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[12] Urbs antiqua, said with reference to Virg.'s own age. For the parenthetical construction ‘Tyrii tenuere coloni,’ comp. v. 530 below, “Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt.” ‘Tyrii coloni,’ ‘settlers from Tyre,’ as “Dardaniis colonis,” 7. 422, are settlers from Troy.

[13] Longe, as contrasted with the adjacent islands. The sense is clear (“Against the Tiber's mouth, but far away,” Dryden), though it is not easy to determine the exact grammatical position of ‘longe.’ The choice seems to lie between connecting it with ‘contra’ and making it an adverbial adjunct of ‘ostia,’ i. q. ‘longe distantia.’ The latter is a Grecism (Wund. comp. “τοῦ Τελαμῶνος τηλόθεν οἴκου,Soph. Aj. 204), but may perhaps be supported by the use of “super” 3. 489, note. It appears that some in the time of Serv. actually took ‘longe’ with ‘dives.

[14] Dives opum, 2. 22. ‘Opum’ includes all sources of power. ‘Asperrima’ is the epithet of war (9. 667., 11. 635., 12. 124) applied to the warlike nation. ‘Given to the stern pursuits of war.’ “Ad bella studium,G. 3. 179.

[15] Germ. comp. Od. 8. 284, οἱ γαιάων πολὺ φιλτάτη ἐστὶν ἁπασέων. ‘Unam magis omnibus coluisse’ = “unam omnium maxime coluisse.” The Astarte of the Phoenicians is identified, in the loose way common among the ancients, with Juno. On the temple of Hera at Samos, see Hdt. 3. 60.

[16] Coluisse, as dweller in the temple. Comp. v. 447. “Pallas quas condidit arces Ipsa colat,E. 2. 61. For Juno's arms, comp. 2. 614, note. Her chariot is from Il. 5. 720 foll. The Phoenician Astarte was represented seated on a lion.

[17] Regnum gentibus, ‘the capital of the nations,’ instead of Rome. The dative, as in 8. 65., 10. 203. For the pronoun taking the gender of the following substantive, see Madv. § 313.

[18] Si qua is similarly used 6. 882. “Fata sinebant,” 4. 652., 11. 701. Med. 2 m. p. has ‘sinunt.’ ‘Iam tum,’ in that early age, long before it became the actual rival of Rome. ‘Tendit’ determines the construction, the infinitive being the object of both verbs. ‘Tendere’ is often followed by an infinitive, the subject being the same as the nominative to the verb, as “aqua tendit rumpere plumbum,” Hor. 1 Ep. 10. 20, “si vivere cum Iove tendis,” Pers. 5. 139. ‘Foveo,’ on the other hand, takes an accusative, as “fovere consilium.” These two constructions are united, the sentence ‘hocesse’ standing in the relation of an ordinary infinitive to ‘tendit,’ and of an accusative to ‘fovet.’ Three MSS. give ‘favet,’ and ‘vovet’ has been conjectured. Some have thought ‘hoc regnumfovetque’ spurious, on the strength of a notice of Serv., which really refers to v. 534 beiow.

[19] Sed enim, 2. 164, &c., ἀλλὰ γάρ, ‘however,’ or ‘nevertheless.’ The present infinitive, ‘duci,’ denotes the event as existing in the designs of fate. ‘Duci,’ as in 10. 145. Gossrau, following a suggestion of Serv., thinks the ‘progenies’ is Scipio, which is very improbable, and besides makes ‘hinc,’ v. 21, inexplicable; and the same objection applies to Ladewig's more plausible explanation of ‘progenies’ as the great Trojan families among the Romans.

[20] Quae verteret, ‘to overturn.’ See on 7. 99. ‘Vertere,’ as in 2. 652, &c. As might be expected, some MSS. have ‘everteret.

[21] Late regem, comp. εὐρυκρείων, and “late tyrannus,” Hor. 3. Od. 17. 9. ‘Populus’ is a personification, and therefore takes the epithet ‘rex.’ ‘Hinc,’ i.e. ‘Trojano a sanguine,’ rather than ‘ex hac progenie;’ but it is not very clear, as, though in the latter case the distinction between the ‘progenies’ and the ‘populus’ springing from it seems unmeaning, the former view creates a tautology. In v. 235, where the expression is somewhat parallel, “revocato a sanguine Teucri” seems epexegetical of “hinc.” Serv. mentions that Probus marked this and the next line as doubtful; but it seems to have been merely a critical opinion. ‘Superbus’ here seems to be equivalent to ‘praestans,’ as in Sil. 10. 573, “I, decus Ausoniae, quo fas est ire superbas Virtute et factis animas.

[22] Venire excidio, like “venire auxilio” and “subsidio,” ‘Libyae’ being probably the dative, as ‘Dardaniae’ seems to be 2. 325. But there is room for doubt in both instances. It is hard to fix the precise meaning of ‘volvere.’ The passage 3. 375, “sic fata deum rex Sortitur volvitque vices,” is equally obscure; and we are left to choose between the ideas of a cycle of events (which is recommended by “is vertitur ordo” in the passage in A. 3), an urn in which lots are shaken, the threads of a spindle (which is the view of Serv.), and a book. I have returned to the common orthography ‘excidium,’ as being apparently the only one known to the MSS. of Virg.: but the word must be derived from “exscindo,” as “discidium” from “discindo,” unless, deriving it from “excīdo,” we pronounce it as a trisyllable by synizesis. “Excidio” on the other hand seems clearly to come from “excido,” like “occidio” from “occido,” so that we must suppose a synizesis in Plaut. Curc. 4. 3. 2,Sed eapse illa qua excidionem facere condidici oppidis.

[23] Veteris and ‘prima’ are applied to the Trojan war, as contrasted with this new antipathy of Juno to the Trojans, caused by her anxiety for Carthage, as the former had been caused by her love for Argos. ‘Prima,’ adverbially, as in G. 1. 12.

[25] The words from ‘necdum’ to ‘honores’ are parenthetical. These ‘causae irarum’ are distinguished from the ‘vetus bellum,’ in other words, from the ‘irae’ themselves, the bitterness displayed in or produced by the war. Virg. had already, v. 24, suggested one cause in her love for Argos; but though this supplies a parallel to her present feeling, it scarcely accounts for its existence; so he goes back to show that her old quarrel with Troy had other grounds. ‘Dolores’ is the pang, put for the affront. It is only in the sense of the affront that it can properly be joined with ‘exciderant animo,’ understood of being forgotten. So “dolens,” v. 9. Or if ‘dolores’ is taken in its ordinary sense, ‘exciderant animo’ will shift its meaning, ‘had passed from her soul.’

[27] ‘The injury which consisted in her beauty being scorned,’ explaining the ‘iudicium Paridis.’ The legend does not appear in Hom. earlier than Il. 24. 29 foll.

[28] Genus invisum, ‘the hated stock,’ referring to the birth of Dardanus, who was the son of Jupiter by Electra, daughter of Atlas. The carrying off of Ganymede, who belonged to a later generation of the royal house of Troy, was a further provocation.

[29] The construction is resumed after the parenthesis with some variation, ‘his accensa super’ referring to the subjectmatter of the parenthesis. ‘Super’ for “insuper,” 2. 71, &c. Weidner connects it with ‘aequore,’ which is very unlikely. ‘Iactatos arcebat’ is equivalent to “iactabat et arcebat,” or “iactando arcebat.

[30] Reliquias Danaum, who had been left by the Greeks. Comp. Cic. de Sen. 6. 19, “ut avi reliquias (i.e. “Karthaginem ab avo relictam”) persequare,” quoted by Forb. Comp. Aesch. Ag. 517, στρατὸν δέχεσθαι τὸν λελειμμένον δορός. For the orthography ‘Achilli,’ see note on G. 3. 91. Here Rom. has ‘Achillis.

[32] Acti fatis, inasmuch as their destiny forbids them to rest. Comp. “fato profugus,” v. 2. The opposition which Henry supposes between the impulse of the fates and the repulse of Juno, though true in fact, does not seem to be distinctly intended here. They are said to wander round the seas rather than over them, doubtless for variety's sake. In v. 667 below Aeneas is tossed on the sea “omnia circum litora.

[33] Tantae molis for ‘tanti moliminis,’ as in Livy 25. 11, “Plaustris transveham naves haud magna mole.” The metaphor may be continued in ‘condere.

[34-49] ‘The Trojans were just sailing from Sicily when Juno saw them, remembered the vengeance Pallas once took on the Greek fleet, and chafed to think that hitherto she had done so little.’

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