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Ohio (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
suddenly surprised Banks at Front Royal and Winchester, and driving him in confusion and route across the Potomac, advanced to Harper's Ferry. Jackson and his 16,000 men created a marvelous panic at Washington and throughout the North, the accounts of which at this day read like the pages of a romance. The Federal Capitol was believed to be in danger, 300,000 men were called for by the President, the militia of whole States were ordered out, and the proclamations of Governors as far away as Ohio and Massachusetts would not have seemed tame to the Romans after Cannae. The most important result of Jackson's dash was the stoppage of McDowell, who had already begun the movement that in three days would have united him with McClellan. A large part of McDowell's army was ordered back after Jackson, and the remainder was held for the time at Fredericksburg. Relieved by Jackson's success of the fear of McDowell's forces from the North, Johnston, who had determined to attack McClellan be
river (Kentucky, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
r at bay until night-fall, when the Federals made good their retreat to the south side of White Oak Swamp. Next day, June 30th, was the day of greatest peril to the Federal army. Jackson having crossed the Chickahominy, was ordered to follow in its wake towards White Oak Swamp. Huger was directed to press along the Charles City road. Longstreet, with his own and A. P. Hill's divisions, was to attack its flank along the Long-Bridge road. Nearer the James, Holmes was advancing along the River road. Magruder was directed to make a circuit around Huger and follow Longstreet. Jackson soon reached White Oak Swamp and found the passage of this difficult stream strongly defended by Franklin. A severe artillery fight took place, in which the Federal batteries suffered greatly, but Jackson's efforts to reconstruct the bridge and force a passage for his infantry were successfully resisted by Franklin until night-fall. Meantime Huger was impeded by some felled timber in his way, and
Fredericksburg, Va. (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
nnock or the lower Chesapeake, and thus place it between Johnston and Richmond. Seeing that Fredericksburg offered the most direct route to Richmond and possessed many advantages over all the others,o fall back behind the Rappahannock so that he might be ready to oppose an advance by way of Fredericksburg as well as be within reach should McClellan choose a more southerly line of approach. Johnsnswer to McClellan's urgent appeals, at the middle of May, McDowell was ordered forward from Fredericksburg with a force which General Webb correctly states at 41,000 men and 100 guns (p. 85). Thus, 153,688 men at Richmond. He called in Branch's and Anderson's brigades from Gordonsville and Fredericksburg, and Huger's three brigades from Petersburg. General Webb absurdly estimates Branch's and Af McDowell's army was ordered back after Jackson, and the remainder was held for the time at Fredericksburg. Relieved by Jackson's success of the fear of McDowell's forces from the North, Johnston,
Ashland (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
Lee now ordered Jackson to join the main army, using a ruse de guerre to prevent the large Federal forces in Northern Virginia from following him. Considerable bodies of troops were sent up to Jackson as if to reinforce him for another advance towards Washington. Care was taken that tidings of this movement should reach the enemy. On June 16 Jackson was ordered to move down with the greatest expedition and secrecy, and so admirable was the execution of this plan, that when Jackson reached Ashland, twelve miles north of Richmond on June 25th, neither McClellan nor the government at Washington had any knowledge of his whereabouts (page 124), and it was not until the Federal pickets north of the Chickahominy were driven in next day that the Federal Commander had any certain information of the approach of his swift-footed assailant. Lee was now ready to deliver battle. His strength, including Jackson, was from 80,000 to 81,000 men. (See the careful computations of General Early, So
Beaver Dam Creek, Md. (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
lan's army. Jackson, worn by his forced march from the Valley, was behind time on the morning of June 26th, and A. P. Hill waited from early in the morning until the middle of the afternoon for the approach of Jackson, which was to uncover the bridge in his front. Then, fearing lest further delay might imperil the whole movement by revealing it to the enemy, he carried the bridge before him, and, moving down towards Mechanicsville, drove the small Federal force there to the lines at Beaver Dam creek, which were held by McCall's division. Jackson was expected to turn this line, but being yet behind, A. P. Hill engaged the Federal forces and made attempts on each flank, which were, however, repulsed. Longstreet and D. H. Hill joined A. P. Hill near nightfall, and the approach of Jackson on their flank caused the Federals to retreat next morning to Gaines's Mill and Cold Harbor. Here Fitz John Porter held a strong position, covering the principal bridges across the Chickahominy and
Port Republic (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
t once began preparations for a renewal of the struggle. Troops that could be spared from the South were ordered to Richmond. Jackson was directed to be prepared to move to the same place from the Valley at the critical moment. (General Webb is in error in attributing this movement to Jackson himself, as he does on page 122. Jackson had been constantly instructed to keep such a movement in view, as may be seen from General Lee's letter to him of May 16.) The victories of Cross Keys and Port Republic, on June 8 and June 9, made the withdrawal of McDowell's corps from McClellan permanent, and left Jackson free to join Lee. Meantime the latter was busy in preparation. On June 11 Stuart was sent with the Confederate cavalry to reconnoiter McClellan's right and rear. This gallant cavalryman extended his reconnoissance into a raid completely around the Federal army, cutting its communications and destroying supplies as he went. This expedition, one of the most brilliant and successful
Gordonsville (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
y must be kept guarding his flanks, his communications and his depots, is not the question. In answer to McClellan's urgent appeals, at the middle of May, McDowell was ordered forward from Fredericksburg with a force which General Webb correctly states at 41,000 men and 100 guns (p. 85). Thus, 150,000 men were about to unite in the attack on Richmond. To meet this, Johnston had, by the official report of May 21, 53,688 men at Richmond. He called in Branch's and Anderson's brigades from Gordonsville and Fredericksburg, and Huger's three brigades from Petersburg. General Webb absurdly estimates Branch's and Anderson's brigades at 12,000 (p. 86). They actually numbered possibly as many as 5,500. (See Branch's order, Southern Historical papers, vol. VIII, page 103, which shows his strength did not exceed 3,000, and Taylor's Four Years with General Lee, page 50, where Anderson's strength is given at from 2,000 to 2,300 in the seven days battles.) Huger's brigades may have numbered 6,0
Norfolk (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
a and the rivers, except the James. Some Confederate batteries had partially obstructed the Potomac below Washington, but these could be driven away whenever the Federal Commander chose to do it. A small Confederate force under Huger still held Norfolk and the Navy Yard, where they were preparing the ram, Virginia, to introduce a new era into naval warfare. Magruder, with 11,000 men, watched the peninsula between the James and York, and by means of his works at Yorktown and Gloucester Point, s had passed on towards the Chickahominy. Baffled thus in his movements against both the flank and rear of the retreating army, McClellan was content to follow slowly and with great caution. The retreat from Yorktown involved the evacuation of Norfolk by the Confederates; and the destruction of the iron-clad Virginia quickly gave to the Federals the command of the James river up to Drewry's Bluff. This caused Johnston to retire across the Chickahominy and take position in front of Richmond;
Meadow Bridge (West Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
n driven on May 31. This ground he covered with a network of entrenchments, and under the cover of strong works was slowly pushing his lines towards Richmond. About one-third of his army held the north side of the Chickahominy as high up as Meadow Bridge, and at the same time covered his communications with his base at West Point, on the Pamunkey. Lee determined to attack the Federal right wing, overwhelm it if possible, and destroy McClellan's communications and depots. McClellan would thu down on McClellan's right and rear. When Jackson was at hand A. P. Hill was to send a brigade across the Chickahominy above the Federal right to unite with Jackson, and when the Confederate forces had moved down the north side and uncovered Meadow bridge, the remainder of A. P. Hill's division was to cross there, and he was to be followed by Longstreet and D. H. Hill by way of the Mechanicsville bridge as soon as it was open. Magruder and Huger were left to hold the lines in front of Richmon
West Virginia (West Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4.35
ith General Lee, page 50, where Anderson's strength is given at from 2,000 to 2,300 in the seven days battles.) Huger's brigades may have numbered 6,000 at this time. Thus the Confederates were able to concentrate about 65,000 men to oppose the 150,000 which were about to unite against them. It would be hard to find a finer illustration of the adage, that fortune favors the brave than occurred at this juncture. Stonewall Jackson, after defeating Fremont's advance in the mountains of West Virginia, and while he was supposed to be one hundred and fifty miles away, suddenly surprised Banks at Front Royal and Winchester, and driving him in confusion and route across the Potomac, advanced to Harper's Ferry. Jackson and his 16,000 men created a marvelous panic at Washington and throughout the North, the accounts of which at this day read like the pages of a romance. The Federal Capitol was believed to be in danger, 300,000 men were called for by the President, the militia of whole St
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