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clinching nails. Movable sole-last. Lasts are mentioned by Last-shaped anvil. the Greek authors. Right and left lasts were introduced in England about 1785. Last′age. (Nautical.) Ballast or lading in a ship. Last′er. A tool for stretching the upper leather over a last. See lasting-tool. Last-fin′ishet long, and capable of containing 24 men, would leave a buoyancy of 718 pounds for their support. Hydraulic press. Luken's life-boat, used in England about 1785, had projecting gunwales and double sides under them, serving as air-chambers, and air-tight chambers under the thwarts or rowers' seats. This arrangement increalebotomy. Galen recommends silk thread for tying bloodvessels in surgical operations. The ligation of the femoral artery was first performed by Hunter, about 1785. That of the external iliac by Abernethy, 1796. The internal iliac by Alexander Stevens, in 1812. The common iliac successfully by Dr. Valentine Mott, in
ities; and I will add Alhazen's name thereto, for he was the first to trace the curvilinear path of a ray of light through the air. Abu-r-Raihan was a native of Byrun in the valley of the Indus, and a friend of Avicenna, who lived with him at the Arabian academy in Charezm. His history of India belongs to the years 1030 – 32. Vitellio, a Pole, wrote a treatise on lenses about 1270. The magnifying power of segments of spheres was known by the Florentine Salvino degli Armati, who died 1317. To come down to later times, we find that spectacles were well known in the thirteenth century, and it is not known by whom they were invented. The invention has been credited to Roger Bacon (1250), and to Alexander de Spina (1280). Roger Bacon speaks in regard to the effect of lenses as familiar, and the remarks he makes belong to the second branch of the subject, which concerns the combinations of lenses to produce the compound microscope and the telescope. This invention consist
ng-rod. x, the crank. y, the side-frame, firmly secured to the bed-plate, and to strong flanges east on the cylinder. z, the guides in which the cross-head moves. Le′ver-es-cape′ment. The lever-escapement was invented by Mudge about 1780, and improved by Breguet of Paris and Roskell of Liverpool. In its first form, the end of the lever had a segment-rack which engaged a pinion on the arbor of the balance. The improved form consisted in substituting a fork for the rack, making wbstituted. The smoke rose through an opening 18 inches in diameter in the dome of the lantern, passed into a finial chamber above, and escaped by side openings. In 1727, the lantern was destroyed, and an iron one substituted by M. Betri. In 1780, the catoptric system of lighting was introduced by Borda, an Argand burner being placed in the focus of a parabolic mirror formed of copper plated with silver. The focal length was about 4 inches, the diameter of the outer edge 21 inches. The be
(Surgical.) A lever for raising a depressed portion of the skull. It belongs to the trephine case. Lev′ee. An embankment to restrain water, and of a magnitude such as those of the Mississippi, Ganges, Holland, Po, Thames, etc. The principal rivers noted for the periodical rising of their waters are the Nile, the Ganges, the Euphrates, and the Mississippi. Of these, the Nile, which flows from the mountains and lakes of Central Africa, begins to rise in June, and by the middle of August attains an elevation of 24 to 28 feet in the upper country, and less towards the mouth, the inundation flooding the cultivatable valley of Egypt. The Egyptian embankments are described by Herodotus and Strabo. The Ganges, flowing from the Himalayas, rises 32 feet from April to August, and creates a flood of 100 miles in width. The Euphrates, from Mount Ararat, rises 12 feet between March and June, and covers the Babylonian plains. The Mississippi rises with the melting of the snows, its
id still holds its place as the mirror of incantations. (See mirror.) As in water face answereth to face (Prov. XXVII. 19) was a comparison adapted to the comprehension of a people who had left Egypt and the arts behind them for a period of near 500 years. Mirrors to show the full length of the person were known in Greece and Rome. (Specula totis paria corporibus. — Seneca.) Pliny refers to glass mirrors with a backing of leaf-metal, made at Sidon. Looking-glasses were made in Venice, 1298, and in England at Lambeth, 1693. Bought a looking-glass by the Old Exchange, which costs me pound 5 5 s., — a very fair glass. — Pepys's Diary, 1664. Looking-glasses are silvered, as it is called, by the following process: A sheet of tin-foil is placed very smoothly on a table or stone, and the foil is then flooded with mercury. The glass is laid upon it in such a way as to expel air-bubbles, and heavy weights are laid on the glass. The weights press out the superfluous mercury, an<
June 5th, 1866 AD (search for this): chapter 12
ble the oxides of manganese. The salt commonly used in the exciting liquid is muriate of ammonia. The battery-cup is hermetically sealed for convenience of transportation. Patented August 23, 1867. Reissued February 17, 1874. 2. A plate of copper with wire attached is covered in the jar with powdered carbonate of copper; over this is placed a stratum of sand, in which is imbedded the zinc with wire attached. The whole is then saturated with a solution of chlorohydrate of ammonia. June 5, 1866. Reissued February 17, 1874. Lec′tern. (Architecture.) The reader's desk in a church. Ledge. 1. (Architecture.) A small molding, as the Doric drop-ledge. 2. (Joinery.) a. A piece against which something rests; as the batten on the back of a door, the fillet against which a door closes, etc. b. A shelf. 3. (Mining.) A stratum of metal-bearing rock. 4. (Shipbuilding.) A thwart-ship piece in the deck-framing. See shelf-piece. A support for the decks, p
and to the visible characteristics by which the mariner distinguishes one light from another when arriving off a coast, so as to ascertain his geographical position, and his bearings as to his port or course. In early times the light was a fire of burning wood. Such were the lights of the famous Pharos of Alexandria, and the Tour de Corduan at the mouth of the Garonne. In 1812, the Lizard Point light, Cornwall, England, was maintained with coal fires. The same may be said of the Isle of May light, Frith of Forth, Scotland, in 1816. This, in fact, was the usual light at that time in positions readily accessible. The Eddystone light first consisted of tallow candles stuck in a hoop, and afterwards of twenty-four wax candles. The Argand lamp, invented in 1784, and bearing the name of its distinguished inventor, rendered a better light possible. See Argand. It was introduced into the Tour de Corduan soon after its invention, and associated with paraboloid reflectors in a
silk cloth. Leva-tor. (Surgical.) A lever for raising a depressed portion of the skull. It belongs to the trephine case. Lev′ee. An embankment to restrain water, and of a magnitude such as those of the Mississippi, Ganges, Holland, Po, Thames, etc. The principal rivers noted for the periodical rising of their waters are the Nile, the Ganges, the Euphrates, and the Mississippi. Of these, the Nile, which flows from the mountains and lakes of Central Africa, begins to rise in June, and by the middle of August attains an elevation of 24 to 28 feet in the upper country, and less towards the mouth, the inundation flooding the cultivatable valley of Egypt. The Egyptian embankments are described by Herodotus and Strabo. The Ganges, flowing from the Himalayas, rises 32 feet from April to August, and creates a flood of 100 miles in width. The Euphrates, from Mount Ararat, rises 12 feet between March and June, and covers the Babylonian plains. The Mississippi rises with th
Germany1561. Pillow-lace making taught at Gt. Marlow, England1626. Strutt's machine for making open work stockings1758. Crane's Vandyke machine1758. Else and Harvey's pin machine1770. Frost's point-net machine1777. Dawson's point-net machine1791. Heathcoat's bobbin-net machine1801. Hill's plain ground net machine1816. Limerick lace made1829. Laced-stocking. A bandage support for varicose veins, weak legs, etc. Lace-mak′ing ma-chine′. Lace is a delicate kind of network comned. See duplex-lathe. The slide-rest is the invention of General Sir Samuel Bentham, and is the precursor and original of the planing-machine for metal. General Bentham is the inventor of the planing-machine for wood, patented in England in 1791. It seems to have been a reciprocating machine, acting after the manner of a hand-planer. He afterward invented the planingmachine with circular cutters. See planing-machine. Since the beginning of the century, numerous improvements in the
made by the lathe, and Condamine shows how a lathe may be made to turn all sorts of irregular figures by means of tracers moved over the surface of models and sculptures, medals, etc. Plumier's work enters extensively into the art of turning. Among other machines, he describes the slide-rest in combination with a planing-machine. This he calls an English invention. In addition to the citation of these authors, we may refer to a number of elaborate machines made by Sir Samuel Bentham, 1793, and Joseph Bramah, 1802. The machine invented by Brunel for making the groove around ship's blocks for the insertion of the ropes by which they are attached to the rigging has a revolving disk of brass with two cutters. It trav- erses around one side of the block, receiving its direction from a shaper placed parallel thereto, making the groove deeper at the ends than at the central part, where the sheave-pin is inserted. The parent of all recent machines of this kind is, however, the
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