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June 12th (search for this): chapter 5
were confirmed by 1607 Henry IV.; the apostolic benediction of the Roman pontiff was solicited on families which exiled them- 1608 selves to evangelize infidels; Mary of Medici herself contributed money to support the missions, which the Marchioness de Guercheville protected; and by a com- 1610 pact with De Biencourt, the proprietary's son, the order of the Jesuits was enriched by an imposition on the fisheries and fur-trade. The arrival of Jesuit priests was signalized by con- 1611 June 12. versions among the natives. In the following year, De Biencourt and Father Biart explored the coast as far 1612 as the Kennebec, and ascended that river. The Canibas, Algonquins of the Abenaki nations, touched by the confiding humanity of the French, listened reverently to the message of redemption; and, already hostile towards the English who had visited their coast, the tribes between the Penobscot and the Kennebec became the allies of France, and were cherished as a barrier against d
re sent with five sayles the yeere before. Belknap makes a similar mistake, i. 178. from St. Mar 23. Malo the next spring after the date of his commission; he arrived at the scene of his former adventures, ascended the St. Lawrence, and, near the site of Quebec, built a fort for the security of his party; Chalmers, 82, places this event in 1545, without reason. but no considerable advances in geographical knowledge appear to have been made. The winter passed in sullenness and gloom. In June of the following year, he and his 1542 ships stole away and returned to France, just as Roberval arrived with a considerable reinforcement. Unsustained by Cartier, Roberval accomplished no more than a verification of previous discoveries. Remaining about a year in America, he abandoned his immense viceroy- Chap. I.} 1542. alty. Estates in Picardy were better than titles in Norimbega. His subjects must have been a sad company; during the winter, one was hanged for theft; several were pu
sperously opened? The court listened 1534. to the urgency of the friends of Cartier; Charlevoix, N. F. i. 9. a new commission was issued; three well-furnished ships were provided by the king; and some of the young nobility of France volunteered to join the new expedition. Solemn preparations were made for departure; religion prepared a splendid pageant, previous to the embarkation; the whole company, repairing to the cathedral, received absolution and the bishop's blessing. The 1535. May 19. adventurers were eager to cross the Atlantic; and the squadron sailed See the original account of the voyage in Hakluyt, III. 262—285 Compare Charlevoix, N. F. i. 8—15; Belknap's Am. Biog. i. 164—178. Purchas is less copious for the New World, full of hopes of discoveries and plans of colonization in the territory which now began to be known as New France. Hakluyt, III. 285 It was after a stormy voyage, that they arrived within sight of Newfoundland. Passing to the west of that<
colo- 1534 nizing the New World. James Cartier, a mariner of St. Malo, was selected to lead the expedition. See Cartier's account in Hakluyt. III. 250—262. Compare Charlevoix, N. F. L 8, 9; Purchas, I. 931; Ibid, IV. 1605; Belknap's Am. Biog. i 161—163. His several voyages are of great moment; for they had a permanent effect in guiding the attention of France to the region of the St. Lawrence. It was in April, that Aprl 20. the mariner, with two ships, left the harbor of St. Malo; May 10. and prosperous weather brought him in twenty days upon the coasts of Newfoundland. Having almost circumnavigated the island, he turned to the south, and, crossing the gulf, entered the bay, which he called Des Chaleurs, from the intense heats of midsummer. Finding-no passage to the west, he sailed along the July 12. coast, as far as the smaller inlet of Gaspe. There, upon a point of land, at the entrance of the haven, a lofty cross was raised, bearing a shield, with the lilies of France
Verrazzani remained for fifteen days. The natives were the goodliest people that he had found in the whole voyage. They were liberal and friendly; yet so ignorant, that, though instruments of steel and iron were often exhibited, they did not form a conception of their use, nor learn to covet their possession. Hakluyt, III. 361. Moulton's New York, i. 147, 148. Miller, in N. Y. Hist. Coll. i. 25. Belknap's Am. Biog. i. 33. Leaving the waters of Rhode Island, the persevering 1524 May 5. mariner sailed along the whole coast of New England to Nova Scotia, till he approached the latitude of fifty degrees. The natives of the more northern region were hostile and jealous; it was impossible to conciliate their confidence; they were willing to traffic, for they had learned the use of iron; but in their exchanges they demanded knives and weapons of steel. Perhaps this coast had been visited for slaves; its inhabitants had become wise enough to dread the vices of Europeans. In
r and the longitude of Cuba. As he sailed along the extensive coast, a gentle westerly current appeared to prevail in the northern sea. Such is the meagre account given by Sebastian Cabot, through his friend Peter Martyr, the historian of the ocean, of that great voyage which was undertaken by the authority of the most wise prince Henry the Seventh, and made known to England a country much larger than Christendom. Thus the year 1498 stands singularly famous in the annals of the sea. In May, Vasco de Gama reached Hindostan by way of the Cape of Good Hope; in Chap. I.} 1498. August, Columbus discovered the firm land of South 1498. America, and the river Oronoco, which seemed to him to flow from some large empire, or perhaps even from the terrestrial paradise itself; and in the summer, Cabot, the youngest of them all, made known to the world the coast line of the present United States, as far as the entrance to the Chesapeake. The fame of Columbus was soon embalmed in the poet
e Charlevoix, N. F. L 8, 9; Purchas, I. 931; Ibid, IV. 1605; Belknap's Am. Biog. i 161—163. His several voyages are of great moment; for they had a permanent effect in guiding the attention of France to the region of the St. Lawrence. It was in April, that Aprl 20. the mariner, with two ships, left the harbor of St. Malo; May 10. and prosperous weather brought him in twenty days upon the coasts of Newfoundland. Having almost circumnavigated the island, he turned to the south, and, crossingl he could discern land on either side. As he was unprepared to remain during the winter, it then Aug. 9. became necessary to return; the fleet weighed anchor for Europe, and, in less than thirty days, Holmes's Annals, i. 65. He returned in April. Not so. Compare Hakluyt, III. 261, or Belknap, i. 163. The excellent annalist rarely is in error, even in minute particulars. He merits the gratitude of every student of American history. Purchas, i. 931, edition of 1617, says,—Francis I. s
March 7th (search for this): chapter 5
o beyond Chap. I.} 1603. Montreal; a still wider monopoly of the fur-trade; the exclusive control of the soil, government, and trade; freedom of religion for Huguenot emigrants,—these were the privileges which the charter conceded. Idlers, and men without a profession, and all banished men, were doomed to lend him aid. A lucrative monopoly was added to the honors of territorial jurisdiction. Wealth and glory were alike expected. An expedition was prepared without delay, and left 1604. Mar. 7. the shores of France, not to return till a permanent French settlement should be made in America. All New France was now contained in two ships, which followed the well-known path to Nova Scotia. The summer glided away, while the emigrants trafficked with the natives and explored the coasts. The harbor called Annapolis after the conquest of Acadia by Queen Anne, an excellent harbor, though difficult of access possessing a small but navigable river, which abounded in fish, and is bordered
February 24th (search for this): chapter 5
France. His own narrative of the voyage is the earliest original account, now extant, of the coast of the United States. He advanced the knowledge of the country; and he gave to France some claim to an extensive territory, on the pretext of discovery. Chalmers's Annals, 512. Harris's Voyages, II. 348,349. The historians of maritime adventure agree, that 1525 Verrazzani again embarked upon an expedition, from which, it is usually added, he never returned. Did he Chap. I.} 1525 Feb. 24. sail once more under the auspices of France? Charlevoix, Nouv. Fr. i. 7, 8. When the monarch had just lost every thing but honor in the disastrous battle of Pavia, is it probable, that the impoverished government could have sent forth another expedition? Did he relinquish the service of France for that of England? It is hardly a safe conjecture, 1527 that he was murdered in an encounter with savages, while on a voyage of discovery, which Henry VIII. had favored. Memoir of S. Cab
him with such zeal that he could enlist for a new voyage as many as he pleased. A second time Columbus had brought back tidings from the land and isles which were still described as the outposts of India. It appeared to be demonstrated that ships might pass by the west into those rich eastern realms where, according to the popular belief, the earth teemed with spices, and imperial palaces glittered with pearls and rubies, with diamonds and gold. On the third day of the month 1498. of February next after his return, John Kaboto, Venician, accordingly obtained a power to take up ships for another voyage, at the rates fixed for those employed in the service of the king, and once more to set sail with as many companions as would go with Chap. I.} 1498. him of their own will. With this license every trace of John Cabot disappears. He may have died before the summer; but no one knows certainly the time or the place of his end, and it has not even been ascertained in what country t
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