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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), McKinley, William 1843- (search)
ith gratitude that the little band, among them many of our own blood, who for two months have been subjected to privations and peril by the attacks of pitiless hordes at the Chinese capital, exhibiting supreme courage in the face of despair, have been enabled by God's favor to greet their rescuers and find shelter under their own flag. The people, not alone of this land, but of all lands, have watched and prayed through the terrible stress and protracted agony of the helpless sufferers in Peking, and while at times the dark tidings seemed to make all hope vain, the rescuers never faltered in the heroic fulfilment of their noble task. We are grateful to our own soldiers and sailors and marines, and to all the brave men, who, though assembled under many standards representing peoples and races strangers in country and speech, were yet united in the sacred mission of carrying succor to the besieged with a success that is now the cause of a world's rejoicing. Reunion of the North an
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Roosevelt, Theodore 1858-1893 (search)
officials, however high in rank, recognized as responsible for or having participated in the outbreak. Official examinations have been forbidden for a period of five years in all cities in which foreigners have been murdered or cruelly treated, and edicts have been issued making all officials directly responsible for the future safety of foreigners and for the suppression of violence against them. Provisions have been made for insuring the future safety of the foreign representatives in Peking by setting aside for their exclusive use a quarter of the city which the powers can make defensible, and in which they can, if necessary, maintain permanent military guards; by dismantling the military works between the capital and the sea, and by allowing the temporary maintenance of foreign military posts along this line. An edict has been issued by the Emperor of China prohibiting for two years the importation of arms and ammunition into China. China has agreed to pay adequate indemniti
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Treaties. (search)
ne 18, 1858 Convention of Adjustment of claimShanghaiNov. 8, 1858 Convention of Additions to treaty of June 18, 1858WashingtonJuly 28, 1868 Treaty of EmigrationPekingNov. 17, 1880 Treaty of Commercial and judicialPekingNov. 17, 1880 Treaty of Peace with the powersPekingSept. 7, 1901 Colombia: Convention of Peace, amity, comPekingNov. 17, 1880 Treaty of Peace with the powersPekingSept. 7, 1901 Colombia: Convention of Peace, amity, commerce, navigationBogotaOct. 3, 1824 Convention of ExtraditionBogotaMay 7, 1888 Costa Rica: Treaty of Friendship, commerce, navigationWashingtonJuly 10, 1851 Convention of Adjustment of claimsSan JoseJuly 2, 1860 Denmark: Convention of Friendship, commerce, navigationWashingtonApril 26, 1826 Convention of To indemnify the U.PekingSept. 7, 1901 Colombia: Convention of Peace, amity, commerce, navigationBogotaOct. 3, 1824 Convention of ExtraditionBogotaMay 7, 1888 Costa Rica: Treaty of Friendship, commerce, navigationWashingtonJuly 10, 1851 Convention of Adjustment of claimsSan JoseJuly 2, 1860 Denmark: Convention of Friendship, commerce, navigationWashingtonApril 26, 1826 Convention of To indemnify the U. S.CopenhagenMar. 28, 1830 Convention of Discontinuance of Sound duesWashingtonApril 11, 1857 Convention of NaturalizationCopenhagenJuly 20, 1872 Dominican Republic: Convention of Amity, commerce, navigation, extraditionSanto DomingoFeb. 8, 1867 Ecuador: Treaty of Friendship, commerce, navigationQuitoJune 13, 1839 Conventio
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Wilde, George Francis Faxon 1845- (search)
Wilde, George Francis Faxon 1845- Naval officer; born in Braintree, Mass., Feb. 23, 1845; graduated at the United States Naval Academy in 1864; was promoted commander in 1885 and captain in 1898. In the American-Spanish War he commanded the ram Katahdin in Cuban waters; afterwards was assigned to command the cruiser Boston; landed the first marines ever disembarked in China and forwarded them to Peking, where they guarded the American legation from November, 1898, till April, 1899; was ordered to the Philippines, where he captured the city of Iloilo, Feb. 11, 1899, and Vigan, Feb. 18, 1900; and commanded the battle-ship Oregon from May 29, 1899, till Jan. 16, 1901. He introduced gas buoys on the Great Lakes, the telephone to light vessels from shore, and the electric light vessel off Diamond Shoal, Cape Hatteras. While hastening the Oregon from Manila to Chinese waters during the Boxer troubles his vessel struck an uncharted ledge in the Gulf of Pechili, and was considerably in
al neighbors by the way in which they mended castiron kettles and pots, which were supposed to be irretrievably ruined. The first notice of it by Europeans appears to have been by Van Braam, in 1794-95, who was attached to the Dutch Embassy at Pekin, and who afterwards settled in the United States. The figure represents the itinerant artist with his portable forge, at work in the street. The front half of the wooden chest is his Fung-Seang, or bellows. Its principle is that of the doubl lens, of 16 inches diameter and weight 21 pounds, was used to concentrate the rays, the focal distance being then 63 inches, the diameter of focus 1/2 inch. This lens was carried to China by an officer in the suite of Lord Macartney, and left at Pekin. The effects of the burning arrangement were as follows: — Weight.Time. Substances.Grains.Seconds. Gold (pure)204 Silver (pure)203 Copper (pure)3320 Platinum (pure)103 Nickel163 Bar-iron1012 Cast-iron103 Steel1012 Topaz345 Emeral
and the Danube, so as to connect the German Ocean and the Black Sea. The first canal in England was the Caerdike, cut by the Romans. Canals were constructed in China before the Christian era. No mention is made of canals in the Bible. The largest hydraulic works therein mentioned are those of Solomon, who introduced abundant water for baths, gardens, and fish-ponds, — aqueducts, not canals. The largest canal in the world is the Imperial Canal of China, which extends southward from Pekin and unites the Pei-ho with the Yang-tseKiang. A part of the canal was constructed in the seventh century, and a part in the ninth, A. D. It is 825 miles long, and with its connected rivers gives an inland navigation of 2,000 miles, and connects 41 cities. Authorities differ as to whether the Chinese canals overcome grades by locks or inclined planes. It is to be presumed they have both. From the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries canals in the Netherlands were made in great numbers.
o saw asunder an adversary's line, should it become fouled, when flying on a wager or for sport. The Celestials put as much enthusiasm into the business as do the owners of trim wherries, fast nags, fleet greyhounds, rampant game-cocks, surly bull-dogs, dapper terriers, or the other thousand and one devices or excuses for actively wasting time. Chinese kites are sometimes furnished with various aeolian attachments which imitate the songs of birds or the voices of men. The pigeons also in Pekin are frequently provided with a very light kind of aeolian harp, which is secured tightly to the two central feathers of their tails, so that in flying through the air the harps sound harmoniously. The frame of the Japanese bird kite is made of thin bamboo, and is covered with colored paper. The wings, which are somewhat concave, and fall back a little, are dark maroon, and the body and tail represent a bird. Small white twine is used. By various devices, the hoverering and soaring of a
Steel10 grains in 12 seconds. Common slate10 grains in 2 seconds. A topaz3 grains in 45 seconds. An emerald2 grains in 25 seconds. Crystal7 grains in 6 seconds. Lava10 grains in 7 seconds. Flint10 grains in 30 seconds. Jasper10 grains in 25 seconds. Carnelian10 grains in 75 seconds. Pumice-stone10 grains in 24 seconds. Wood burned immediately; water flashed into steam; bones fell into a calcined form at once. This glass was carried to China by Lord Macartney, and was left in Pekin. It was probably stolen or destroyed in the sacking of the summer palace by the allies. A flint-glass lens, weighing 224 pounds, was exhibited at the London Exposition, 1851. A burning-lens of great power may be obtained by fixing two circular disks of thin glass at the opposite ends of a tube, say 1 inch long, and injecting into the space between them, under pressure, turpentine, bleached oil, or other liquid of high refractive power. When the glass attains the required curvature,
other elements of terrestrial magnetism to be observed; and during the thirteenth century the Chinese philosopher, Keon-tsoung-chi, observed the variation of the needle from the cardinal points to the extent of 2° to 2° 30′. The French savans in Pekin, a few years since, determined it to be about the same. In common with all European nations the variation was spoken of by the Frenchmen as a variation from the north towards the west; but the Chinese, who respected the south more than the northd by Sebastian Cabot in 1540. The Chinaman says:— A point of iron touched by the loadstone receives the power of indicating the south; still it declines towards the east, and does not point exactly towards the south. French observations at Pekin confirm this, only stating it to be a variation from the north of 2° to 2° 30′ to the west; while the Chinese, insisting on their mode of stating it, set it down as being from 2° to 2° 30′ to the east. Columbus first noted a line of no
he post at the head or foot of a stairs, supporting the hand-rail. The center-post of a winding stairs is a solid newel. Winding stairs around a central well are said to have an open newel or hollow newel. 2. (Shipwrighting.) An upright piece of timber to receive the tenons of the rails that lead from the breastwork of the gangway. New-sand. (Founding.) Facing-sand. News′pa-per. The newspaper, like many other useful inventions, seems to have originated in China. The Pekin Gazette, the oldest daily in the world, was first issued about A. D. 1350. This is still in existence, and is an official journal, containing such information as the government chooses to make known. It is composed of three parts: 1. The court journal, or copy of the door of the palace, which announces day by day the list of functionaries on duty, the actions of the emperor, the presentations, visits, departures, etc.; 2. The imperial decrees; 3. The reports of the great officers of the
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