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lphabet were engraved on four parallel revolving rings, which by prearrangement on the part of the owner were made to spell a certain word, or number of words, before the lock could be opened. A French treatise, L'Art de Serrurier, published in 1767, contains many examples of the locks of that and former periods. It appears that, though the art had advanced as far as the invention of the single tumbler, yet the main dependence was placed on the complexity of the wards. Multiple bolts, shot f a set of locks. Such keys are adapted to locks having wards of the same general form. The period of the invention of tumbler-locks (E) is unknown. Some elaborate examples are exhibited in the French treatise before referred to, published in 1767. Locks. The tumbler is a lever or latch which falls into a notch of the bolt, and prevents it from being shot until the tumbler has been raised or released by the action of the key. A simple form is shown at E. The bolt has two square notche
g a greater conducting power than any other, but iron is the material usually employed. The alleged improvements since its invention by Dr. Franklin are innumerable; most of these are, however, worthless, or of a trifling and unimportant character. The first lightning-rod erected with a definite purpose of protection was put up by Benjamin Franklin soon after 1752, when he brought down electricity from a thunder-cloud. The first in England was set up at Payne's Hill, by Dr. Watson. In 1766 one was placed on the tower of St. Mark at Venice; it has since escaped injury, though previously it had been frequently struck by lightning. Great opposition was at first raised against the invention, and the charges of impiety were revived; but the centuries were exploding these notions, and Franklin held his ground. After the theory was admitted, a curious war arose. Knobs against points. Benjamin Franklin said points; but as he was a rebel, King George III. and his admirers of cours
e1829. Laced-stocking. A bandage support for varicose veins, weak legs, etc. Lace-mak′ing ma-chine′. Lace is a delicate kind of network composed of silk, flax, or cotton threads, twisted or plaited together. See lace. The meshes are of an hexagonal figure, in which thick threads are also interwoven to form the pattern, according to some design; and these threads, which are called gymp, form the ornament of the lace. The point-net frame was invented by Morris (England) in 1764, and is a variety of the stocking-frame, making a stitch or loop like that of a stocking, and formed by a continuance of one thread. The thread is by the machine formed into loops, a whole course at once, by pressing it down alternately over and under between a number of parallel needles. A second course is then made of similar loops on the same needles, and the loops of the first are drawn through those of the second in such a manner as to form meshes by retaining the first loops; the seco
ablets, linen cloth, palm leaves, bark, etc. The use of parchment was not yet, if we may credit the assertion that it was invented by the king of Pergamus as a substitute for the papyrus, on which an embargo was laid by the reigning Ptolemy, whoever he was. The use of linen paper in Europe appears to have originated in Germany, about the eleventh or twelfth century, the exact date being undeterminable. We read of a German paper-mill at Nuremberg in 1390, one in England in 1343, in France, 1314, Italy, 1367. Linen paper, however, is yet preserved, containing documents of much older date. John Tate had a mill at Stevenage, England, in 1496, but the manufacture was much increased by Spielman in 1588. This person was a German jeweler, and established a paper-mill at Deptford during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Whatman's mill was established at Maidstone in 1770. The name is yet a famous brand. Linen-Prover. Lin′en-prov′er. A small microscope for counting the threa
trings have, by this means, been made to yield twenty-four distinct tones. The lyre was, in fact, a small harp, and the hollow resonant portion became, in time, expanded into a chamber over which the strings were stretched in parallelism, forming a dulcimer, the immediate parent of the hammer group, — citole, clavichord, clavicytherium, virginal, spinet, harpsichord, piano (see piano). Another, and perhaps earlier, divergence of the instrument with strings in parallelism above a sounding-board is found in a portallo class, — the monochord, cithara, guitar, and a host of other instruments with names less widely known, such as theorbo, pandore, mandolin, etc. These instruments were played by the fingers or by a plectrum, and from them came out the class of instruments played by the bow, of which the viol is the head, and the others take their names as relatives, — violin, viola d'amour, violoncello, bass-viol. See Description des Instrumens Harmoniques, by Father Bonanni, Rome, 1776
eceive them when the ladder is folded. When the sidepieces are drawn apart, the rounds assume a horizontal position. A movable ladder is sometimes used in ascending and descending shafts. Two poles ascend and descend alternately, and have stages on to or from which the person steps from or to the corresponding step on the other pole, at the moment when they become stationary. See man-engine. Scaling-ladders are shown in the triumphal monuments of Rameses II., the great Sesostris, 1355 B. C. The first ladder of record was that seen by Jacob in his dream, and it is the longest and best of which we have any account. It is the only one mentioned in the Bible. 2. (Nautical.) The accommodation-ladder is a stairs slung at the gangway. The forecastle and hold ladders are at these respective places. The Jacob's-ladder abaft the top-gallant masts, where there are no ratlines at the shrouds. The quarter and stern ladders are for reaching or leaving the boats moored astern.
wrought and ornamented by machinery, comprising trimming laces of every description, veils, falls, scarfs, shawls, lappets, curtains, etc. The dates of some of the inventions connected with lace-making are as follows: — Bobbin-lace invented by Barbara Huttman of St. Annaberg, Germany1561. Pillow-lace making taught at Gt. Marlow, England1626. Strutt's machine for making open work stockings1758. Crane's Vandyke machine1758. Else and Harvey's pin machine1770. Frost's point-net machine1777. Dawson's point-net machine1791. Heathcoat's bobbin-net machine1801. Hill's plain ground net machine1816. Limerick lace made1829. Laced-stocking. A bandage support for varicose veins, weak legs, etc. Lace-mak′ing ma-chine′. Lace is a delicate kind of network composed of silk, flax, or cotton threads, twisted or plaited together. See lace. The meshes are of an hexagonal figure, in which thick threads are also interwoven to form the pattern, according to some design; and<
by the action of the key. A simple form is shown at E. The bolt has two square notches a a in its upper edge. Behind the bolt is the tumbler b, pivoted at one end, and having a projecting stump c at the other, which, in either position, locked or unlocked, falls into one of the notches of the bolt. The tumbler must first be lifted by the key, releasing the stump from the notch in the bolt before the key can act on the latter to turn it either way. Barron's tumbler-lock was patented in 1778. Its principle consisted in an arrangement to allow a stump on the tumbler to pass through an opening in the bolt, or a stump on the bolt to pass through an opening in the tumbler. The former arrangement is shown at F. This lock has two tumblers of unequal width, each having a stump or stud which, when the lock is in either a locked or unlocked position, rests in one of the notches represented in the bottom of the gating of the bolt. The web of the key has two unequal steps which, when t
between the lid and the lip of a jar, to prevent the access of air to the contents. See fruit-jar. 4. (Music.) A musical stringed instrument, played like a guitar, but having a pear-shaped form and a ribbed back. It is derived from the lyre. The old Egyptian lute is represented in many places in Egypt; one at Thebes has a long neck without frets, three strings, and a fiddle-shaped body. Ventura's lute. A lute shown on the signet-ring of Shoofoo, the Suphis of the Greeks (2325 B. C.), has a fretted neck. See the late Dr. Abbott's collection, New York. In Egypt we find the originals of most of the types of musical instruments. See harp; castanet; drum, etc. The lute consists of four parts: the table; the body, which has nine or ten sides; the neck, which has as many stops or divisions; and the head or cross, in which the screws for tuning it are inserted. The performer strikes the string with the fingers of the right hand, and regulates the sounds with those of
st consisted of tallow candles stuck in a hoop, and afterwards of twenty-four wax candles. The Argand lamp, invented in 1784, and bearing the name of its distinguished inventor, rendered a better light possible. See Argand. It was introduced or locks, both in England and this country, since Barron's time, have been very numerous. Brahmah's, patented in England, 1784, is shown at H. It has a central barrel a, having grooves in which are a number of sliders c c, whose ends rest against thr having a lock-chamber and gates. Loco-mo′tive. A self-moving, traveling steamengine. Watt's patents of 1769 and 1784 included the uses of steam-engines for running carriages on land, but he never made any such. A locomotive was made by de became effective. Its mode of coupling the power to the running-gear resembled, in some respects, his steamboat. In 1784, William Murdoch of Redruth, Cornwall, England, while in charge of the Boulton and Watt pumping-engine, made a locomotive
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