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Adjoining to this is the sixth region, which includes Umbria and the Gallic territory in the vicinity of Ariminum. At Ancona begins the coast of that part of Gaul known as Gallia Togata1. The Siculi and the Liburni possessed the greater part of this district, and more particularly the territories of Palma, of Prætutia, and of Adria. These were expelled by the Umbri, these again by the Etrurians, and these in their turn by the Gauls. The Umbri are thought to have been the most ancient race in Italy, it being supposed that they were called "Ombrii" by the Greeks, from the fact of their having survived the rains2 which had inundated the earth. We read that 300 of their towns were conquered by the Tusci; at the present day we find on their coast the river Æsis3, Senogallia4, the river Metaurus, the colonies of Fanum Fortunæ5 and Pisaurum6, with a river of the same name; and, in the interior, those of Hispellum7 and Tuder.

Besides the above, there are the Amerini8, the Attidiates9, the Asisinates10, the Arnates11, the Æsinates12, the Camertes13, the Casuentillani, the Carsulani14, the Dolates surnamed Salentini, the Fulginiates15, the Foroflaminienses16, the Forojulienses surnamed Concupienses, the Forobrentani, the Forosempronienses17, the Iguvini18, the Interamnates surnamed Nartes, the Mevanates19, the Mevanionenses, the Matilicates20, the Narnienses21, whose town used formerly to be called Nequinum; the Nucerini22, both those surnamed Favonienses and those called Camellani; the Ocriculani23, the Ostrani24, the Pitulani, both those surnamed Pisuertes and the others called Mergentini; the Plestini25, the Sentinates26, the Sarsi- nates27, the Spoletini28, the Suasini29, the Sestinates30, the Suillates31, the Tadinates32, the Trebiates33, the Tuficani34, the Tifernates35 surnamed Tiberini, and the others called Metaurenses, the Vesinicates, the Urbinates, both those surnamed Metaurenses36 and the others called Hortenses, the Vettonenses37, the Vindinates, and the Viventani. In this district there exist no longer the Feliginates who possessed Clusiolum above Interamna, and the Sarranates, with their towns of Acerræ38, surnamed Vafriæ, and Turocelum, also called Vettiolum; as also the Solinates, the Curiates, the Fallienates, and the Apiennates. The Arienates also have disappeared with the town of Crinovolum, as well as the Usidicani, the Plangenses, the Pæsinates, and the Cælestini. Cato writes that Ameria above-mentioned was founded 964 years before the war with Perseus.

1 Cisalpine Gaul was so called because the inhabitants adopted the use of the Roman toga.

2 This fanciful derivation would make their name to come from the Greek ὄμβρος "a shower."

3 Now the Esino.

4 So called from the Galli Senones. The modern city of Sinigaglia occupies its site. The river Metaurus is still called the Metauro.

5 The Temple of Fortune." At this spot the Flaminian Way joined the road from Ancona and Picenum to Ariminum. The modern city of Fano occupies the site, but there are few remains of antiquity.

6 The modern Pesaro occupies the site of the town; the river is called the Foglia.

7 This was a flourishing town of Umbria. Augustus showed it especial favour and bestowed on it the Grove and Temple of Clitumnus, though at twelve miles' distance from the town. The modern town of Spello occupies its site, and very extensive remains of antiquity are still to be seen. It probably received two Roman colonies, as inscriptions mention the "Colonia Julia Hispelli" and the "Colonia Urbana Flavia." It is considered probable that Hispellum, rather than Mevania, was the birth-place of the poet Propertius. Tuder is supposed to have occupied the site of the modern Todi, on the Tiber.

8 The people of Ameria, an important and flourishing city of Umbria. There are still remains of the ancient walls; the modern town of Amelia occupies its site.

9 The site of Attidium is marked by the modern village of Attigio, two miles south of the city of Fabriano, to which the inhabitants of Attidium are supposed to have migrated in the middle ages.

10 The people of Asisium. The modern city of Assisi (the birth-place of St. Francis) occupies its site. There are considerable remains of the ancient town.

11 The people of Arna, the site of which is now occupied by the town of Civitella d'Arno, five miles east of Perugia. Some inscriptions and other objects of antiquity have been found here.

12 The people of Æsis, situate on the river of the same name. It is still called Iesi. Pliny, in B. xi. c. 97, mentions it as famous for the excellence of its cheeses.

13 The people of Camerinum, a city of Umbria. The present Camerino occupies its site. Its people were among the most considerable of Umbria. The site of the Casuentillani does not appear to be known.

14 The people of Carsulæ, an Umbrian town of some importance. Its ruins are still visible about half way between San Germino and Acqua Sparta, ten miles north of Narni. Holsten states that the site was still called Carsoli in his time, and there existed remains of an amphitheatre and a triumphal arch in honour of Trajan. Nothing seems to be known of the Dolates.

15 The people of Fulginium. From Cicero we learn that it was a municipal town. The modern city of Foligno has risen on its site. An inscription discovered here has preserved the name of Fulginia, probably a local divinity.

16 The people of Forum Flaminii, situated on the Flaminian Way, where it first entered the Apennines, three miles from Fulginium. It was here that the Emperors Gallus and Volusianus were defeated and slain by Æmilianus, A.D. 256. The ruins at the spot called Giovanni pro Fiamma mark its site. The site of Forum Julii appears to be unknown, as also that of Forum Brentani.

17 The people of Forum Sempronii, the only town in the valley of the Metaurus. The modern city of Fossombrone, two miles distant, has thence taken its name. Considerable vestiges of the ancient town are still to be seen. The battle in which Hasdrubal was defeated by the Roman consuls Livius and Nero, B.C. 207, was probably fought in its vicinity.

18 The people of Iguvium, an ancient and important town of Umbria. Its site is occupied by the modern city of Gubbio. Interamna on the Nar has been previously mentioned.

19 The people of the town of Mevania, now called Bevagna, in the duchy of Spoleto. The Mevanionenses were the people of Mevanio, or Mevaniolæ, in the vicinity of Mevania, and thought by Cluver to be the modern Galeata.

20 Their town was Matilica, which still retains that name. It is situate in the Marches of Ancona.

21 Their town still retains the name of Narni.

22 Their town was surnamed Favonia and Camellaria, to distinguish it from several others of the same name. The present Nocera stands on its site.

23 The people of Ocriculum, now Otricoli, previously mentioned.

24 According to Hardouin, the ruins of Ostra are those near Monte Nuovo, now Sinigaglia, but D'Anville thinks that the modern Corinaldo marks its site.

25 Nothing is known of the Plestini, nor yet of the Pitulani, who seem to have been a different people to those mentioned in the First Region.

26 The town of Sentis, according to D'Anville and Mannert, was in the vicinity of the modern town of Sasso Ferrato.

27 The people of Sarsina, an important town of Umbria, famous as being the birth-place of the comic poet Plautus. It is now called Sassina, on the Savio.

28 The people of Spoletum, now Spoleto. It was a city of Umbria on the Via Flaminia, colonized by the Romans B.C. 242. In the later days of the Empire it was taken by Totilas, and its walls destroyed. They were however restored by Narses.

29 The people of Suasa; the remains of which, according to D'Anville and Mannert, are those seen to the east of the town of San Lorenzo, at a place called Castel Leone.

30 The monastery of Sestino is supposed to stand on the site of Sestinum, their town, at the source of the river Pesaro.

31 The site of their town is denoted by the modern Sigello in the Marches of Ancona.

32 Their town is supposed to have been also situate within the present Marches of Ancona, where they join the Duchy of Spoleto.

33 Their town was Trebia. The modern Trevi stands on its site.

34 The people of Tuficum, which Holsten thinks was situate between Matelica and Fabrianum, on the river called the Cesena.

35 The site of Tifernum Tiberinum is occupied by the present Citta di Castello, and that of Tifernum Metaurense, or "on the Metaurus," by Sant Angelo in Vado in the Duchy of Urbino. The first-named place was in the vicinity of the estates of the Younger Pliny.

36 D'Anville and Mannert are of opinion that Urbania on the Metaurus, two leagues south-east of Urbino, marks the site of their town. The Hortenses probably dwelt on the site of the present Urbino.

37 The site of their town was probably the present Bettona. The site of the towns of the peoples next mentioned is unknown.

38 Nothing is known of its position. There were cities in Campania and Cisalpine Gaul also called Acerræ. The first has been mentioned under the First Region. Of the other places and peoples mentioned in this Chapter no particulars seem to have come down to us.

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