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e end of three days travel we stopped, and the next day Alonzo del Castillo set out with Estevanico, the negro, taking the two women as guidesfirst seen, having the appearance and structure of houses. Here Castillo and Estevanico arrived, and, after talking with the Indians, CastiCastillo returned at the end of three days to the spot where he had left us, and brought five or six of the people. He told us he had found fixed ing delighted us, and for it we gave infinite thanks to our Lord. Castillo told us the negro was coming with all the population to wait for ue could not cross it, which detained us fifteen days. In this time Castillo saw the buckle of a sword-belt on the neck of an Indian and stitchen had well begun to experience hunger and fatigue. I told him of Castillo and Dorantes, who were behind, 10 leagues off, with a multitude thagues. Five days having elapsed, Andres Dorantes and Alonzo del Castillo arrived with those who had been sent after them. They brought mor
g of our return, he immediately left that night and came to where we were. He wept with us, giving praises to God our Lord for having extended over us so great care. He comforted and entertained us hospitably. In behalf of the governor, Nuño de Guzman and himself, he tendered all that he had, and the service in his power. He showed much regret for the seizure, and the injustice we had received from Alcaraz and others. We were sure, had he been present, what was done to the Indians and to u Then the Captain made a covenant with God, not to invade nor consent to invasion, nor to enslave any of that country and people, to whom we had guaranteed safety; that this he would enforce and defend until your Majesty and the Governor Nuño de Guzman, or the Viceroy in your name, should direct what would be most for the service of God and your Highness. When the children had been baptized, we departed for the town of San Miguel. So soon as we arrived, April 1, 1536, came Indians, who to
hem, that they might return to their homes. To encourage them, we stayed there that night; the day after we marched and slept on the road. The following day those whom we had sent forward as messengers guided us to the place where they had seen Christians. We arrived in the afternoon, and saw at once that they told the truth. We perceived that the persons were mounted, by the stakes to which the horses had been tied. From this spot, called the river Petutan, to the river to which Diego de Guzman came, we heard of Christians, may be as many as 80 leagues; thence to the town where the rains overtook us, 12 leagues, and that is 12 leagues from the South sea. Throughout this region, wheresoever the mountains extend, we saw clear traces of gold and lead, iron, copper, and other metals. Where the settled habitations are, the climate is hot; even in January the weather is very warm. Thence toward the meridian, the country unoccupied to the North sea is unhappy and sterile. There
ined one day, and the next set out with these Indians. They took us to the settled habitations of and support, we remained two days with these Indians, who gave us beans and pumpkins for our subsices, and swords, and that they had lanced two Indians. In a manner of the utmost indifference we cour messengers, who told us they had found no Indians, that they were roving and hiding in the forethe next morning I took the negro with eleven Indians, and, following the Christians by their trailrangely habited as I was, and in company with Indians. They stood staring at me a length of time, had not been able in a long time to take any Indians; he knew not which way to turn, and his men hh us and delivered us into the hands of other Indians, as had been the custom; for, if they returne more or less, and reached a town of friendly Indians. The Alcalde left us there, and went on 3 le. So soon as we arrived, April 1, 1536, came Indians, who told us many people had come down from
sun went down. They are a people of good condition and substance, capable in any pursuit. In the town where the emeralds were presented to us the people gave Dorantes over six hundred open hearts of deer. They ever keep a good supply of them for food, and we called the place Pueblo de los Corazones. It is the entrance into m able in a long time to take any Indians; he knew not which way to turn, and his men had well begun to experience hunger and fatigue. I told him of Castillo and Dorantes, who were behind, 10 leagues off, with a multitude that conducted us. He thereupon sent three cavalry to them, with fifty of the Indians who accompanied him. The river to the town of the Christians, named San Miguel, within the government of the province called New Galicia, are 30 leagues. Five days having elapsed, Andres Dorantes and Alonzo del Castillo arrived with those who had been sent after them. They brought more than six hundred persons of that community, whom the Christians ha
ere we got water the second night, until the noon of next day. We travelled 25 leagues, little more or less, and reached a town of friendly Indians. The Alcalde left us there, and went on 3 leagues farther to a town called Culiacan where was Melchior Diaz, principal Alcalde and Captain of the Province. The Alcalde Mayor knew of the expedition, and, hearing of our return, he immediately left that night and came to where we were. He wept with us, giving praises to God our Lord for having extidges, who brought with them fifteen men, and presented us beads, turquoises, and feathers. The messengers said they had not found the people of the river where we appeared, the Christians having again made them run away into the mountains. Melchior Diaz told the interpreter to speak to the natives for us; to say to them we came in the name of God, who is in heaven; that we had travelled about the world many years, telling all the people we found that they should believe in God and serve him;
so far had drawn them out, and given them to the Christians, who thereupon dismissed all the others they had brought with them. Upon their coming to where I was, Alcaraz begged that we would summon the people of the towns on the margin of the river, who straggled about under cover of the woods, and order them to fetch us somethingo de Guzman and himself, he tendered all that he had, and the service in his power. He showed much regret for the seizure, and the injustice we had received from Alcaraz and others. We were sure, had he been present, what was done to the Indians and to us would never have occurred. The night being passed, we set out the next d and crosses, doing all we had required. Each day we heard how these things were advancing to a full improvement. Fifteen days of our residence having passed, Alcaraz got back with the Christians from the incursion, and they related to the Captain the manner in which the Indians had come down and peopled the plain; that the tow
var Nuñez 1490-1560 Spanish official and author; born in Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, probably in 1490. In 1528 he accompanied the expedition of Narvaez to Florida in the capacity of comptroller and royal treasurer, and he and three others were all of a party who escaped from shipwreck and the natives. These four lived for several years among the Indians, and, escaping, made their way to the Spanish settlements in northern Mexico in the spring of 1536. In the following year Cabeza, de Vaca returned to Spain; in 1540 was appointed governor of Paraguay; in 1543 explored the upper Paraguay River, and in 1544 was deposed by the colonists and afterwards imprisoned and sent to Spain. After trial he was sentenced to be banished to Africa, but was subsequently recalled, granted many favors by the King, and was made judge of the Supreme Court of Seville. He published two works, one relating to his experiences in Florida, and the other to his administration in Paraguay, both of which
Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nuñez 1490-1560 Spanish official and author; born in Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, probably in 1490. In 1528 he accompanied the expedition of Narvaez to Florida in the capacity of comptroller and royal treasurer, and he and three others were all of a party who escaped from shipwreck and the natives. These four lived for several years among the Indians, and, escaping, made their way to the Spanish settlements in northern Mexico in the spring of 1536. In the following year Cabeza, de Vaca returned to Spain; in 1540 was appointed governor of Paraguay; in 1543 explored the upper Paraguay River, and in 1544 was deposed by the colonists and afterwards imprisoned and sent to Spain. After trial he was sentenced to be banished to Africa, but was subsequently recalled, granted many favors by the King, and was made judge of the Supreme Court of Seville. He published two works, one relating to his experiences in Florida, and the other to his administration in Para
reasurer, and he and three others were all of a party who escaped from shipwreck and the natives. These four lived for several years among the Indians, and, escaping, made their way to the Spanish settlements in northern Mexico in the spring of 1536. In the following year Cabeza, de Vaca returned to Spain; in 1540 was appointed governor of Paraguay; in 1543 explored the upper Paraguay River, and in 1544 was deposed by the colonists and afterwards imprisoned and sent to Spain. After trial heh of which are of considerable historical value, and have been published in various languages. He died in Seville, some time after 1560. The journey through New Mexico. The following is his narrative of his journey through New Mexico in 1535-36, from his Relation: We told these people that we desired to go where the sun sets; and they said inhabitants in that direction were remote. We commanded them to send and make known our coming; but they strove to excuse themselves the best they
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