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of Leyden, Descartes (1596 – 1650), and Leibnitz (1646 – 1716) stated the doctrine of refraction more or less fully; and Grimaldi, an Italian painter, demonstrated the ellipticity of the sun's image after refraction through a prism; Newton (1642 – 1727) determined that it was owing to the difference in the refrangibility of the respective portions of the rays. Newton supposed that refraction and dispersion were indissolubly united, but Dollond demonstrated that by using two different kinds ofazing wood, which was burnt in the lantern in a cresset. Coal was afterwards substituted. The smoke rose through an opening 18 inches in diameter in the dome of the lantern, passed into a finial chamber above, and escaped by side openings. In 1727, the lantern was destroyed, and an iron one substituted by M. Betri. In 1780, the catoptric system of lighting was introduced by Borda, an Argand burner being placed in the focus of a parabolic mirror formed of copper plated with silver. The f<
of the lapidary. See lapidary-wheel; lap. Lap′i-da-ry-wheel. The art of diamond-cutting was probably known in China and India at an early day, but the stone was little known among the ancients of Europe and Western Asia. Other varieties of stones were mounted and used in great numbers. Pliny refers to gem-cutting: How many hands are worn down that one little joint of our finger may be ornamented. The Arabians brought the diamond into notice. The discovery of the Brazilian mines in 1730 made it more common. Berghen of Bruges furnished the lapidaries' wheel with diamond-dust, enabling him to cut diamonds, as other stones were cut by the emery previously used. Diamonds were previously set in the rough. They are now cut into brilliants or rose-diamonds. See brilliant; diamond. The plano-convex lens of rock-crystal found at Nimroud by Layard showed the marks of the lapidary's wheel. The seals of this wonderful nation required the lap to reduce them to form. They were of
receives its light through a glass partition between the two chambers. Lights. (Pyrotechnics.) Pieces formed by pressing an inflammable composition, which burns with a white or colored light, into cases of large diameter or shallow vessels; such are Bengal — lights, bluelights, etc. Light-ship. A vessel moored in the vicinity of a dangerous shoal or headland, and carrying aloft a warning light. The first light-vessel moored on the coast of Great Britain was that at the Nore in 1734. There were, in 1850, 26 floating lights on the coast of England. Stevenson states that the annual expense of maintaining a floating light, including the wages and victualing of the crew, who are eleven in number, is, on an average, £ 1,000; and the first cost of such a vessel, fitted complete with lantern and lighting apparatus, anchors, cables, etc., is nearly £ 5,000. The lanterns are octagonal in form, 5 feet 6 inches in diameter; and, where fixed lights are exhibited, they are fitted<
s on board ship. See lanyard. Lan′tern. 1. A case with transparent sides or panes for holding and protecting a luminous body. Lanterns. The hand-lantern (a), arm-lantern (b), breast-lantern (c), are named from the modes of carrying them. They are known on board ship by their position or duty; as, poop-lantern, powderroom lantern, etc. Perhaps the original lantern is to be found in some varieties of fireflies, in which the phosphorescent light, like Alfred's lantern (A. D. 890), is protected by a horny covering. The ordinary American firefly and the glowworm have integuments over their little bunches of brilliancy. Some species of nocturnal moths sail through the dark oceans of night, carrying lanterns at their prows in the shape of eyes, which, black or brown by day, become glowing sparks in the gloom. It may not be entirely out of place to class some of these natural lights among the electric lights. Some of them are intermittent, and we suppose them to b
thread, though fine, was composed of 360 other threads, all distinct. It was handsomely embroidered. The tomb of Rameses III. at Thebes showed a similar corselet, worked with figures of animals. Pliny notices the corselet of Amasis, shown in the temple of Minerva at Rhodes. See flax. It was first manufactured in England by Flemish weavers, under the protection of Henry III., 1253. Before this, woolen shirts were generally worn. A company of linen-weavers was established in London, 1368. The Presbyterians, who left persecution in Scotland in the time of the Stuarts, planted the linen manufacture in the North of Ireland, and were encouraged by William III. and succeeding governments. Lin′en Paper. As with paper of cotton, bamboo, morus bark, and silk, it appears that the first manufacture of linen paper was in China. The Egyptians excelled in fine linen in very early times. About 1500 B. C., the Israelites left Egypt with stores of linen; and five hundred years af
cloth, palm leaves, bark, etc. The use of parchment was not yet, if we may credit the assertion that it was invented by the king of Pergamus as a substitute for the papyrus, on which an embargo was laid by the reigning Ptolemy, whoever he was. The use of linen paper in Europe appears to have originated in Germany, about the eleventh or twelfth century, the exact date being undeterminable. We read of a German paper-mill at Nuremberg in 1390, one in England in 1343, in France, 1314, Italy, 1367. Linen paper, however, is yet preserved, containing documents of much older date. John Tate had a mill at Stevenage, England, in 1496, but the manufacture was much increased by Spielman in 1588. This person was a German jeweler, and established a paper-mill at Deptford during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Whatman's mill was established at Maidstone in 1770. The name is yet a famous brand. Linen-Prover. Lin′en-prov′er. A small microscope for counting the threads in linen f
ritten on waxed tablets, linen cloth, palm leaves, bark, etc. The use of parchment was not yet, if we may credit the assertion that it was invented by the king of Pergamus as a substitute for the papyrus, on which an embargo was laid by the reigning Ptolemy, whoever he was. The use of linen paper in Europe appears to have originated in Germany, about the eleventh or twelfth century, the exact date being undeterminable. We read of a German paper-mill at Nuremberg in 1390, one in England in 1343, in France, 1314, Italy, 1367. Linen paper, however, is yet preserved, containing documents of much older date. John Tate had a mill at Stevenage, England, in 1496, but the manufacture was much increased by Spielman in 1588. This person was a German jeweler, and established a paper-mill at Deptford during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Whatman's mill was established at Maidstone in 1770. The name is yet a famous brand. Linen-Prover. Lin′en-prov′er. A small microscope for c
outer coating with the earth, the former acquires a positive and the latter a negative charge. On connecting them together, by means of a metallic discharger with nonconducting handles, as shown at b, a spark is obtained. c is a battery formed by connecting together in series all the outer and all the inner surfaces of several jars, so that the united force of the whole is concentrated in the act of discharging. The principle of the Leyden-jar was discovered by Muschenbroeck at Leyden in 1745, hence its name. Von Kleist in Germany made the same discovery in the same year. Gralath in Germany, 1746, contrived the electric battery by combining a series of jars; and finally Drs. Watson and Bevis, by covering the outside of the jar with tinfoil, brought it to the complete state in which we now have it. The Leyden-jar is a condenser, its two coatings of tinfoil performing the parts of a collecting plate and a condensing plate. Li-bel′la. 1. A small balance. 2. A level (w
them together, by means of a metallic discharger with nonconducting handles, as shown at b, a spark is obtained. c is a battery formed by connecting together in series all the outer and all the inner surfaces of several jars, so that the united force of the whole is concentrated in the act of discharging. The principle of the Leyden-jar was discovered by Muschenbroeck at Leyden in 1745, hence its name. Von Kleist in Germany made the same discovery in the same year. Gralath in Germany, 1746, contrived the electric battery by combining a series of jars; and finally Drs. Watson and Bevis, by covering the outside of the jar with tinfoil, brought it to the complete state in which we now have it. The Leyden-jar is a condenser, its two coatings of tinfoil performing the parts of a collecting plate and a condensing plate. Li-bel′la. 1. A small balance. 2. A level (which see). Lick′er-in. (Carding-machine.) A drum with cards on its periphery presented at the throat o<
s of Ghizeh and Sakkarah. The festival of Isis at Busiris was called the Feast of Lamps. The lamps had wicks floating in oil which rested on salt-water. They were used in the tabernacle and in the temple of the Jews. In Hero's Spiritalia, 150 B. C., is a description of a lamp (g) in which a supply of oil from a reservoir below is driven up by means of air introduced into the base by an air-pump. In another form of Hero's lamp, the oil is raised by water, introduced below the oil by meansf chambers at different levels, until it attains the proper consistency for molding. The mass is then divided into regular and equal prisms by means of a mold, and these are placed on drying-shelves until sufficiently dry for burning. Cato (150 B. C.) gave directions for forming a lime-kiln. He preferred a truncated cone, 10 feet in diameter at the bottom, 20 feet high, and 3 feet diameter at the top. The grate covered the whole bottom; there was a pit below for the ashes, and two furnace-
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