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Franklin Mills, Portage County, Ohio (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 12
his patent April 4, 1785. He then went for the first time to see how other people wove, and was astonished at the comparative clumsiness of his own contrivance. He went on improving, and took out his last patent 1787. He met with the trouble incident to great inventors, — an ignorant populace and rich pirates. He spent £ 30,000 in his endeavors to perfect his loom, and in 1808 received a Parliamentary grant of £ 10,000 for his great national services. On this sum he retired to a farm in Kent, and spent his declining years in comfort, occaionally trotting out his hobbies. He died in 1823, aged 80. Steam was applied to his looms in 1807. Fig. 2998 shows the working parts of a powerloom, the framing being omitted. The warp a is wound upon the warp-beam b, and, passing over the roller c, is carried through the two healds d d, which alternately raise and lower the two sets of warp-threads, forming the shed for the passage of the shuttle. The shuttle is driven along the shut
Mare Cantabricum (search for this): chapter 12
ant rivers of France. This tower is 182 1/2 English feet in hight, and is built in the Ornante Renaissance style of the period. It was commenced under the reign of Henry II., in 1584, and finished in that of Henry IV., in 1610. The architect was Louis Le Foix. The commercial city of Bordeaux is situated upon the river 70 miles from its mouth, and at the time the lighthouse was built it had another special value, as it was a part of the projected chain of watercourses connecting the Bay of Biscay with the Mediterranean. This was effected shortly afterward by the canal of Languedoc, which is 150 miles in length, and unites the Garonne with the Mediterranean. The island rock on which the tower is built is dry only at low water, at which time a surface of 1,500 x 3,000 feet of rock is exposed. Upon this the circular base of the tower is founded, being 135 feet in diameter, and built up solid, except a cistern for fresh water and an opening for the stairs, which commences at hig
Languedoc (France) (search for this): chapter 12
rnante Renaissance style of the period. It was commenced under the reign of Henry II., in 1584, and finished in that of Henry IV., in 1610. The architect was Louis Le Foix. The commercial city of Bordeaux is situated upon the river 70 miles from its mouth, and at the time the lighthouse was built it had another special value, as it was a part of the projected chain of watercourses connecting the Bay of Biscay with the Mediterranean. This was effected shortly afterward by the canal of Languedoc, which is 150 miles in length, and unites the Garonne with the Mediterranean. The island rock on which the tower is built is dry only at low water, at which time a surface of 1,500 x 3,000 feet of rock is exposed. Upon this the circular base of the tower is founded, being 135 feet in diameter, and built up solid, except a cistern for fresh water and an opening for the stairs, which commences at high-water mark. The opening is closed by heavy doors, and is reached by a fixed ladder fro
Viviers (France) (search for this): chapter 12
ountry will make special provision for avoiding the danger. Professor Arago classed several well-known sites according to the frequency of their storms, from the best information he could obtain. His list begins as follows: — Days of Thunder per Year. 1. Calcutta averages60 2. Patna (India) supposed to average53 3. Rio Janeiro averages50.6 4. Maryland (U. S.) supposed to average41 5. Martinique averages39 6. Abyssinia supposed to average38 7. Guadaloupe averages37 8. Viviers (France) averages24.7 9. Quebec averages23.3 10. Buenos Ayres averages22.5 11. Denainvilliers (France) averages20.6 The lowest average he gives is that of Cairo in Egypt, three days of thunder per annum. That of Paris and most of the European cities is about fifteen days. He estimates the days of thunder at New York to be about the same. Lightning rods, points, and Attachements. Fig. 2954 exhibits some of the numerous variety of rods for which patents have been secured in the Un
Wiesbaden (Hesse, Germany) (search for this): chapter 12
The side-frames, axles, and other parts, 30 years. During this period, the total cost of repairs is estimated at $24,450 in American money, the original cost of the engine being $8,490. It therefore requires for repairs in eleven years a sum equal to its original cost. In this time it is estimated that an engine in average use has run 220,000 miles. See Clark's Recent practice on the locomotive ; Tredgold on Locomotive-engines, London, 1851; Heusinger and Clauss's Locomotive Maschine, Wiesbaden, 1858; Weissenborn's American Engineering, New York, 1861; The student's guide to the locomotive, London, 1849. The following figures, from the Railway Times, show the result of locomotive performance on the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis Railway, 397 miles, for the month of March, 1872, and may be interesting in this connection: — American locomotive (perspective view). Miles run by passenger trains53,222 Miles run by freight trains201,346 Miles run by other
Essex (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 12
their system of dikes. Walcheren is formed of ten islets united into one. At the middle of the fifteenth century, Goeree and Overflakkee consisted of separate islands, containing altogether about ten thousand acres. By means of above sixty successive advances of the dikes, they have been brought to compose a single island, whose area is not less than sixty thousand acres. The first dikes of Holland are attributed to the Romans. A levee 6,000 yards in length defends the Romney Marsh, Essex, England, from overflow by the sea. The levee was made during the occupancy of Britain by the Romans, and is kept in good order, 24,000 acres of rich land being thus obtained. The fresh water in the ditches passes off at the lowest state of the tide by three sluices. In Lincolnshire, England, 400,000 acres of feverand-ague breeding swamp-land have been transformed into fields of wheat, barley, and oats, and excellent meadows. See scoop-wheel. Lev′el. An instrument for indicating a hor
Little Mountain (Utah, United States) (search for this): chapter 12
e of copper, that metal having a greater conducting power than any other, but iron is the material usually employed. The alleged improvements since its invention by Dr. Franklin are innumerable; most of these are, however, worthless, or of a trifling and unimportant character. The first lightning-rod erected with a definite purpose of protection was put up by Benjamin Franklin soon after 1752, when he brought down electricity from a thunder-cloud. The first in England was set up at Payne's Hill, by Dr. Watson. In 1766 one was placed on the tower of St. Mark at Venice; it has since escaped injury, though previously it had been frequently struck by lightning. Great opposition was at first raised against the invention, and the charges of impiety were revived; but the centuries were exploding these notions, and Franklin held his ground. After the theory was admitted, a curious war arose. Knobs against points. Benjamin Franklin said points; but as he was a rebel, King George II
Buckingham (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 12
The manner of twisting determines the character of the net and its name, as whip-net, mail-net, pattern-net, drop-net, spider-net, balloon-net, Paris-net, bobbin-net. The classification of laces at the English exhibition of 1851 was as follows: — 1. Pillow-lace, the article or fabric being wholly made by hand (known as Valencieanes, Mechlia, Honiton, Buckingham); or Guipare made by the crochet-needle; and silk lace, called blande when white, and Chantilly, Pay, Grammont, and black Buckinghamshire, when black. 2. Lace, the ground being machine-wrought, the ornamentation made on the pillow and afterwards applied to the ground (known as Brussels, Honiton, or appliquee lace). 3. Machine-made net or quillings, wholly plain, whether warp or bobbin (known as bobbin-net, tulles, blondes, Cambraic, Mechlin, Malines, Brussels, Alencon, etc.). 4. Lace, the ground being wholly made by machine, partly ornamented by machine and partly by hand, or wholly ornamented by hand, whether ta
Dungeness (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 12
ifth, and sixth being respectively 15 feet 6 inches, 14 feet, and 12 feet 6 inches. The columns of the first series are of wrought-iron, forged tapering; those above are of hollow cast-iron, each series successively decreasing in diameter. The lantern is supported on a cylinder of boiler-iron resting on a platform at the top of the columns. Lighthouse at Trinity shoals. The following is a list of the electric lights in England and France, with the dates at which they were erected: Dungeness, January, 1862; Cape La Heve, France, South Light, December, 1863, North Light, November, 1866; Cape Grisnez, France, February, 1869; Souter Point, England, January, 1871; South Foreland, England, with two lights, January, 1872, in the first place in 1858 – 60 by Professor Holmes, and afterward England took the lead in this matter of the adaptation of electric illumination to lighthouse purposes. The Bishop rock light, Scilly Islands, the old Cassiterides of Herodotus, 145 feet high, co
London Bridge (North Dakota, United States) (search for this): chapter 12
D. 1236, and Henry III., about 1270, granted the citizens of London the liberty to convey water from the town of Tyburn to the city, by pipes made of lead. A leaden cistern, built round with stone, was erected in 1285. The length of lead-pipe then laid down, from Paddington to the Cross in Cheapside, was 1,096 rods. Cisterns and supply-pipes of lead were numerous in the fifteenth century. The art of casting them was invented by Rev. Robert Brooke, 1539. In 1582, the water-works of London Bridge were established by Peter Morice, and the water distributed by lead-pipes to certain parts of the city. In 1613, the New River, an open aqueduct 40 miles long, and having a fall of 3 inches to the mile, was finished by Sir Hugh Middleton, and the water was distributed by wooden mains and leaden branches. In 1804, cast-iron pipes were substituted for the wooden mains. Lead-pipe is made by casting, drawing, pressing, and rolling. It may be cast in lengths in an ordinary core-mold
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