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and in mining. Several compounds based on gun-cotton are used in the arts, as in collodion for photography, surgery, etc. Nitro-glycerine, which is pure glycerine treated with nitric acid, was discovered by the Italian chemist Sobrero in 1847, but was very little used until 1863, when it was utilized by Nobel for blasting. The explosive energy of this compound is given as from four to thirteen times that of rifle powder. By an explosion of a few cans of this material on the wharf at Aspinwall in 1866, a considerable portion of the town was destroyed, shipping at some distance in the harbor much damaged, and a number of lives were lost. An explosion of a storehouse containing some hundreds of pounds of nitro-glycerine took place at Fairport, Ohio, in 1870, accompanied with much loss of life. The shock was felt at Buffalo, 160 miles distant. Nobel, in 1867, invented a compound called dynamite, which consists of three parts nitroglycerine and one part of porous earth. Dynami
equires far less drilling and operates so as to lift the rock from its bed without shattering it to such an extent. The number of fatal explosions resulting from it have been an obstacle to its more general use, but these are claimed to have resulted generally from improper manufacture, exposure to too great heat in transportation, or carelessness in handling. Mowbray's nitro-glycerine Apparalus. Among the most prominent accidents occurring from these sources were the explosions at Aspinwall and in the office of Wells, Fargo, & Co. at San Francisco, by the former of which forty-five and by the latter six lives were destroyed. In the case of the Aspinwall disaster the nitroleum had been shipped from Hamburg, where the temperature was 55° or 60° to a tropical climate where the temperature in the hold of the steamer was probably more than double this. It was inclosed in cork-stopped vessels, packed in cases with sawdust. The explosion has been attributed to the disengagement o
et; and the highest point on the railroad between Arequipa and Puno in Peru is 14,586 feet above the sea. The length of the Panama Railway from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean is nearly 48 miles; the summit ridge is 287 feet above the mean tide of the Atlantic. The distance from New York to Hongkong via Cape Horn is more than 17,000 miles, but by this railway across the Isthmus it is less than 12,000, — a saving of 5,500 miles. This railway was opened in January, 1855. Starting from Aspinwall, on the Atlantic side, for Panama, on the Pacific, the traveler is soon in the midst of a scene of tropical beauty hardly to be surpassed in the world. Cocoa-palms and bread-fruit trees wave their branches on either side, and from the fastnesses of murky swamps richly colored aquatic plants rise in luxuriant wildness. The cries of gorgeously plumaged birds are heard on all sides, and now and then the discordant notes of monkeys, parrots, and other natives of the woods. On the low muddy
tender. Such are used for yard-engines, for side-lines of limited length, and for ascending grades with moderate loads. The boiler and machinery are carried on the driving-wheels, and the variable weight of water and fuel on the tank-truck. Tank-Locomotine. That illustrated is mounted on two bogie frames, the front one supporting the locomotive and the rear one the part in which the tank and coal-bunkers are located. Engines of this kind have been employed on the Howland and Aspinwall road, overcoming gradients of 296 1/2 feet to the mile, and on various other roads of from 3 to 5 feet gage. French tank-locomotive. Fig. 6199 illustrates an engine constructed from the designs of M. Vaessen by the Societe de St. Leonard at Liege. This engine is intended for the ascent of steep inclines and traversing sharp curves with a train on what M Vaessen calls the universal system, patented by him. It was built for the Chemin de Fer Isabelle II, in Spain. The cylinders are
Mary Thacher Higginson, Thomas Wentworth Higginson: the story of his life, Bibliography (search)
n Golden Rule, Nov. 15.) 1895 Massachusetts in the Army and Navy during the War of 1861-65. Vol. 2. The Fairy Coursers. [Poem.] (In Cambridge Sketches, by Cambridge authors.) The Woman who Most Influenced Me. (In Ladies' Home Journal, Oct.) A Young Girl's Library. (In Ladies' Home Journal, Nov.) Articles. (In Boston Evening Transcript, Harper's Bazar, Nation, et al.) 1896 Massachusetts in the Army and Navy during the War of 1861-65. Vol. I. Prefatory note. (In Aspinwall. Short Stories for Short People.) The School of Jingoes. (In Essays from the Chap-Book.) Life in Cambridge Town. (In Gilman, ed. Cambridge of 1896.) Octavius Brooks Frothingham. (In New World, March.) A Keats Manuscript. (In Forum, June.) Same. (In his Book and Heart. 1897.) The Romance of a Brown-Paper Parcel. (In Century Magazine, Aug.) A Bookshelf in the Kitchen. (In Ladies' Home Journal, Nov.) Cheerful Yesterdays. (In Atlantic Monthly, Nov.-Dec.) Def.
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Harvard Memorial Biographies, 1862. (search)
channel near the island of Quibo (two hundred and twenty miles from Panama, the nearest port), the Golden Age struck heavily on a sunken rock, and filled so rapidly that she was only saved by beaching. This event, though attended with no loss of life, was a thrilling one, and one that I shall not forget. After lying three days on an uninhabited island in the tropics, we were taken off by the steamship John L. Stephens, and carried to Panama, whence we succeeded in crossing by railroad to Aspinwall in eleven hours, the distance being forty-eight miles. On the voyage up nothing of interest occurred excepting a few hours' stay at Kingston, Jamaica, where we took in coal. After some months of pleasant travel, visiting Niagara, &c., I entered (in October, 1855) Chauncy-Hall School, Boston, then under the guidance of Mr. G. F. Thayer, but soon after under that of his colleague, Mr. Cushing. I applied myself closely to study, and was fortunate enough to obtain two gold medals, and to
The Daily Dispatch: November 3, 1860., [Electronic resource], English view of the late Royal visit. (search)
Later from South America.Peru Refuses the American ultimatum--Terrible accident — difficulty betweenBritish and American officers at Panama, &c. New York, Nov. 2 --The steamer, Northern Light, from Aspinwall, reports the Lancaster and St. Mary's at Panama, steamer Brooklyn and storeship Falmouth at Aspinwall. Advices from Valparaiso are to the 2d, and Callao the 12th. The ultimatum of the American government had been rejected by Peru so far as the ships Lizzie Thompson, and Georgiana, and the Sariori claims are concerned. The refusal will compel the American Minister to demand his passports. A frightful accident occurred on the 10th ult., at the dry dock at San Lorenzo, involving the entire loss of the Peruvian frigate Callao, which was being docked. All the crew were on board, when some of the stauncheons gave way, and the frigate pitched over and was crushed. She fell on a great number of people below, all of whom perished. All the particulars were not known
Further from South America. American Affairs at Peru----Terrible Accident----The Revolution in Bolivia, &c. The steamship Northern Light, which sailed from Aspinwall on the 25th ult., arrived at New York Friday morning, with $1,241,939 in gold. Peru — Awful Accident. The ultimatum (says the correspondent of the Panama Star) of the Cabinet at Washington has been at last presented, and on Saturday evening, the Peruvian Government answered it, refusing to settle the following claims:--The Lizzie Thompson, Georgiana and Sartoria claim. This last claim is one which no sensible person ever thought that the United States Government would even listen to, much less try and urge its payment; there can be but one term applied to it, and that is "infamous" The Peruvian Government have in its possession proofs against this claim of a most damning character, with some curious facts as to how such claims are made, but they are urged, and then the division of spoils. The refus
The Daily Dispatch: March 29, 1861., [Electronic resource], Affairs at Fort Sumter--a plan for reinforcements. (search)
ys: It is very well understood that he had a plan for introducing reinforcements, which had been submitted to the members of the Cabinet, and was regarded as measurably practicable, but attended with the probability, if not certainty, of collision, which constituted the chief objection to its adoption.--He is perfectly familiar with all the approaches to the harbor of Charleston, having been long connected with the Coast Survey, and had practical experience as the commander of one of Aspinwall's steamers. His scheme did not contemplate any serious danger in running the gauntlet of the batteries on the islands which guard the channels, but only in landing the men and provisions at Sumter, after it had been reached. If a fire was opened upon his transports from Fort Moultrie or the other batteries, it would be necessary for Sumter to silence them in order to discharge the reinforcements. Any attempt, therefore, looking to that object, would almost inevitably lead to bloodshed,
ce, a martyr to science. He had been for sometime engaged in an investigation of the properties of chiorate of potash as a cure for consumption. Last summer he read a paper on the subject before the National Medical Convention at New Haven. It attracted much attention in that body, who requested him to continue his labors another year. It is presumed that he had been experimenting on himself with small doses of this medicine, gradually increasing them, till, on Friday last, he took an ounce, which proved too much for him, and resulted in his untimely death. He was only 33 years of age, but had already attained a high rank in his profession. He was a native of Westchester county, N. Y., and was graduated at Princeton College, N. J., and the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons. In the fall of 1851 he went to the Isthmus as Surgeon of the Panama Railroad Company, headquarters at Aspinwall. He left this position in 1854, and in the fall of that year settled in Davenport.
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