossed the mountains by separate routes. Averell struck the Tennessee and Virginia Railroad, near Wytheville on the tenth, and proceeding to New river and Christiansburg, destroyed the road, several important bridges and depots, including New river bridge, forming a
. Butler's boastful despatch. he dares the whole of Lee's army. he is defeated by Beauregard, and his army bottled up. operations in the Kanawha and Shenandoah Valleys. signal defeat of Sigel. Grant's combination broken down. he moves to the North Anna River. is foiled again by Lee. he crosses the Pamunkey River. thall farther operations against Richmond, as much so, wrote Gen. Grant, as if his army had been in a bottle strongly corked. Operations in the Kanawha and Shenandoah Valleys. While Butler was thus neutralized, the movement in the Kanawha and Shenandoah Valleys, under Sigel, was to end in disaster. Gen. Crook, who had the immShenandoah Valleys, under Sigel, was to end in disaster. Gen. Crook, who had the immediate command of the Kanawha expedition, divided his forces into two columns, giving one, composed of cavalry, to Gen. Averill. They crossed the mountains by separate routes. Averill struck the Tennessee and Virginia Railroad, near Wytheville, on the 19th May, and, proceeding to New River and Christiansburg, destroyed the road,
William Swinton, Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, I. The Army of the Potomac in history. (search)
tomac and of Northern Virginia operated. The battles of Antietam and Gettysburg—the two actions out of the limits of Virginia—were fought in the narrow salient of a great triangle, having the southern boundary line of Virginia as its base, the Shenandoah and Cumberland valleys as its western side, and the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay as its eastern side. From its apex, this triangle measures seven hundred and fifty miles on its mountainside, and about three hundred miles on its westernuntain system of Virginia is thrown off on the western flank of the theatre of operations, where the Blue Ridge forms, with that parallel ridge called successively the Clinch, Middle, and Shenandoah mountains, the picturesque and fertile Valley of the Shenandoah. This valley, from its direction north and south, and its peculiar topographical relations, is an eminently aggressive line for a hostile force moving northward to cross the Potomac into Maryland, either with the view of penetrating Pen
William Swinton, Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, chapter 6 (search)
ment, menacing Pennsylvania by the Cumberland Valley, he hoped to draw the Union army so far towards the Susquehanna as to afford him either an opportunity of seizing Baltimore or Washington, or of dealing a damaging blow at the army far from its base of supplies. His first movement from Frederick was, therefore, towards the western side of that mountain range which, named the Blue Ridge south of the Potomac, and the South Mountain range north of the Potomac, forms the eastern wall of the Shenandoah and Cumberland valleys—the former his line of communications with Richmond and the latter his line of manoeuvre towards Pennsylvania. Sketch of manoeuvres on Antietam. Now, at the time Lee crossed the Potomac, the Federal post at Harper's Ferry, commanding the debouteh of the Shenandoah Valley, was held by a garrison of about nine thousand men, under Colonel D. H. Miles, while a force of twenty-five hundred men, under General White, did outpost duty at Martinsburg and Winchester. T
as trying, by every means at his command, to reinforce him; that he expected to send off Colonel Forney's regiment the next morning, and others as fast as railway transportation could be secured. On the 13th he gave notice that another regiment, fully equipped, was sent him that day; that he could get 20,000 men from Mississippi, if they could be armed, and that he had numerous tenders of troops from Georgia, but he had to answer all that he had no arms to spare them. The lower valley of the Shenandoah (the northeastern part of Virginia's unfailing storehouse for supplying Confederate armies) furnished Johnston an abundant supply of provisions and forage, which the people, staunchly loyal, were willing to sell to his quartermasters and commissaries on credit, so he had no need for subsistence supplies from Richmond, except rations of coffee and sugar. He wrote that under the management of Maj. G. W. T. Kearsley, his chief commissary, the valley could have abundantly supplied an a
lic roads, about 20 miles from the Potomac, a distance over which the movements of the Federal army could be easily watched; and it covered the junction of the Orange & Alexandria railroad—which had connection at Gordonsville, by the Virginia Central, with Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, and with Staunton, a great depot of supplies and the most important town in the Shenandoah valley—with the Manassas Gap railroad, which led from Manassas Junction to Strasburg in the lower valley of the Shenandoah, giving quick connection with the army there operating under Gen. J. E. Johnston. Excellent highways from Alexandria and Washington, and from other important points to the northwest and southwest, converged at Centreville, about 3 miles east of Bull run, offering great advantages for the concentration of the Federal army in the immediate front of this line; while roads diverging from the same village to the northwest, west and southwest, made it an easy matter to maneuver troops
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