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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cist, Charles 1783- (search)
Cist, Charles 1783- Printer; born in St. Petersburg, Russia, Aug. 15, 1783; graduated at Halle; came to America in 1773; and lived in Philadelphia, where he founded a printing and publishing business with Melchior Steiner. Later he became sole proprietor and publisher of The American Herald and the Columbian magazine. He introduced anthracite coal into general use in the United States. During the Revolutionary War he greatly aided the Colonial government by endorsing Continental currency to a large amount, which he was afterwards compelled to redeem.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Dana, Francis, 1743-1811 (search)
of the Continental Congress from 1776 to 1778, and again in 1784; member of the board of war, Nov. 17, 1777; and was at the head of a committee charged with the entire reorganization of the army. When Mr. Adams went on an embassy to negotiate a treaty of peace and commerce with Great Britain, Mr. Dana was secretary of the legation. At Paris, early in 1781, he received the appointment from Congress of minister to Russia, clothed with power to make the accession of the United States to the armed neutrality. He resided two years at St. Petersburg, and returned to Berlin in 1783. He was again in Congress in the spring of 1784, and the next year was made a justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. In 1791 he was appointed chief-justice of Massachusetts, which position he held fifteen years, keeping aloof from political life, except in 1792 and 1806, when he was Presidential elector. He retired from the bench and public life in 1806, and died in Cambridge, Mass., April 25, 1811.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Diplomatic service. (search)
nipotentiary, San Jose. (See Costa Rica.) Paraguay and Uruguay. William R. Finch, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Montevideo. Persia. Herbert W. Bowen, Minister Resident and Consul-General, Teheran. Peru. Irving B. Dudley, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Lima. Portugal. John N. Irwin, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Lisbon. Russia. Charlemagne Tower, Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, St. Petersburg. Siam. Hamilton King, Minister Resident and Consul-General, Bangkok. Spain. Bellamy Storer, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Madrid. Sweden and Norway. William W. Thomas, Jr., Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Stockholm. Switzerland. John G. A. Leishman, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Berne. Turkey. Oscar S. Straus, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Constantinople. Venezuela. Francis B
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Everett, Alexander Hill, 1792-1847 (search)
Everett, Alexander Hill, 1792-1847 Diplomatist; born in Boston, March 19, 1792; graduated at Harvard in 1806; studied law with John Q. Adams; and in 1809 accompanied him to St. Petersburg as attache to the American legation, to which he became secretary in 1815. He became charge d'affaires at Brussels in 1818; in 1825-29 was minister to Spain; and from 1845 until his death was American commissioner in China. His publications include Europe, or a General survey of the political situation of the principal powers, with conjectures on their future prospects (1821); New ideas on population (1822) ; America, etc. (1827). He died in Canton, China, June 29, 1847. Everett, Edward
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Farmers' Institutes. (search)
een kept, in every State, entirely out of politics. One of the fundamental principles always insisted upon is that no question of religion or politics must be permitted to be discussed on any consideration. In Europe something is done along the same lines by means of lectures delivered by men sent out by the governments. In Russia, through some of the imperial societies, considerable progress has been made in the way of bringing this sort of instruction directly to the people. In St. Petersburg is maintained a great agricultural museum, in which lectures are given during the winter season; and at other times regular courses of lectures, on the various economic subjects relating to the farm, are given on the estates, in order that the working people themselves may be reached and taught. His Excellency N. A. Hamakoff, Director of the Department of Agriculture in Russia, expressed himself as particularly interested in that line of work, and the interest in the dissemination of
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gallatin, Albert 1761- (search)
ncial expedient, beyond borrowing money and doubling the duties on imports. The scheme, afterwards tried, bore bitter fruit. Gallatin's influence was felt in other departments of the government and in the politics of the country. Opposed to going to war with Great Britain in 1812, he exerted all his influence to avert it. In March, 1813, he was appointed one of the envoys to Russia to negotiate for the mediation of the Czar between the United States and Great Britain. He sailed for St. Petersburg, but the Senate, in special session, refused to ratify his appointment because he was Secretary of the Treasury. The attempt at mediation was unsuccessful. When, in January, 1814, Great Britain proposed a direct negotiation for peace, Gallatin, who was still abroad, was appointed one of the United States commissioners to negotiate. He resigned his Secretaryship. In 1815 he was appointed minister to France, where he remained until 1823. He refused a seat in the cabinet of Monroe on h
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Genest, or Genet, Edmond Charles 1765-1834 (search)
Genet, Edmond Charles 1765-1834 Diplomatist; born in Versailles, France, Jan. 8, 1765. His literary talent was early developed. At the age of twelve years he received from the King of Edmond Charles Genest. Sweden a gold medal for a translation of the history of Eric XIV. into Swedish, with notes by himself. He was a brother of the celebrated Madame Campan, and was brought up in the French Court; yet he was a republican. Attached to the embassies of Berlin, Vienna, London, and St. Petersburg, he maintained his republican bias, and on his return from the Russian Court (1792) was appointed minister to the United States. He had already been made adjutant-general of the armies of France and minister to Holland by the revolutionists, and employed in revolutionizing Geneva and annexing it to France. He arrived at Charleston, S. C., April 9, 1793. He was received with open arms by the Republican, or Democratic, party. He was disposed to treat the United States government with c
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hitchcock, Ethan Allen 1835- (search)
Hitchcock, Ethan Allen 1835- Diplomatist; born in Mobile, Ala., June 12, 1835; was educated in New Haven, Conn.; removed to St. Louis, Mo., in 1851; engaged in business in that city, and acquired a fortune; was United States minister to Russia in 1897-98, and in the latter year became ambassador. He was recalled from St. Petersburg to become Secretary of the Interior in January, 1899, and was reappointed to that office in March, 1901.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hunt, William Henry 1824-1884 (search)
Hunt, William Henry 1824-1884 Lawyer; born in Charleston, S. C., in 1824; educated at Yale College; settled in New Orleans to practise; supported the National cause during the Civil War. He was Secretary of the Navy in 1881-82; and in the latter year was appointed minister to Russia. He died in St. Petersburg, Russia, Feb. 27, 1884.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Kosciuszko, Tadeusz (Thaddeus) 1746- (search)
e was besieged by a combined army of Russians and Prussians. These, after Thaddeus Kosciuszko. several bloody conflicts, were compelled by the Polish chief to raise the siege. Austria had joined the assailants of the Poles, and, with an army of 150,000 men, fell upon and crushed them (Oct. 10) at Macieowice. Kosciuszko fought gallantly, and fell covered with wounds, utttering the sadly prophetic words, afterwards fulfilled, Finis Polonice! He was made captive, and was imprisoned at St. Petersburg until the accession of the Emperor Paul, who set him at liberty, and offered Kosciuszko his own sword. It was refused, the Polish patriot saying, I have no need of a sword, since I have no country to defend. In 1797 he visited the United States, where he was warmly welcoined, and received, in addition to a pension, a grant of land by Congress. He resided near Fontainebleau, in France; and when Bonaparte became Emperor, in 1806, he tried to enlist Kosciuszko in his schemes in relation
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