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Oriental (Oklahoma, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
over the instep and around the ankle. Sandals were worn by the Jews, and most Oriental nations, as well as by the Greeks and Romans, but appear to have been to a gretinctly shoes. c is the common sandal of the people. The common sandal, in Oriental countries, is made of a piece of hide from the neck of a camel, and sometimes tei-Menephthah was discovered by Belzoni in a deep recess of a tomb. It is of Oriental alabaster, and is covered with some thousands of figures, evidently a funeral nded to Northern Africa, opposite to the coast of Sicily. Scim′i-ter. An Oriental form of saber. It is generally made much heavier toward the point than the s graindrill, with bowl for the seed, and a tube to lead it into the furrow. Oriental plows. b is the modern Turkish plow. c, the modern Arab plow. Seedicings, processions, grand entries, and receptions has always been an accepted Oriental device for gracing such occasions. The feast of the dedication was such among
Newfoundland (Canada) (search for this): chapter 19
o have been obtained by Captain Denham of H. M. S. Herald, off the river Plate; there can be little doubt, however, that when this amount of line had been run out the ship was miles to leeward of the sinker (a 9-pound lead), and no subsequent sounding in any part of the world leads us to infer that the ocean anywhere attains nearly this enormous depth. The latter cruise of the Dolphin and soundings subsequently made by other vessels established the existence of a plateau extending from Newfoundland to the coast of Ireland, having a nearly uniform depth of somewhat over 2,000 fathoms; upon this the transatlantic cables have been laid. A similar investigation is now being made of the bed of the North Pacific. The United States steamer Tuscarora, Commander Belknap, has ascertained that the depth of water gradually increases with a gentle slope from a point 115 miles west of San Diego, California, in 1,915 fathoms, to a point 400 miles east of Honolulu, where it reaches 3,054 fath
Paragon (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
is pump, specially adapted for fire-extinguishing purposes. The portable pump (Fig. 5719) has an upright boiler, the pump being horizontal. The water-eduction port is connected with an air-chamber, to render the discharge continuous. The Paragon steam-pump (Fig. 5720) has its induction and eduction orifices a b controlled by valves, so connected that one opens as the other closes, and vice versa, by the action of the water, as the ram c, which is in one piece with the piston d of the steam-cylinder, rises and falls as steam is admitted above or below it. A fly-wheel e rotated by an eccentric connected with the piston-rod regulates the velocity of the strokes Paragon steam-pump. The Selden steam-pump (Fig. 5721) has two pump-cylinders, operating by a plunger directly connected with the piston-rod, working in a cylinder between them. The cylinder is of greater diameter than the piston, enabling water containing grit and dirt to be pumped without injuring the parts by
Atchafalaya River (Louisiana, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
position for some time, and gradually increasing its dimensions, at length attains an enormous magnitude, and often becomes an impassable barrier, extending along the river's course for many miles. This is what the boatmen call a raft. It generally occurs in the tributaries of the Mississippi, and not in the river itself. One instance of this is afforded by the Red River, and another by the Atchafalaya, a river flowing out of the Mississippi, at a point about 250 miles from the sea. The Atchafalaya raft extends over a space of 20 miles; but the river's bed, for the whole of this distance, is not filled up with drift-timber, — the actual length of the raft itself being only about 10 miles. The snag-boat consists of two hulls, firmly secured to each other, at a distance of a few feet apart; and over the intervening space a deck is thrown, having an aperture left in the center. A powerful crab is placed over this aperture, from which strong chains and grapplings are suspended in th
Cologne (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) (search for this): chapter 19
Vindeline de Spire. The name and residence of the inventor of signatures are doubtful; it appears they were inserted into an edition of Terence, printed at Milan in 1470, by Anthony Zorat. And an edition of Baldi Lectura super Codic, etc., was printed at Venice by John de Colonia and Jo. Manthen de Gherretzem, anno 1474; it is in folio, and the signatures are not introduced till the middle of the book, and then continued throughout. Abbe Reve ascribed the discovery to John Koelhof, at Cologne, in 1472. They were used at Paris in 1476, and by Caxton in 1480. Si-le′Si-A. (Fabric.) A linen made in Germany. Si′lex. See silica. Sil′hou-ette. A profile or outline representation of an object filled in with black. The inner parts are sometimes touched up with lines of lighter color, and shadows are indicated by a brightening of gum or other lustrous medium. The invention has been ascribed to the daughter of Dibutades, a potter of Corinth, who drew the outline
Rotterdam (Netherlands) (search for this): chapter 19
onry: d, the high-water level of the sea or bay; and e, the natural bed. The form of the front wall must be adapted to resist the action of the waves, and the embankment must have an internal slope, according to the nature of the materials of which it is composed; for ordinary materials, a base of 1 1/2 to a perpendicular hight of 1 will insure the necessary stability and firmness. A, Plymouth breakwater. B, sea-dike with facing wall and core. C D. inclosure of Zuid Plas, near Rotterdam, Holland. E, polder bank, Holland. F, Havre sea-wall. If the entire embankment be formed of loose stones, with occasional facing only of laid masonry, as in the case of the celebrated breakwater at Plymouth, a form of less steepness must be adopted for the sea-face of the embankment. A, Fig. 4800, is a section of the Plymouth (England) breakwater. The line a a shows the level of high-water spring-tides; b b, low-water spring-tides; c c, original bottom, varying from 40 to 45 feet
Kidderminster (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 19
throwing stones, etc. Scotch. Scotch. A prop, shoulder, strut, or support, as of a wheel, or of a log on inclined ground or on skids. A slotted bar which slips upon a rod or pipe, and forms a bearing for a shoulder or collar thereon, so as to support it while a section above is being attached or detached. Used in boring and tubing wells. Scotch Car′pet. An ingrain, two or three ply carpet, so named from the country where it is so extensively manufactured. Also called Kidderminster, from a town of that name, noted for its production. See two-ply carpet. Scotch′man. (Nautical.) Stiff canvas wrapping or battening of wood around standing rigging to protect from chafing. Sco′ti-a. (Architecture.) A hollow, curved molding. It occurs in the base of the Ionic column, and also in the projecting angle of the Doric corona. Synonymous with cavetto. Sco′to-graph. An instrument to assist in writing in the dark or without seeing. Sco′to-scop
Canadian (United States) (search for this): chapter 19
n, red.462 Fir, Oregon, white.468 Gum, black.615 Gum, blue.843 Gum, water1.000 Hackmatack.590 Hawthorn.910 Hazel.606–.860 Hemlock.368–.453 Hickory.826–.992 Holly.760 Holly, American.641 Juniper.556 Lancewood.720 Larch.544–.560 Lemon.703 Lignum-vitae1.257-1.333 Lime.804 Linden.604 Locust.728–.826 Logwood.913 Mahogany.720-1.063 Mahogany, San Domingo.727 Mahogany, Honduras.560 Maple.681–.755 Maple, bird's-eye.576 Maple, Oregon.491 Mulberry.897 Oak, African.823 Oak, Canadian.872 Oak, Dantzic.759 Oak, English.932 Oak, white.632–.882 Oak, live1.021-1.103 Olive.927 Orange.705 Pear.661 Persimmon.710 Pine, pitch1.080 Pine, red.590 Pine, white.360–.461 Pine, yellow.528–.672 Plum.785 Poplar.432–.498 Poplar, white Spanish.529 Quince.705 Redwood, Cal.387 Rosewood.728 Sassafras.482 Satin-wood.885 Spruce.436–.444 Sycamore.623 Tamarack.383 Teak.961 Walnut, black.529–.649 Willow.486–.585 Yew.788–.807 Miscellaneous Solids
Dublin (Irish Republic) (search for this): chapter 19
ith a portable engine of 3 horsepower, and was propelled by paddle-wheels. He lost money by the operation, but had a safe, practical boat which made trips all round the coasts of the British Islands. Bell's boat, comet. In 1814, there were 5 steamers making regular passage in Scottish waters, and none in England or Ireland In 1820, England had 17; Scotland, 14; Ireland, 3. In 1840, it stood thus: England. 987; Scotland, 244; Ireland, 79. The Majestic was navigated from Glasgow to Dublin in 1814, by Dodd. In 1817, 7 steamboats plied on the Thames under Dodd's direction. A Parliamentary commission of 1817 stated the necessity of steam as a marine and river motor, and cited the extensive use of the same in America, which preceded by some years the establishment of practical steam-vessels carrying passengers in any part of Europe. (Temple.) Comet (transverse section). Comet (side elevation of machinery). In 1818, Mr. Scarborough, of Savannah Ga., purchased in New Yo
South America (search for this): chapter 19
tainty at depths exceeding 3,000 fathoms; a line of soundings was run from near the middle of the Atlantic to the Cape de Verde Islands, thence to the coast of South America, and thence again to the United States, the greatest depth attained at which bottom was reached being 3,825 fathoms to the southward and eastward of Bermuda. and sent to the Pasha of Egypt, yet there are but few in this country, —one in New Jersey, and some in Louisiana and in the West. They are in use in Cuba and South America. The Magnolia sugar plantation, in Louisiana, has one set of the Fowler steam-plow of 14 horse-power, and one of 20 horse-power. When breaking up, the mold- A bridge sustained by flexible supports secured at each extremity. Suspension-bridges have been used from a period of great antiquity in China, Thibet, and South America. Turner, in his Voyage to Thibet, gives an account of one at Tchin-chien, near the fort of Chuka, about 140 feet long, and which afforded passage for equestri
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