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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Treaty of
Treaty of Aix-la-chapelle, A treaty between Great Britain, France, Holland, Germany, Spain, and Greece; signed by the representatives of these respective powers on Oct. 18 (N. S.), 1748. By it the treaties of Westphalia (1648), of Nimeguen (1678-79), of Ryswick (1697), of Utrecht (1713), of Baden (1714), of the Triple Alliance (1717), of the Quadruple Alliance (1718), and of Vienna (1738), were renewed and confirmed. It was fondly hoped this treaty would insure a permanent peace for Europe. It was, however, only a truce between France and England, contending for dominion in America. The English regarded as encroachments the erection by the French of about twenty forts, besides block-houses and tradingposts, within claimed English domain. So while Acadia (q. v.) furnished one field for hostilities between the two nations, the country along the lakes and in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys furnished another.
Treaty of Utrecht, A treaty signed April 11, 1713, which secured the Protestant succession to the throne of England, the separation of the French and Spanish crowns, the destruction of Dunkirk, the enlargement of the British colonies in America, and a full satisfaction from France of the claims of the allies, England, Holland, and Germany. This treaty terminated Queen Anne's War, and secured peace for thirty years.
Walloons, A people which inhabited the southern Belgic provinces and adjoining parts of France, and numbered, at the time of their dispersion by persecution (1580), over 2,000,000. They were of a mixed Gallic and Teutonic blood, and most of them spoke the old French dialect. When the northern provinces of the Netherlands formed their political union at Utrecht (1579), the southern provinces, whose people were chiefly Roman Catholics, declined to join the confederation. Many of the inhabitants were Protestants, and against these the Spanish government at once began the most relentless persecution. Thousands of them fled to Holland, where strangers of every race and creed were welcomed and protected; and from these the Dutch gained a knowledge of many branches of manufacture. They were skilful and industrious. Having heard of the fertility of the Western Continent, some of them wished to emigrate thither, and a proposition was made to the Virginia Company to have them favor
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing),
Woodhull, Nathaniel 1722- 1776 (search)