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July 11th, 1863 AD (search for this): chapter 24
r, pestilence, and famine. McPherson made his Headquarters at the fine mansion of Dr. Balfour, on the corner of Crawford and Cherry Streets, whence he issued a stirring congratulatory address to his soldiers, and Grant returned to his modest tent in the distant cane-brake See page 616. Operations in Mississippi. for the night, the greatest conqueror of the war thus far. After they were duly paroled, and were supplied with three days rations, the vanquished soldiers were escorted July 11, 1863. across the Big Black River, and sent on their way rejoicing to Johnston at Jackson. The spoils of the great victory were more important in character and number than any that had yet been won during the war. General Grant thus stated the result of the operations of his army from Port Gibson to Vicksburg :--The result of this campaign has been the defeat of the enemy in five battles outside of Vicksburg; the occupation of Jackson, the capital of the State of Mississippi, and the cap
nsented to their taking from their own stores any amount of rations necessary, and cooking utensils for preparing them; also, thirty wagons (counting two two-horse or mule teams as one) for transportation. At three o'clock on the morning of the 4th, July, 1863. General Legget, quartered at Fort Hill, received Pemberton's reply to Grant, and immediately forwarded it to his chief's Headquarters by Captain W. J. White, of his staff. Colonel Bowers received it and read it to the General. Pembeport were true, and if so, asking for a cessation of hostilities, with a view to the consideration of terms for surrendering the position. Banks assured Gardner that he had an official dispatch from General Grant to that effect, dated on the 4th instant, but he refused his consent to a cessation of hostilities for the purpose named. Gardner then called a council of officers, composed of General Beale, Colonels Steadman, Miles, Lyle, and Shelby, and Lieutenant-Colonel M. J. Smith, when it was
he life-tissues of the beleaguered. Fourteen ounces of food had become the allowance for each person for twenty-four hours, and the flesh of mules had become a savory dish. This day, wrote a citizen of Vicksburg in his diary, under date of June 30, we heard of the first mule-meat being eaten. Some of the officers, disgusted with the salt junk, proposed to slaughter some of the fat mules as an experiment; as, if the siege last, we must soon come to that diet. The soup from it was quite re ones remained on the landward side; only twenty rounds to each man of the ammunition for small arms was left, and the garrison were beginning to subsist on mule-meat, and even fricasseed rats. The garrison's supply of meat gave out on the 30th of June, when Gardner ordered mules to be slain for food. Many of the men, as if in mockery of famine, caught rats and ate them, declaring that they were better than squirrels. --Narrative of a Confederate writer, dated Mobile, July 20, 1863. At the
May, 1863 AD (search for this): chapter 24
ult. Grant ordered the attack to be commenced at two o'clock in the afternoon of the 19th. May, 1863. It was begun by Sherman's corps, which was nearest the works on the northeastern side of the ions, and requested him to engage the batteries on the river front, on the night of the 21st, May, 1863. as a diversion, as he intended to storm their works on the land side with his entire army thelmost powerless to help. I am too weak to save Vicksburg, he wrote to Pemberton on the 29th, May, 1863. in reply to a dispatch that reached him. Can do no more than attempt to save you and your gar20. The troops with which Banks cross-ed the river at Bayou Sara formed a junction on the 23d May, 1863. with those which came up from Baton Rouge under Auger and Sherman, and the National line on tvelop it by a general assault. Orders were given accordingly, and on the morning of the 27th May, 1863. his artillery opened upon them with spirit, and continued firing during nearly the whole day.
June, 1863 AD (search for this): chapter 24
e last pound of beef; bacon, and flour — the last grain of corn, the last cow and hog, and horse and dog, shall have been consumed, and the last man shall have perished in the trenches, then, and only then, will I sell Vicksburg. On the 14th June, 1863. Johnston sent him word that all he could attempt to do was to save the garrison, and suggested, as a mode of extrication and conjunction, a simultaneous attack upon Grant's line at a given point by his own troops without, and Pemberton's withithing to save the beleaguered garrison, but in vain, for he could not. collect troops sufficient for the purpose, while Pemberton, still hoping for succor, fought on, and suffered with the heart-sickness of hope deferred. Finally, on the 21st June, 1863., he sent a messenger to Johnston, who had moved out from Canton as far as Vernon, near the Big Black, recommending him to move north of the railroad toward Vicksburg, to keep the attention of the Nationals attracted to that side, while the gar
July, 1863 AD (search for this): chapter 24
o their taking from their own stores any amount of rations necessary, and cooking utensils for preparing them; also, thirty wagons (counting two two-horse or mule teams as one) for transportation. At three o'clock on the morning of the 4th, July, 1863. General Legget, quartered at Fort Hill, received Pemberton's reply to Grant, and immediately forwarded it to his chief's Headquarters by Captain W. J. White, of his staff. Colonel Bowers received it and read it to the General. Pemberton acceand privates to receive the treatment due prisoners of war, and to retain their private property; the garrison to stack their arms and colors in submission on the following day. The surrender was duly completed early in the morning of the 9th, July, 1863. when six thousand four hundred and eight men, including four hundred and fifty-five officers, became prisoners of war, and the National troops took possession of the post. General Banks deputed General George L Andrews to receive the surren
July 4th, 1863 AD (search for this): chapter 24
nd, with the exception of the casualties on that vessel, he lost only six or seven men killed and wounded. Report of Admiral D. D. Porter, dated Black Hawk, July 4, 1863. The printing-press on board the flagship was employed for other than official business. To while away the tedious hours of the officers and men, a journal wment bore the inscription, To the Memory of the Surrender of Vicksburg, by Lieutenant-General J. G. Pemberton, to Major-General U. S. Grant, U. S. A., on the 4th of July, 1863. It was evident that no monument of stone could long endure the vandalism of relic-seekers, so the mutilated one was removed toward the close of 1866, andeneral Johnston mainly responsible for the result, and the immediate representatives of the Administration are said to blame him in unmeasured terms. The Fourth of July, 1863, marked the turning-point in the war, and thenceforth the star of the Republic was evidently in the ascendant. McPherson's Headquarters. Notwithstan
July 6th, 1863 AD (search for this): chapter 24
cClernand. He also made the diversion in his favor already mentioned, which, Grant said, resulted in the increase of our mortality list full fifty per cent., without advancing our position or giving us other advantages. See Grant's Report, July 6, 1863. Two hours later, McClernand informed Grant that he had lost no ground; that some of his men were in two of the forts, which were commanded by the rifle-pits in the rear, and that he was hard pressed. He had really gained no substantial advanmissing. Of the wounded, he said, many were but slightly wounded, and continued on duty; many more required but a few days or weeks for their recovery. Not more than one-half of the wounded were permanently disabled. --General Grant's Report, July 6, 1863. The 37,000 prisoners were not all captured at Vicksburg. The number there paroled, including 6,000 of the sick and wounded in the hospitals, was 27,000, of whom only 11000 were reported fit for duty. The generous terms of surrender, and
July 7th, 1863 AD (search for this): chapter 24
an squirrels. --Narrative of a Confederate writer, dated Mobile, July 20, 1863. At the same time, Banks had nearly completed a mine, by which thirty barrels of gunpowder would have been exploded under the citadel. The beleaguered garrison could have held out but a few days longer. Their gallant leader had begun to despair of aid from Johnston, and was at his wit's end, when he and his troops were suddenly startled by the thunder of cannon and loud cheering along the whole National line July 7, 1863. and upon the river squadron, followed by the shouts of pickets--Vicksburg has surrendered! This was the knell to Gardner's hopes. At midnight he sent a note by a flag to General Banks, inquiring if the report were true, and if so, asking for a cessation of hostilities, with a view to the consideration of terms for surrendering the position. Banks assured Gardner that he had an official dispatch from General Grant to that effect, dated on the 4th instant, but he refused his consent to
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