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ion of local magnetic forces. It begins in latitude 60° south, below Australia; crosses that island, extends through the Eastern Archipelago with a double sinuosity so as to cross the equator three times; first passing north of it to the east of Borneo, returns, passing south between Sumatra and Borneo, and crossing the equator again south of Ceylon, from whence it passes to the east through the Yellow Sea. It then stretches along the coast of China, making a semicircular sweep to the west tilBorneo, and crossing the equator again south of Ceylon, from whence it passes to the east through the Yellow Sea. It then stretches along the coast of China, making a semicircular sweep to the west till it reaches the latitude of 71° north, when it deseends again to the south, and returns north with a great semicircular bend which terminates in the White Sea. Captain Sir James Ross reached the magnetic pole, latitude 70° 5′ 17″ north, and longitude 96° 46′ 45″ west, on the 1st of June, 1831. The amount of dip was 89° 59′. Horizontal needles refused to work, showing no sensitiveness. He erected a cairn of limestone rocks, inclosing a tin case with the record. The cairn may remain
Barker's Mill (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
a softened steel roller placed in apposition to the said die. The soft roller has the design in cameo, is hardened, and forms a mill, which is capable of delivering an intaglio impression upon a plate or roller, as above stated. The process was invented by Jacob Perkins, and adapted to engraving cylinders for calico-printing by Locket of Manchester, England. See under the following heads: — Amalgamator.Oil-cake mill. Arrastra.Oil-mill. Bait-mill.Ore-mill. Bark-mill.Paint-mill. Barker's mill.Pearl-barley machine. Barley-mill.Pearling-mill. Battery.Peat-machine. Bean-mill.Percussion-grinder. Bone-mill.Pestle. Boring-mill.Plaster-mill. Camp-mill.Polishing-machine. Cane-mill.Polishing-mill. Caoutchouc-mill.Porcelain-mill. Cement-mill.Porphyrization. Chilian mill.Post-mill. Chocolate-mill.Powder-mill. Cider-mill.Pug-mill. Clay-mill.Pulp-mill. Coal-breaker.Quartz-mill. Cocoa-mill.Quern. Coffee-huller.Rasping-mill. Coffee-mill.Revolving-pan mill. Corn-sheller.Ric
Cordoba (Spain) (search for this): chapter 13
tone and the North Star. Dante, about 1300, refers to the needle which points to the star. Marco Polo, the great traveler, was in the service of Kublai Khan, the conqueror of China, from 1274 to 1291, and was concerned in the introduction of the compass from China to Europe direct. It had previously arrived by the good old channel, India and Arabia; but Marco Polo did not know that, and his services can hardly be exaggerated. The Arabs sailed by the compass during the Khalifate of Cordova, which lasted till A. D. 1237, when it was subdued by the Moors. An authority states that it was known in Norway previous to 1266. Dr. Gilbert, physician to Queen Elizabeth, states that P. Venutus brought a compass direct from China in 1260. See Klaproth's work on this subject, Paris, 1834; Sir Snow Harris's Rudimentary magnetism ; the researches of Biot, Stanislaus Julien, etc. About 1320, Flavio Gioja, a pilot of Positano, not far from Amalfi in the Kingdom of Naples, was instru
Florence, S. C. (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
n India, to which, from some unknown cause, iron spontaneously attaches itself. When an iron needle is touched by the stone, it at once points towards the North Star; from whence it has become useful to those who navigate the seas. Latini of Florence, the preceptor of Dante, in a work published in Paris in 1260, entitled the Treasure, wrote thus:— When I was in England, Friar Bacon showed me a magnet,—an ugly black stone to which iron doth willingly cling. You rub a needle upon it; then. Boshes.Estufa process of extracting si. ver. Bottoms. Box-metalFagot. Brake-sieve.Fandon. Brass.Fauld. Brass-foil.Fetting. BrassingFiles. Tempering Brass-powder.Fining-pot. Brazing.Fixing. Bronzing.Float. Browning.Floran. Bucking.Florence leaf. Bucking-iron.Flosh. Buddle.Floss. Bull-dog.Floss-hole. Burdon.Flux. Burning.Foil. Burning-house.Foyer. Button.Framing. Cabbling.Frosted metal. Cadmium.Fulguration. Calamine.Furnace. Calcination.Fusible alloy. Calciner.Galvanizi
Pax Augusta (Spain) (search for this): chapter 13
trace of any accusation against the Florentine navigator. Columbus himself, a year before his death, speaks of Vespucci in terms of unqualified esteem; he calls him a very good man, worthy of all confidence, and always inclined to render me service. The same good — will toward Vespucci is displayed by Fernando Colon, who wrote the Life of his father in 1535 in Seville, four years before his death, and who, with Juan Vespucci, a nephew of Amerigo's, was present at the astronomical junta of Badajoz, and at the proceedings respecting the possession of the Moluccas. The confusion of dates in the numerous versions of Amerigo's voyages is not to be attributed to him, as he did not himself publish any of these accounts; such mistakes and confusion of figures are, moreover, of very frequent occurrence in writings published in the sixteenth century. The entire guiltlessness of the Florentine navigator, who never attempted to attach his name to the new continent, but the magniloquence
Louisiana (Louisiana, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
echanical finger, by which objects invisible to the naked eye are picked up on the point of a hair, separated according to kind, and arranged conveniently for observation. After the discovery of the theory of binocular vision by Wheatstone in 1838, and especially after the construction of the lenticular stereoscope by Sir David Brewster in 1852, the idea naturally occurred of applying this principle to microscopes. This was first effected by Professor J. L. Riddell of the University of Louisiana. He employed a pair of small rectangular prisms immediately behind the objectglass; these received the incident rays and reflected them through a second pair of similar prisms to the eye of the observer. This arrangement had the disadvantage of reversing the stereoscopic effect, projections appearing as depressions, and vice versa. The first arrangement for producing a correct stereoscopic effect was invented by Mr. Nachet, and consisted of an equilateral prism which divided the penci
Telford (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 13
M. Mac-ad′am-iz-ing. A mode of paving roads, introduced by Macadam, the metal or surface stone consisting of pieces of granite, whinstone, limestone, or hard freestone, according to the kind of rock which is accessible. Telford's rule, when two courses were used, was to make the lower one of blocks 7 inches in depth, laid by hand, broad end downward, and chinked with smaller stone. Over this, 7 inches of smaller stones were laid, no stone to weigh over 6 ounces, and all to pass through a metallic ring 2 1/2 inches in diameter. The stone is broken to uniform sizes, and several machines have been devised for this purpose. See stone-crusher. Ellis and Everard's stone-crushing mill has a strong feed-apron, composed of iron links and bars, which, passing around two wheels, delivers fragments of granite to a hopper which feeds them between two chilled-iron crushing-rollers; they then pass between a second pair of rollers which still farther reduce them in size. The ro
Braunschweig (Lower Saxony, Germany) (search for this): chapter 13
ther pieces of music, as far as any master shall be able to play them upon the organ, harpsichord, etc. (Phil. Tran., 1747.) Creed invented a machine for this purpose in England in 1747; Hennersdorf of Berlin, one in the following year. John Freke in England, Unger and Hohlfield in Prussia, worked at the idea. Unger formed a part of the harpsichord. The device of Hohlfield was attachable to any instrument. Descriptions were transmitted to the Academy of Berlin in 1752, and published in Brunswick in 1774. Mus′ket. (Fire-arms.) The fire-arm of the infantry soldier. It superseded the arquebus, on which it was an improvement. Formerly, smoothbore and muzzle-loading, modern progress has improved it into the rifled breech-loader of the present. See fire-arms. Mus′ket-oon. A short musket used by cavalry and artillery previous to the introduction of breechloaders. Mus′lin. (Fabric.) A bleached or unbleached thin white cotton cloth, unprinted and undyed; finer
Burma (Myanmar) (search for this): chapter 13
indication of a land across the Baltic. It should also be mentioned here that this map of Eratosthenes was merely a plane exemplification, and that he was fully aware of the spherical form of the earth. Aristotle had said, 100 years before, that it was possible that Spain and India were only separated by the sea. Eratosthenes said that only the extent of the Atlantic Ocean prevented sailing from Spain to India along the same parallel. In the map of Ptolemy, the land grows toward sunrise, Burmah with the peninsula of Malacca comes into view, with some traces of an eastern archipelago, and a country beyond India of unknown and undefined extent; so much land in this direction, indeed, that the sea is suppressed. Taprobane is still there, but the old geographer who put upon his map the interior lakes of Africa where Livingstone found them to be, would not take the sea for granted on the southern confines of Africa more than he would on the eastern regions of Asia. Africa assumes larg
Yorkshire (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 13
puteoli, now Pozzuoli, from whence the name pozzaolana, commonly known as Roman cement. This material consists of porous, half-concreted volcanic matter, which is mixed with lime or common mortar to give it the property of hardening under water. It is mentioned by Vitruvins and Pliny. The use of lime in England, as we gather from the accounts of Julius Caesar, was not known previous to the Roman conquest. The oldest limestone quarry in England was opened by the Romans at Tadeaster in Yorkshire, called Calcariae in the Roman itineraries. The quarry is still used. Stamp-mill Lime most commonly occurs in the state of carbonate, such as marble, calcareous spar, oolite, limestone, or chalk. Some limestones include in their composition so large a proportion of iron and clay as to enable them to form cements which have the property of hardening under water, and are called hydraulic limestones. The proportions of clay in vary in different quarries, and often in the same from 8
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