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Massachusetts (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
ar upon her, they referred to the laws they had passed for the surrender of fugitive slaves—laws just in themselves, but unfortunately unconstitutional. The most zealous among them—who were also the most clear-sighted—followed the example of Massachusetts, who, since the 3d of January, had been busy in making military preparations. The outrage committed at Charleston against the national flag had caused a profound sensation throughout the great States of the West. The fate of the Union was iroops to make any defence with. On being advised of this state of things, the Northern States redoubled their activity in order to be in time to succor the capital, the loss of which would have been a disastrous check to the national cause. Massachusetts, always the most zealous, was the first in the field, and on the 17th she forwarded two regiments of volunteers from Boston to Washington Pennsylvania, although nearly one-half of her votes had been given for Mr. Breckinridge, followed this e<
Fort Pillow (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
he enlisted, not toleration, but the example of pillage. The rival of Quantrell, that brigand who boasted during the war that he had never suffered a single human being to live in whole counties of Missouri, he encouraged them to acts of cruelty which far exceeded all the outrages that have been charged against the Indians. We shall find him, therefore, always on the lookout for easy successes, and signalizing himself at last by a sinister exploit —the massacre of the negro garrison of Fort Pillow. He organized the band under his command into a corps of mounted infantry, in which every man was provided with a horse—less for the purpose of fighting than for executing rapid marches, at the end of which the men would dismount, take up their muskets, and carry the enemy's positions, thus suddenly attacked, at the point of the bayonet. He found these tactics the more successful that he was not ashamed—no more than the Indian—to beat a hasty retreat whenever he found his adversary on
Mexico (Mexico, Mexico) (search for this): chapter 4
olicy, it had conquered immense territories in the interest of servitude, sometimes in the wilderness, more frequently in Mexico or among the Northern settlements, and it already extended its hand towards Cuba and the isthmus of Nicaragua—positions sontinent, by disputing the territories recently opened to civilization with the settlers from the North, by wresting from Mexico some of her most valuable provinces; and they thought of further increasing the number of their States by seizing Cuba an all around the Gulf of Mexico, and to found a great power comprising, besides the cotton States, the greatest portion of Mexico and the Antilles. This devoted and unscrupulous organization was one of the principal instruments used by Southern intrie States likewise. To establish an effective blockade along a coast which extends from the Rio Grande on the frontier of Mexico to the mouth of the Potomac near Washington, was an immense undertaking; we shall see presently how the Federal fleet wen
Kansas (Kansas, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
ized army, who declared their intention of fighting on their own account. The independence they expected to find in this mode of warfare, the hope of plunder, and the attractions of an adventurous life drew into their ranks the most desperate characters. The remembrance of the Mexican brigands had remained in the South surrounded in a kind of romantic halo since the conquerors of Texas had fought them and adopted their customs; and the men who only a few years before had attempted to wrest Kansas by violence from the Northern settlers, in defiance of all laws, set an example, which was promptly followed, by organizing armed bands destined to become very popular in the South under the Spanish name of guerillas. It will be seen, as we have already stated, how much the Confederates deceived themselves in relying upon these irregular troops to render it impossible for their adversaries to occupy any portion of the territory they might conquer, and in believing that they would persevere i
Tybee Island (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
ons against the slightest opposition that might be offered on the part of the President; they had already seized all the Federal arsenals within their reach, and especially the forts which might be turned against them in the coming struggle. On the 3d of January the militia of Alabama occupied the Mount Vernon arsenal, and, without striking a blow, walked into Forts Morgan and Gaines, which their respective garrisons surrendered to them; on the same day, the Georgians took possession of Forts Pulaski and Jackson, and on the 6th the arsenals of Fayetteville and Chattahoochee fell into the hands of the authorities of North Carolina and Florida. A few militia troops of the latter State assembled at Pensacola; the commandant of the arsenal allowed himself to be captured by them on the 12th, but an energetic officer, Lieutenant Slemmer, was in command of Forts McRae and Pickens. Not being able to defend both with a handful of men, he followed the example of Anderson, eluded the vigila
Mobile, Ala. (Alabama, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
ns to be defended in case of war. These forts were national property. The most important were Fort Monroe in Virginia, on the borders of the Chesapeake; Fort Macon in North Carolina; Forts Moultrie and Sumter in the bay of Charleston, South Carolina; Fort Pulaski in Georgia, near Savannah; Forts Key West and Garden Key on two small islands at the extremity of Florida; Forts McRae and Pickens at the entrance of the bay of Pensacola in the same State; Forts Morgan and Gaines in front of Mobile, in Alabama; and Forts Jackson and St. Philip on the Mississippi, below New Orleans. The garrisons of these forts had been so much reduced that they were all liable to be captured by a sudden attack. The excitement in Congress was great. With the exception of the secession leaders, all parties were working sincerely to devise means for maintaining the Union. Committees were appointed for that purpose. The compromise measure which received the most serious consideration, and which seemed at
Richmond (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
vote of only eighty-eight to fifty-five. This act was of great importance to the Confederates, for Virginia alone brought more strength to their cause than the seven States which had given the signal of insurrection. It also promised to deliver into their hands the vast establishments which the Federal government possessed in Virginia—the Norfolk navy-yard and arsenal, the largest in the United States, the great armory at Harper's Ferry, and Fort Monroe, situated between the mouths of the James and York Rivers in Chesapeake Bay, and commanding all those inland waters. The Federal government had neglected to adopt the necessary precautions for the protection of those establishments against any sudden attack, or at least for saving the valuable materials they contained. It only thought of this on the 17th, when it was already too late to take any effective measures. The workshops and arsenal of Harper's Ferry, situated at the confluence of the Potomac and the Shenandoah, on a spot
Susquehanna River (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
e North in its defence. On the same day General Wool, who was in command of all the Federal troops west of the Mississippi, being without instructions from Washington, took the responsibility of forwarding to the capital, by passing round Baltimore, all the forces already organized he could dispose of. The way was opened by a Massachusetts general—Mr. Butler, one of the most distinguished men in the Democratic party; at the head of a few troops from his own State, he embarked on the Susquehanna River, proceeded down Chesapeake Bay, and came to anchor in front of Annapolis, which had been in possession of the rebels for three days. This little town was connected with Washington by a railway which made a junction with the main line south of Baltimore, thus rendering it easy to avoid the insurgent city. Again, on the same day—April 20—the volunteers raised by the State of Illinois occupied a position in the West highly important for future army operations—that of Cairo, a town sit
Michigan (Michigan, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
e several States, as shown by the tables published at the end of the war, at a time when the conscription necessitated a scrupulous examination of all the men enrolled. Neither climate nor latitude can explain why that average varied so strangely from one State to another, in the Middle as well as in the Northern and Western States; or why Pennsylvania and Kentucky, for instance, furnished the highest average, while, after the State of New York, those of the far West, such as Minnesota and Michigan, sent the smallest men to the army. This last result is all the more striking because in those new States, where the human race seems to develop with greater freedom, there exists a truly athletic population of lumbermen, living from generation to generation in the virgin forest, who, when formed into companies and at times into regiments, presented a line of perfect grenadiers that struck the officers of the British Guards with admiration. The reason is that alongside of them, in the sam
Fort Macon (North Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 4
pted to place the army once more on a respectable footing. Instead of this, it had been purposely weakened and nearly annihilated. The Federal government possessed a great number of fortifications along the coast—most of them constructed upon the plans of the French general Bernard—which commanded the ports and the most important positions to be defended in case of war. These forts were national property. The most important were Fort Monroe in Virginia, on the borders of the Chesapeake; Fort Macon in North Carolina; Forts Moultrie and Sumter in the bay of Charleston, South Carolina; Fort Pulaski in Georgia, near Savannah; Forts Key West and Garden Key on two small islands at the extremity of Florida; Forts McRae and Pickens at the entrance of the bay of Pensacola in the same State; Forts Morgan and Gaines in front of Mobile, in Alabama; and Forts Jackson and St. Philip on the Mississippi, below New Orleans. The garrisons of these forts had been so much reduced that they were all li
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