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cracy, See the Preamble in Charters, &c. p. 33; in Martin, i. App. LXXI. are avowed as the sole motives for forming the fundamental constitutions of Carolina. The rights of the resident emigrants were less considered. The proprietaries, as sovereigns, constituted a close corporation of eight—a number which was never to be diminished or increased. The dignity was hereditary: in default of heirs, the survivors elected a successor Thus was formed an upper house, a diet of Starosts, Gillies' Arist. II. 248. self-elected and immortal. For purposes of settlement, the almost boundless territory was to be divided into counties, each containing four hundred and eighty thousand acres. The creation of two orders of nobility, of one landgrave or earl, of two caciques or barons for each county, preceded the distribution of lands into five equal parts, of which one remained the inalienable property of the proprietaries, and another formed the inalienable and indivisible estates of t
Chapter 13: Shaftesbury and Locke Legislate for Carolina. MEANTIME civilization had advanced at the south Chap. XIII.} and twin stars were emerging beyond the limits of Virginia. The country over which Soto had rambled in quest of gold, where Calvinists, befriended by Coligny, had sought a refuge, and where Raleigh had hoped to lay the foundations of colonial principalities, was beginning to submit to the culture of civilization. Massachusetts and Carolina were both colonized under proprietary charters, and of both the charters were subverted; but while the proprietaries of the former were emigrants themselves, united by the love of religious liberty, the proprietaries of the latter were a company of English courtiers, combined for the purpose of a vast speculation in lands. The government established in Massachusetts was essentially popular, and was the growth of the soil; the constitution of Carolina was invented in England. Massachusetts was originally colonized by a
Constantia (search for this): chapter 3
s of vicissitudes; and Shaftesbury, whose Chap XIII.} political career merits severe reprobation, has been charged with repeated derelictions. But men of great mental power, though they may often change the instruments which they employ, change their principles and their purposes rarely. The party connections of Shaftesbury were affected by the revolutions of the times; but he has been falsely charged with political inconsistency. He often changed his associates, never his purposes; Constantia, fide, vix parem alibi invenias, superiorem certe nullibi. Locke's Epitaph on Shaftesbury. Locke, IX. 281. alike the enemy to absolute monarchy and to democratic influence, he resolutely connected his own aggrandizement with the privileges and interests of British commerce, of Protestant religious liberty, and of the landed aristocracy of England. In the Long Parliament, Shaftesbury acted with the people against absolute power; but, while Vane adhered to the parliament from love of popu
Hening, i. 380, 381. These conditional grants seem not to have taken effect; yet the enterprise of Virginia did not flag; and Thomas Dew, 1656. Dec. once the speaker of the assembly, formed a plan for exploring the navigable rivers still further to the south, between Cape Hatteras and Cape Fear. Ibid. 422. How far this spirit of discovery led to immediate emigration, it is not possible to determine. The county of Nansemund had long abounded in non-conformists; Winthrop, II. 334. Johnson's Wonderw. Prov. B. III. c. XI. and it is certain the first settlements on Albemarle Sound were a result of spontaneous overflowings from Virginia. Perhaps a few vagrant families were planted within the limits of Carolina Williamson, i. 79, 91, and note on 93. Williamson cites no authorities. The accounts in the historians of North Carolina are confused. As far as I can learn, no memorials of the earliest settlers remain. I have no document older than 1663, and no exact account, w
e territory; and the historian Clarendon, the covetous though experienced minister, hated by the people, faithful only to the king; Pepys, i. 192, 366. Evelyn. Monk, so conspicuous in the restoration, and now ennobled as duke of Albemarle; Lord Craven, Life of Lord Keeper Guilford, 393. Pepys, i. 115. a brave Cavalier, an September, the colony had attracted the attention of the proprietaries, and Berkeley was commissioned to institute a government over the region, which, in honor of Monk, received the name that time has transferred to the bay. The plantations were chiefly on the northeast bank of the Chowan; and, as the mouth of that river is northerable instrument, which they fearlessly decreed should endure forever. As far as depended upon the proprietaries, the government was immediately organized; and Monk, duke of Albemarle, was constituted palatine. But the contrast between the magnificent model of a constitution and the humble settlements of Carolina, rendered th
twenty years, &c. Had Williamson for his opinion other grounds than this act, which, however, does not sustain his statement? He cites no authority. Exploring parties to the south not less than to the west, to Southern Virginia, or Carolina, Thurloe, II. 273, 274. Hening, i. 552. the early name, which had been retained in the days of Charles I. and of Cromwell, and which was renewed under Charles II., Compare Carolina, by T. A 1682, p. 3. continued to be encouraged by similar giants. Clayborne, Hening, i. 377. the early trader in Maryland, 1652 still cherished a fondness for discovery; and the sons of Governor Yeardley Thurloe, II. 273, 274. Letter of Francis Yeardley to John Farrar. wrote to England with exultation, that the northern country of Carolina had been explored by Virginians born. We are not left to conjecture, who of the inhabit- Chap. XIII.} ants of Nansemund of that day first traversed the intervening forests and came upon the rivers that flow into
Nathaniel Bacon (search for this): chapter 3
s but one avenue to success in American legislation— freedom from ancient prejudice. The truly great lawgivers in our colonies first became as little children. Bacon, Nov. Org. i. LXVIII. Intellectus ab idolis liberandus est, ut non alius sit aditus ad regnum, in scientiis, quam ad regnum coelcrum; in quod nisi sub persona, &cnifesto. The president nath denied a free election of an assembly. This, Williamson, i. 134, classes among weak and flimsy arguments. Why should an apologist for Bacon clamor against Culpepper? The events that followed prove the sincerity of this plea; for North Carolina was much infected with that passion for representative goveacquittal. Chalmers, 537, and documents. Martin, i. 170, 171. Williamson, i. 133. Chalmers, with great consistency, condemned Culpepper, just as he condemned Bacon and Jefferson, Hancock and John Adams. But Williamson has allowed himself to be confused by the judgments of royalists, and, vol. i. p. 135, calls the fathers of
James Colleton (search for this): chapter 3
n the governor. That affairs might be more firmly established, James Colleton, a brother of a proprietary, was appointed governor, with the rs between the contending parties were in no respect changed. When Colleton met the colonial 1686. Nov. parliament which had been elected befthe binding force of the constitutions; by a violent act of power, Colleton, like Cromwell in a similar instance in English history, excluded strife between the parties extended to all their relations. When Colleton endeavored to collect quit-rents, not Chap XIII.} 1687 only on cund his patrons, and entered on a career of absolute opposition. Colleton resolved on one last desperate effort, and, 1689 pretending dangeaw? The militia were the people, and there were no other troops. Colleton was in a more hopeless condition than ever; for the assembly belie1690 and Mary were proclaimed, a meeting of the representatives of South Carolina disfranchised Colleton, and banished him from the province.
Virginians (search for this): chapter 3
had been retained in the days of Charles I. and of Cromwell, and which was renewed under Charles II., Compare Carolina, by T. A 1682, p. 3. continued to be encouraged by similar giants. Clayborne, Hening, i. 377. the early trader in Maryland, 1652 still cherished a fondness for discovery; and the sons of Governor Yeardley Thurloe, II. 273, 274. Letter of Francis Yeardley to John Farrar. wrote to England with exultation, that the northern country of Carolina had been explored by Virginians born. We are not left to conjecture, who of the inhabit- Chap. XIII.} ants of Nansemund of that day first traversed the intervening forests and came upon the rivers that flow into Albemarle Sound. The company was led by Roger Green, and his services were rewarded by the 1653. July. grant of a thousand acres, while ten thousand acres were offered to any hundred persons who would plant on the banks of the Roanoke, or on the south side of the Chowan and its tributary streams. Hening,
Clayborne (search for this): chapter 3
nty years, &c. Had Williamson for his opinion other grounds than this act, which, however, does not sustain his statement? He cites no authority. Exploring parties to the south not less than to the west, to Southern Virginia, or Carolina, Thurloe, II. 273, 274. Hening, i. 552. the early name, which had been retained in the days of Charles I. and of Cromwell, and which was renewed under Charles II., Compare Carolina, by T. A 1682, p. 3. continued to be encouraged by similar giants. Clayborne, Hening, i. 377. the early trader in Maryland, 1652 still cherished a fondness for discovery; and the sons of Governor Yeardley Thurloe, II. 273, 274. Letter of Francis Yeardley to John Farrar. wrote to England with exultation, that the northern country of Carolina had been explored by Virginians born. We are not left to conjecture, who of the inhabit- Chap. XIII.} ants of Nansemund of that day first traversed the intervening forests and came upon the rivers that flow into Albe
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