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United States (United States) (search for this): chapter 15
eus, who speak of it as a precious stone resembling a large fish's eye, and that expensive necklaces are made of them for the Persians, Medes, and all Asiatics. Theophrastus says: — They are engendered in the flesh of the oyster, just as measles are in pork. The oysters of Britain were highly esteemed by the epicures of the Roman Empire. Oys′ter-knife. A strongly stocked and thickbladed knife which is thrust between the shells of the bivalve, being a case of forcible entry. In America, the power of the mollusk is somewhat impaired by hammering upon the hinge, but in England the knife is driven between the shells without previously demoralizing the fortress. Oys′ter-o′pen-er. An invention of Napier, England. The bivalve is laid on a stake and a notch taken out of the edge of the valves by a lever knife. It is then placed edgewise between a pair of knives, which are forced together and separate the shells. Oys′ter-rake. One for raking up oysters from their
Brazil (Brazil) (search for this): chapter 15
le2,146 AustriaMeile (post)8,297 BadenStuden4,860 BelgiumKilometre1,093.63 BelgiumMeile2,132 BengalCoss2,000 BirmahDain4,277 BohemiaLeague (16 to 1°)7,587 BrazilLeague (18 to 1°)6,750 BremenMeile6,865 BrunswickMeile11,816 CalcuttaCoss2,160 CeylonMile1,760 ChinaLi608.5 DenmarkMul8,288 DresdenPost-meile7,432 EgyptFedf its not readily freezing. BirchBetula albaEuropeBark affords an oil by distillation. Used in the preparation of Russia leather. Brazil-nutBertholletia excelsaBrazilUsed for burning in lamps. ButtersTerm applied to the semi-solid greasy substances that exude from trees, as shea-butter, etc. Used for cooking and burning. Cacaes of this species of ash. Wax (Japan)Rhus succedaneaJapanA vegetable wax afforded by the fruit of the tree. Used in candle-making Wax (palm)Copernicia ceriferaBrazilWax obtained from the surface of the young leaves of the plant. Ceroxylon andicolaAndesWax obtained by scraping the trunk of the tree. Used with tallow to make
Jupiter (Florida, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
nace. As such castings are never very sound, it is a method not often employed of late years. Op′e-ra-glass. A binocular telescope of the kind invented by Galileo, and with which that philosopher first observed the planetary disks and Jupiter's four moons. This has a plano-concave or double-concave eyeglass, so that the image is not inverted and little light is lost, thus securing great distinctness. See lens. The object-glasses are now made achromatic, and are adjusted simul lens.) For telescopic purposes, a combination of lenses is required, — an objective and an eye-glass. This was invented about 1608 by Lippersheim and by Galileo. The latter turned it on the moon, and saw the shadows of the lunar mountains; on Jupiter, and discovered his satellites; on Saturn, and saw his bulging sides. He supposed the planet to be triple, as his telescope was not of sufficient power to define the ring. He afterward saw the phases of Venus and the spots on the sun. The refl
Fribourg (Switzerland) (search for this): chapter 15
rope. C is a machine which has a steam-engine mounted on the frame. A piston-rod from the trunk-cylinder connects with the long arm of a rocking lever which is pivoted between the toggles. Where large fragments of ore are to be crushed, as often happens in mining, a large crusher is sometimes introduced to break the rock into pieces of moderate size, which are then fed to smaller machines to complete the work. Crushers of this class are used in the Lake Superior copper-mines, and at Freiburg, Saxony. The jaws of Blake's crushers are usually faced with case-hardened blocks of iron, which can be turned over when worn, and cheaply replaced when this is necessary. The jaws usually have coarse vertical furrows, the elevation on one opposite the depressions of the other, to prevent the passage of long, slim pieces of rock; but plain jaws may be used. See also ore-mill. Ore-fur′nace. (Metallurgy.) A furnace for operating upon ores. The term is general, but the actual fu
Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
ty in obtaining competent drillers, so absurd was deemed the project of searching for a basin of oil beneath the surface. He then gave out that he was boring for a salt-well. He originated the practice of driving a tube to the rock, instead of excavating and cribbing. He drove a tube 32 feet, and then bored 37 1/2 feet. He tubed the well, and obtained by handpump 25 barrels per day for two years. It was difficult then to find use for so much. The first refiners were McKeown and Kier of Pittsburgh. Oil-wells are of various depths, but the mode of sinking them is substantially similar. They vary in depth from 100 to 1,100 feet. After a spot is decided upon, a derrick is built, having four diverging posts planted upon a base of about 12 feet square, and having a hight of 40 feet. So great interest has been felt in the subject, and so frequently has the matter been described in the magazines and journals of the day, that we do not deem it advisable to afford much space to the des
Tuscany (Italy) (search for this): chapter 15
le (post)7,432 SiamRoenung4,333 SpainLeague legal4,638 SpainLeague, common6,026.24 SpainMilla1,522 SwedenMile11,660 SwitzerlandMeile8,548 TurkeyBerri1,828 TuscanyMiglio1,809 VeniceMiglio1,900 O-don′ta-gra. A form of dental forceps. O-don′to-graph. (Gearing.) An instrument for marking or laying off the teeth but also by the relative proportions and decorative parts of their entablatures, as well as other minor features. They are known as the Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Composite. The Tuscan, so called, would, however, seem to be but a debased form of Doric, while the difference between the Corinthian and Composite is but slight, and not in favor of the latter, the copy. They may be divided into three classes, according to their capitals; those of the Doric and Tuscan consisting simply of an echinus and abacus, the shaft of the Doric column being fluted and having no base, while that of the Tuscan is plain and provided with a base. The capital<
Brooklyn (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
is close upon 9,000, and these range from 30 inches diameter down to the size of a straw, and from 40 feet in length down to 6 inches. Fig. 3427 illustrates an organ provided with the hydraulic blowing apparatus designed by G. W. Lascell, Brooklyn, N. Y. a is the cylinder, the piston-rod of which b is attached to the cross-head of a reciprocating frame c, by which the movable diaphragm d of the double-acting bellows is operated, alternately forcing the air through the pipes e e into the windis also a pipe organ in which the keys are moved by pins (staples) on a barrel moved by a crank, the arrangement of the pins being on a similar principle to that of a musical-box. Lascell's organ-blowing apparatus (Dr. Partridge's Church, Brooklyn, N. Y.). The electric organ is one in which the valves admitting air to the pipes are opened and closed by electro-magnetic action. The general arrangement is as follows:— Each key has a separate insulated wire, the circuit through which is
Bashan (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 15
feet). These were loaded with lead on the part inside of the rowlocks, so as to evenly balance. The scarcity of timber in Eastern lands had a great deal to do with the importance and peace of nations thereabouts. The possession of Lebanon and Bashan was not one of the least of the points in dispute between the two branches of the Macedonian Empire represented by the Seleucidae and the Ptolemies. These struggles fill up the time between the death of Alexander and the absorption of the couns, and form the history which was so remarkably portrayed in prophency by Daniel several hundred years before. See the 11th chapter of Daniel. While the fir-trees of Senir furnished the planks, and the cedars of Lebanon the masts, the oaks of Bashan contributed the oars of the famous galleys of Phoenicia. Being the great carriers of that day, and having direct dealings with Britain, India, Greece, Spain, Africa, and many ports whose names remain but whose localities are difficult to determi
Landsberg am Lech (Bavaria, Germany) (search for this): chapter 15
mpass is three octaves and one note. They are in two keys, C and B ♭. The alto ophicleides are in F and E ♭; their compass is the same as the bass; they are written on the F-clef, like horns. The double-bass ophicleides are in F and E ♭, a fifth below the bass ophicleides in C and B ♭. The bombardon is a low-pitched instrument without keys and with three cylinders. It differs but little from the ophicleide. Ophthal-mo-di-as-tim′e-ter. (Optics.) An instrument contrived by Landsberg, a Hanoverian optician, and thus named by him, for adjusting the optical axes of lenses to the axis of vision. It consists of two tubes with adjustable plane glasses, each divided by a central line. On looking through this instrument at a mirror, each eye views its own image, and the glasses are adjusted until the line on the glass as viewed in the mirror is caused to bisect the pupil of the eye. — Poggendorf Annalen, Vol. CX. p. 435. Ophthal-mom′e-ter. 1. (Surgical.) An
us measurements are mentioned under armil (which see). Hipparchus of Nicaeea in Bithynia, 162 B. C., laid down a map by the determination of the latitude and longitude of places. A degree was measured on the shores of the Red Sea by the Khalif al Maimoun, the son of Haroun al Raschid, about A. D. 820. The exact determination of the length of a degree was considered of so much importance that, in 1735, the Academy of Sciences of Paris dispatched two commissions, one to Peru, the other to Lapland. The latter party accomplished their mission and returned in 16 months; the former party, after contending with great hardships for 10 years, accomplished their mission, as Frenchmen in pursuit of an idea will do, if anybody can. Since the work of the French Academicians, measurements have been taken in India, France, England, Hanover, Lithmania, and Sweden. One curious discovery resulted, as stated by Sir John Herschel: — The earth is not exactly an ellipsoid of revolution. The e
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