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We will therefore classify the various remedies, according to the maladies for which they are respectively used; and, first of all, those to which man has recourse for injuries inflicted by serpents. That deer are destructive to those reptiles1 no one is ignorant; as also of the fact that they drag them from their holes when they find them, and so devour them. And it is not only while alive and breathing that deer are thus fatal to serpents, but even when dead and separated limb from limb. The fumes of their horns, while burning, will drive away serpents, as already2 stated; but the bones, it is said, of the upper part of a stag's throat, if burnt upon a fire, will bring those reptiles together. Persons may sleep upon a deer's skin in perfect safety, and without any apprehension of attacks by serpents; its rennet too, taken with vinegar, is an effectual antidote to the stings of those reptiles; indeed, if it has been only touched by a person, he will be for that day effectually protected from them. The testes, dried, or the genitals of the male animal, are considered to be very wholesome, taken in wine, and so are the umbles, generally known as the "centipellio."3 Persons having about them a deer's tooth, or who have taken the precaution of rubbing the body with a deer or fawn's marrow, will be sure to repel the attacks of all serpents.

But the most effectual remedy of all is thought to be the rennet of a fawn that has been cut from the uterus of the dam, as already4 mentioned in another place. Deer's blood, burnt upon a fire of lentisk wood, with dracontium,5 cunilago,6 and alkanet, will attract serpents, they say; while, on the other hand, if the blood is removed and pyrethrum7 substituted for it, they will take to flight.

I find an animal mentioned by Greek writers, smaller than the stag, but resembling it in the hair, and to which they give the name of "ophion."8 Sardinia, they say, is the only country that produces it; I am of opinion, however, that it is now extinct, and for that reason I shall not enlarge upon its medicinal properties.

(10.) As a preservative against the attacks of serpents, the brains and blood of the wild boar are held in high esteem: the liver also, dried and taken in wine with rue; and the fat, used with honey and resin. Similar properties are attributed to the liver of the domesticated boar and the outer filaments, and those only, of the gall, these last being taken in doses of four denarii; the brains also, taken in wine, are equally ef- fectual. The fumes of the burning horns or hair of a she-goat will repel serpents, they say: the ashes, too, of the horns, used either internally or externally, are thought to be an antidote to their poison. A similar effect is attributed to goats' milk, taken with Taminian9 grapes; to the urine of those animals, taken with squill vinegar; to goats' milk cheese, applied with origanum;10 and to goat suet, used with wax.

In addition to all this, as will be seen hereafter, there are a thousand other remedial properties attributed to this animal; a fact which surprises me all the more, seeing that the goat, it is said, is never free from fever.11 The wild animals of the same species, which are very numerous, as already12 stated, have a still greater efficacy attributed to them; but the hegoat has certain properties peculiar to itself, and Democritus attributes properties still more powerful to the animal when it has been the only one yeaned. It is recommended also to apply she-goat's dung, boiled13 in vinegar, to injuries inflicted by serpents, as also the ashes of fresh dung mixed with wine. As a general rule, persons who find that they are recovering but slowly from injuries inflicted by a serpent, will find their health more speedily re-established by frequenting the stalls where goats are kept. Those, however, whose object is a more assured remedy, attach immediately to the wound the paunch of a she-goat killed for the purpose, dung and all. Others, again, use the flesh of a kid just killed, and fumigate it with the singed hair, the smell of which has the effect of repelling serpents.

For stings of serpents, as also for injuries inflicted by the scorpion and shrew-mouse, some employ the skin of a goat newly killed, as also the flesh and dung of a horse that has been out at pasture, or a hare's rennet in vinegar. They say, too, that if a person has the body well rubbed with a hare's rennet, he will never receive injury from venomous animals. When a person has been stung by a scorpion, she-goat's dung, boiled with vinegar, is considered a most efficient remedy: in cases too, where a buprestis has been swallowed, bacon and the broth in which it has been boiled, are highly efficacious. Nay, what is even more than this, if a person applies his mouth to an ass's ear, and says that he has been stung by a scorpion, the whole of the poison, they say, will immediately pass away from him and be transferred to the animal. All venomous creatures, it is said, are put to flight by a fumigation made by burning an ass's lights. It is considered an excellent plan too, to fumigate persons, when stung by a scorpion, with the smoke of burnt calves' dung.

1 See B. viii. c. 50.

2 In B. viii. c. 50.

3 Or "hundred skins." Called the mirefeuillet in French.

4 In B. viii. c. 50.

5 See B. xxiv. c. 91.

6 See B. xx. c. 63.

7 The Anthemis pyrethrum of Linnæus, Spanish camomile or pellitory.

8 Possibly the Musmon of B. viii. c. 49. See also B. xxx. c. 52.

9 See B. xxiii. cc. 13, 14.

10 See B. xx. c. 67.

11 See B. viii. c. 76.

12 In B. viii. c. 76.

13 A remedy of which H. Cloquet highly approves, on chemical grounds.

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