It has been affirmed that the art of glass-cutting was invented at the beginning of the seventeenth century by one Caspar Lehmann, of Prague, who was patronized by the Emperor Rodolphus II.
Schwanhard, an apprentice of Lehmann, removed to Nuremberg, where he worked for many of the principal nobility, and hence this city acquired the reputation of being the birthplace of the new art; which was afterward much improved by the introduction of new tools and cheaper methods.
Previous to thisterior was occupied by ladders and platforms, from which its painted surface was viewed.
It was closed in 1861.
Martin Behaim on his world apple, the celebrated globe which he finished in 1492, and which is still kept in the Behaim house in Nuremberg, places the coast of China (by estimate), only 100° west of the Azores.
Marinus of Tyre had advanced the Chinese coast to the longitude of the Sandwich Islands, being misdirected by the calculations in the Asiatic itineraries, and thereby givi
its as their neighbors, and have written on waxed tablets, linen cloth, palm leaves, bark, etc. The use of parchment was not yet, if we may credit the assertion that it was invented by the king of Pergamus as a substitute for the papyrus, on which an embargo was laid by the reigning Ptolemy, whoever he was.
The use of linen paper in Europe appears to have originated in Germany, about the eleventh or twelfth century, the exact date being undeterminable.
We read of a German paper-mill at Nuremberg in 1390, one in England in 1343, in France, 1314, Italy, 1367.
Linen paper, however, is yet preserved, containing documents of much older date.
John Tate had a mill at Stevenage, England, in 1496, but the manufacture was much increased by Spielman in 1588.
This person was a German jeweler, and established a paper-mill at Deptford during the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
Whatman's mill was established at Maidstone in 1770.
The name is yet a famous brand.
period at which Vespucci was named Piloto Mayor would alone be sufficient to refute the accusation first brought against him in 1533 by the astronomer Schoner of Nuremberg, of having astutely inserted the words Terra di Amerigo in charts which he altered.
The high esteem and respect which the Spanish court paid to the hydrographic of the name of America in the editions of Ptolemy's Geography.
It is a great error to regard the map of 1527, now in Weimar, obtained from the Ebner library at Nuremberg, and the map of 1529 of Diego Ribero, engraved by Gussfeld, as the oldest maps of the new continent.
Vespucci had visited the coasts of South America in 1499 (lic dust.
Grains of metal for giving a metallic luster to wall-paper, shellwork, lacquered ware, and for other purposes.
It was first made by John Hautsch of Nuremberg (1595 – 1670). It is prepared by sifting the filings of different metals, washing them in a strong lye, and then placing them on a metallic plate over a strong f
nd from the tapestry that has survived thirty centuries that they were skillful and painstaking seamstresses.
A woman must not go out on the sabbath With a needle that has an eye.
The Phrygians and Hebrews held fine needlework in high estimation.
Needles of bronze were used by the Greeks and Romans, are described by Pliny, and have been found in Herculaneum.
The history of art progress during the Middle Ages is a blank, but we find that needles were manufactured at Nuremberg in 1370.
The history of their manufacture in England is involved in doubt, but it is said to have been introduced about 1543– 45, either by a Spanish negro or a native of India, who died without disclosing the secret of his process.
It was recovered during the reign of Elizabeth, by Growse, a German.
In 1650, Christopher Greening and a Mr. Damer established needle-factories at Long Crendon, near Redditch, and were soon followed by other needlemakers from London.
Redditch is yet the
horizontal rail and operated the bellows with their feet, as at F, Fig. 3425. It is said that half-notes were invented at Venice in the twelfth century, but the earliest authentic example of their introduction was in the Halberstadt organ, built about 1360.
The invention of the pedal is claimed for Bernhard, a German organist to the doge of Venice, 1470-80.
He probably made some improvement in that appendage, but it appears to have been in use nearly a century previous.
The organ of Nuremberg had pipes from 16 to 32 feet long, A. D. 1468.
In 1596, the organ of Breslau had most of the now known stops.
It would seem that up to the fifteenth century organs were generally constructed by the monks, but about this period organ-builders by profession were to be found both in England and on the Continent.
The earliest recorded in England was William Wotton, who, in 1587, agreed to make a pair of organs for Merton College, Oxford, for the sum of pound28.
The German and Dutch b
hen subject to England, dated 1330.
It has been claimed that linen paper was made in England as early as 1330, though it is supposed that no linen paper was made in Italy previous to 1367.
In 1390, Ulman Strother established a paper-mill at Nuremberg in Bavaria, operated by two rollers, which set in motion eighteen stampers.
This indicates the process of pulping the fiber by beating, which continued in use for nearly four centuries. This was the first paper-mill known to have been establisleep for a century, which might be a long sleep for anything else, but is for an invention only a reasonable nap. Sixteen or seventeen centuries elapsed between the double-cylinder fire-engine of Ctesibus of Alexandria and the similar engine of Nuremberg.
The aeolipile of Hero is substantially analogous to the water-wheel of the worthy Dr. Barker, who left us a century back or thereabout, except that the fluid agent of one is steam and of the other water. The principle is the same, and the tur
A machine consisting of a large wheel, band, and spindle, and driven by foot or by hand.
The wool is carded into rolls, which are twisted, drawn, and wound a length at a time, the wheel being turned periodically to twist the yarn.
It was the first great improvement upon spinning by a distaff and spindle.
It appears to have been in use for many ages in Hindustan, but did not reach Europe before the sixteenth century.
One account states that it was invented at Nuremberg about 1530: the statement is improbable.
The accompanying cut is taken from an illuminated manuscript of the fourteenth century, in the British Museum (M. S. Reg. 10 E. IV.), and represents a lady spinning at her wheel.
The spindle is rotated in horizontal bearings, having a spool, over which the band from the larger wheel passes.
A roving, being attached to the end of the spindle, is twisted as the latter revolves, the roving being allowed to slip between the
ut little over an hour.
1. A shining thin metallic plate.
Foil. Somewhat allied to tinsel is the metallic dust, the invention of John Hautsch, of Nuremberg, 1595-1670.
2. (Fabric.) A cloth composed of silk and silver.
A material with a superficial sheen and but little sterling value.
Cloth overlaid with foihildren, taking a part in the work.
The cheaper kinds, as Noah's arks, soldiers, tea-sets, etc., are principally produced in the vicinity of the Black Forest, Nuremberg being the principal depot.
Sonneburg, in Thuringia, exports about 25,000 cwt. of the better class of wooden toys, made in the town and vicinity.
Men made in plaster are dispatched to us from Prussia, whilst leaden soldiers, measuring about an inch in hight, painted and heavily armed, come from Bavaria, Nuremberg, and Furth.
Household utensils in china — such as pipkins, saucepans, cups and saucers, dolls' heads in china, games of lotto, penny watches, wooden wheelbarrow
to have originated some two centuries since.
Hautsch, of Nuremberg, invented the mode of preparing the metallic dust, which rded locks were used by the Romans, as the keys found at Herculaneum and Pompeii sufficiently testify.
The character of the by weights.
The invention is said to have originated at Nuremberg, 1477; so that watches were formerly playfully called NurNuremberg animated eggs.
The invention has also been claimed for Geneva.
See also horological instruments.
For early notf wire-making was performed by the hammer, the artists of Nuremberg were called wire-smiths; but after the invention of drawiory of Augsburg as early as the year 1351, and in that of Nuremberg in 1360; so that according to the best information I havelly indorse the ascription of the invention to Rodolph of Nuremberg, A. D. 1410, but he may have much improved the art; mills were erected in Nuremberg, 1563.
The first wire-mill in England was erected at Mortlake, in 1663.
a (Fig. 7262) shows
few books, but those were the best; they had some remote glimpse of art through engravings, at least; they had around them the inspiration of a great republic, visibly destined to overspread a continent; and they had two or three centuries of romantic and picturesque pioneer history behind them.
We now recognize that Irving, Cooper, Bryant, Whittier did not create their material; they simply used what they found; and Longfellow's fame did not become assured till he turned from Bruges and Nuremberg, and chose his theme among the exiles of Acadia.
It was not Irving who invested the Hudson with romance, but the Hudson that inspired Irving.
In 1786, when Mrs. Josiah Quincy, then a young girl, sailed up that river in a sloop, she wrote: Our captain had a legend for every scene, either supernatural or traditional, or of actual occurrence during the war; and not a mountain reared its head, unconnected with some marvelous story.
Irving was then a child of three years old, but Rip Van Wi