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nsiderations. The conductors should be prolonged until reaching moist soil, or if this be impracticable should be carried, at a depth of two feet or more, to a distance of some 30 feet from the building, or connected with old chain conveyed to a similar distance; the trench in which it is laid being partially filled with carbonaceous matter. In regard to the area protected by a rod, a difference of opinion exists, and the matter cannot be considered as determined. The opinion of Leroy, 1788, was that it protected space around equal to three times the hight of the rod. The Academy of Sciences of Paris, 1823, opined that it protected a circular space whose radius is equal to the hight of the rod. This is the general opinion, but has no sufficient data for its foundation. It is, however, the basis of the American practice in putting up lightning-rods. Professor Henry, a high authority on the subject, recommends a rod of round iron about 1 inch in diameter, terminating in a sing
; and have a number of metallic wards which are adjusted by the pins on the key. A hole is cut through the door, and the hand and arm thrust through to insert the key. My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the door, and my bowels were moved for him. (Canticles v. 4.) That is the way the beloved let himself into the chamber. ,p>In the Book of Judges, chapter III. verses 23-25, it is stated that Ehud, going forth, locked the doors, and his servants took a key and opened them. This was 1336 B. C., and is the first mention of a key which could be taken out of the lock. A, Fig. 2980, shows one of these Oriental locks. The following is the description given in Eton's Survey of the Turkish Empire, published towards the close of the last century. It will answer as well for the present time:— The key goes into the back part of the bolt, and is composed of a square stick with five or six iron or wooden pins, about half an inch long, towards the end of it, placed at irregular dista
ho raised a cry of distress, thinking he had met the Evil One. This locomotive was exhibited before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1850, 66 years after its construction. Oliver Evans of Philadelphia obtained a patent in Maryland in 1787 for the exclusive right to make steam-wagons for roads and railways. The details of the invention are not known to the writer. His descendants in the third generation are yet inventing. He is entitled to the credit of first making the double-acof two men to work it. He secured his patent April 4, 1785. He then went for the first time to see how other people wove, and was astonished at the comparative clumsiness of his own contrivance. He went on improving, and took out his last patent 1787. He met with the trouble incident to great inventors, — an ignorant populace and rich pirates. He spent £ 30,000 in his endeavors to perfect his loom, and in 1808 received a Parliamentary grant of £ 10,000 for his great national services. On th
h a triblet or mandrel inserted, is then drawn through openings in steel plates of gradually decreasing diameter, which reduce it to the thickness required. When power is applied, the chain winds upon the drum and hauls a little carriage which runs on ways, and has a double claw to engage the head of the mandrel. The perforated steel plate or whirtle is held in a cross-bearer above the bench. This mode is shown at g. Fig. 2857, and is described in Wilkinson's specification, English patent, 1790. Instead of the plate, a series of rolls may be employed, gradually diminishing in size, successively reducing the diameter of its exterior, while the mandrel maintains the uniformity of its bore. The first machine for pressing lead-pipe was patented in England by Hague, in 1822. The melted lead was forced through a circular throat whose axis was occupied by a mandrel. The lead was driven through at such a rate that it solidified by exposure to cold surfaces. By another plan, the lea
ded. Two buoys like that described will displace 14 2/3 cubic feet of water, and if added to a boat 28 feet long, and capable of containing 24 men, would leave a buoyancy of 718 pounds for their support. Hydraulic press. Luken's life-boat, used in England about 1785, had projecting gunwales and double sides under them, serving as air-chambers, and air-tight chambers under the thwarts or rowers' seats. This arrangement increased the buoyancy and stability of the boat very much. In 1789, Mr. Greathead of South Shields invented his boat, which proved so successful that it is said that previous to 1804 nearly 300 lives had been saved through its instrumentality near the mouth of the Tynemouth Haven. This boat was about 30 feet in length by 10 in breadth, and 3 1/4 feet deep, having a great sheer from the waist to the ends, which were both sharp and rose with a high curve. The gunwale projected several inches, and the sides were cased and lined with cork, secured by sheet-c
enefelder discovered and developed to perfection a totally new method, in which the chemical constitution of the materials employed plays a vital part. The history of this invention, which occupied him three or four years, viz. from 1796 to about 1800, is interesting and instructive, but too lengthy for our space. It will be found fully given in his own work upon this subject, which has been translated into English. The invention was the result of earnest, persistent, and highly intelligenaving a piece of cotton cloth 25 inches wide, 29 yards long, and 11 picks per 1/4 inch, is estimated at 10 1/4 cents. One person can attend to two or three looms, and each loom produces 26 pieces of such cloth per day. On the old hand-loom of 1800, one man would attend to one loom, and would produce 4 pieces at an expense of 66 cents each. In plain cloths the warp and weft threads are of about equal fineness. Yarns of two different sizes introduced into the web produce a sort of stripin
scribes the slide-rest in combination with a planing-machine. This he calls an English invention. In addition to the citation of these authors, we may refer to a number of elaborate machines made by Sir Samuel Bentham, 1793, and Joseph Bramah, 1802. The machine invented by Brunel for making the groove around ship's blocks for the insertion of the ropes by which they are attached to the rigging has a revolving disk of brass with two cutters. It trav- erses around one side of the block, r connected by another rod with a crank, at the midlength of an axle which carried a fly-wheel and a pair of cog-wheels, which geared into other spur-wheels on the axle of the driving-wheels. The engine was run upon a railway at Merthyr-Tydvil, in 1802, and drew ten tons in addition to its own load at the rate of five miles per hour. Vivian was associated with Trevethick in the patent. It was high-pressure, non-condensing, and exhausted into the chimney. It may be considered the first locomot
rrounded by a sea-wall, and was on the right hand of the harborentrance, opposite the promontory of Lochias, on which was the royal palace. Fires were kept lighted on the summit, and it was inscribed, King Ptolemy to the gods, the saviors, for the benefit of sailors. Sostratus carved his own name beneath and filled it with mortar, upon which Ptolemy's name was inscribed. In process of time the mortar scaled off and brought the name of the architect to the surface. The tower fell A. D. 1303. Other ancient lighthouses were situated at Messina, Ostea, Ravenna, Puteoli, Caprea, Rhodes, Dover, the Thracian Bosphorus. The light in each was obtained by fires. During the Saxon rule in England, beacons were erected to direct navigation, and persons were appointed to keep them in order. The expense was defrayed by the county. Pitch boxes were made use of in the reign of Edward III. Lighthouses. The Eddystone lighthouse (b) is erected upon a rock of that name ten miles from
Harvey's pin machine1770. Frost's point-net machine1777. Dawson's point-net machine1791. Heathcoat's bobbin-net machine1801. Hill's plain ground net machine1816. Limerick lace made1829. Laced-stocking. A bandage support for varicose veia. The compass-joint for the knee, and the ball-andsocket joint for the ankle, are described in Pott's English patent, 1801. Fig. 2894 is an artificial leg adapted for leg amputation at the upper third, where the knee rests in a cushioned sockyet inventing. He is entitled to the credit of first making the double-acting high-pressure steam-engine a success. In 1801, he built a floating dredging-machine, to which he fitted wheels connected with the engine, and conveyed it 1 1/2 miles toe art of figureweaving. Joseph Maria Jacquard was born at Lyons, 1752; invented his loom for weaving figured fabrics in 1801; and died at Orleans in 1834. The action of the Jacquard in producing patterns upon fabric may be briefly described as
ur. c. The bandage used for phlebotomy. Galen recommends silk thread for tying bloodvessels in surgical operations. The ligation of the femoral artery was first performed by Hunter, about 1785. That of the external iliac by Abernethy, 1796. The internal iliac by Alexander Stevens, in 1812. The common iliac successfully by Dr. Valentine Mott, in 1827. The common carotid by Sir Astley Cooper (successfully), in 1808. The innominata by Mott in 1818, and successfully by Dr. Jondition. Senefelder discovered and developed to perfection a totally new method, in which the chemical constitution of the materials employed plays a vital part. The history of this invention, which occupied him three or four years, viz. from 1796 to about 1800, is interesting and instructive, but too lengthy for our space. It will be found fully given in his own work upon this subject, which has been translated into English. The invention was the result of earnest, persistent, and hig
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