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IAMES by the Grace of God, King of Great Britaine, France and Ireland; Professour, Maintainer and Defender of the Trew, Christian, Catholique and Apostolique Faith, Professed by the Ancient and Primitiue Chvrch, and Sealed with the Blood of so many Holy Bishops, and other faithfull crowned with the glory of Martyrdome; Wisheth euerlasting felicitie in Christ our Saviovr.

To You Most Sacred And Invincible Emperovr; Right High And Mightie Kings; Right Excellent Free Princes And States, My Loving Brethren And Cosins:

TO you, I say, as of right belongeth, doe I consecrate and direct this Warn- ing of mine, or rather Preamble to my reprinted Apologie for the Oath of Allegiance: For the cause is generall, and concerneth the Authoritie and priuiledge of Kings in generall, and all supereminent Temporall powers. And if in what- soeuer Societie, or Corporation of men, either in Corporations of Cities, or in the Corporation of any mechanicke craft or handie-worke, euery man is carefull to maintaine the priuiledges of that Societie whereunto he is sworne; nay, they will rather cluster all in one, making it a common cause, exposing themselues to all sorts of perill, then suffer the least breach in their Liberties; If those of the baser sort of people, I say, be so curious and zealous for the preseruation of their com- mon priuiledges and liberties, as if the meanest amongst them be touched in any such point, they thinke it concerneth them all: Then what should wee doe in such a case, whom God hath placed in the highest thrones vpon earth, made his Lieutenants and Vice-gerents, and euen seated vs vpon his owne Throne to exe- cute his Iudgements ? The consideration hereof hath now mooued mee to expone a Case vnto you, which doeth not so neerely touch mee in my particular, as it doeth open a breach against our Authoritie, (I speak in the plurall of all Kings) and priuiledge in generall. And since not onely all rankes and sorts of people in all Nations doe inuiolably obserue this Maxime, but euen the Ciuil Law, by which the greatest part of Christendome is gouerned, doeth giue them an interest, qui fouent consimilem causam; How much more then haue yee interest in this cause, not beeing similis or par causa to yours, but eadem with yours ? and indeed yee allfouetis, or at least fouere debetis eandem causam mecum. And since this cause is common to vs all; both the Ciuill Lawes, and the municipall Lawes of all Nations, permit and warne them, that haue a common interest, to concurre in one for the defence of their common cause; yea, common sense teacheth vs with the Poet, Ecquid Ad te pòst paulò ventura pericula sentis ?
Nam tua res agitur paries cum proximus ardet.

Awake then while it is time, and suffer not, by your longer sleepe, the strings of your Authoritie to be cut in singulis, and one and one to your generall ruine, which by your vnited forces, would rather make a strong rope for the enemie to hang himselfe in, with Achitophel, then that hee should euer bee able to breake it. As for this Apologie of mine, it is trew, that I thought good to set it first with- out putting my name vnto it; but neuer so, as I thought to denie it, remembring well mine owne words, but taken out of the Scripture, in the beginning of the Preface to the Reader, in my ΒΑΣΙΛΙΚΟΝ ΔΩΡΟΝ, that nothing is so hid, which shall not bee opened, etc.: promising there, which with God his grace I shall euer performe, neuer to doe that in secret, which I shall need to be ashamed of, when it shall come to be proclaimed in publique.

In deed I though it fit, for two respects, that this my Apologie should first visite the world without hauing my name written in the forehead thereof. First because of the matter, and next of the persons that I medled with. The matter, it being a Treatise, which I was to write, conteining reasons and discourses in Diuinitie, for the defence of the Oath of Allegiance, and refutation of the con- demners thereof; I thought it not comely for one of my place, to put my name to bookes concerning Scholasticke Disputations; whose calling is to set forth Decrees in the Imperatiue mood: for I thinke my selfe as good a man as the Pope, by his reuerence, for whom these my Answerers make the like excuse; for that his Breues are so summary without yeelding any reason vnto them. My next reason was the respect of the persons whom with I medled: Wherein, although I shortly answered the Popes Breues; yet the point I most laboured, being the refutation of Bellarmines Letter, I was neuer the man, I confesse, that could thinke a Cardinall a meet match for a King: especially, hauing many hundreth thousands of my subiects of as good birth as hee. As for his Church dignitie, his Cardinal- ship I meane, I know not how to ranke or value it, either by the warrant of God his word, or by the ordinance of Emperours or Kings; it being indeed onely a new Papall erection, tolerated by the sleeping conniuence of our Predecessours (I meane still by the plurall of Kings.) But notwithstanding of this my forbearing to put my name vnto it, some Embassadours of some of you (my louing Brethren and Cousins) whome this cause did neereliest concerne, can witnesse, that I made Presents of some of those bookes, at their first printing, vnto them, and that auowedly in my owne name. As also the English Paragraphist, or rather peruerse Pamphleter Parsons, since all his description must runne vpon a P. hath trewly obserued, that my Armes are affixed in the frontispice thereof, which vseth not to bee in bookes of other mens doing; whereby his malice in pretending his ignorance, that hee might pay mee the soundlier, is the more inexcusable. But now that I finde my sparing to put my name vnto it hath not procured my spar- ing by these answerers, who haue neither spared my Person directly in naming me, nor indirectly by railing vpon the Author of the Booke: it is now high time for me no longer to conceale not disauow my selfe, as if I were ashamed of my owne deed. And therefore that ye may the better vndeistand the nature of the cause, I will begin at the first ground thereof.

The neuer enough wondered at and abhorred Powder-Treason (though the repetition thereof grieueth, I know, the gentle hearted Iesuite Parsons) this Trea- son, I say, being not onely intended against mee and my Posteritie, but euen against the whole house of Parliament, plotted onely by Papists, and they onely led thereto by a preposterous zeale for the aduancement of their Religion; some of them continuing so obstinate, that euen at their death they would not acknowl- edge their fault; but in their last words, immediatly before the expiring of their breath, refused to condemne themselues and craue pardon for their deed, except the Romish Church should first condemne it; And soone after, it being discouered, that a great number of my Popish Subiects of all rankes and sexes, both men and women, as well within as without the Countrey; had a confused notion and an obscure knowledge, that some great thing was to bee done in that Parliament for the weale of the Church; although, for secrecies cause, they were not acquainted with the particulars; certaine formes of prayer hauing likewise beene set downe and vsed for the good successe of that great errand; adding heereunto, that diuers times, and from diuers Priests, the Archtraitours themselues receiued the Sacra- ment for confirmation of their heart, and obseruation of secrecie; Some of the principall Iesuites likewise being found guiltie of the foreknowledge of the Trea- son itselfe; of which number some fled from their triall, others were apprehended (as holy Garnet himselfe and Owldcorne were) and iustly executed vpon their owne plaine confession of their guilt: If this Treason now, clad with these cir- cumstances, did not minister a iust occasion to that Parliament house, whome they thought to haue destroyed, courageously and zealously at their next sitting downe, to vse all meanes of triall, whether any more of that minde were yet left in the Countrey; I leaue it to you to iudge, whom God hath appointed his highest Depute Iudges vpon earth: And amongst other things for this purpose, This Oath of Allegiance, so vniustly impugned, was then deuised and enacted. And in case any sharper Lawes were then made against the Papists, that were not obedient to the former Lawes of the Countrey; if ye will consider the Time, Place and Persons, it will be thought no wonder, seeing that occasion did so iustly exasperate them to make seuerer Lawes, then otherwise they would haue done. The Time, I say, being the very next sitting downe of the Parliament, after the discouerie of that abominable Treason: the Place being the same, where they should all haue bene blowne vp, and so bringing it freshly to their memorie againe: the Persons being the very Parliament men whom they thought to haue destroyed. And yet so farre hath both my heart and gouernment bene from any bitternes, as almost neuer one of those sharpe additions to the former Lawes haue euer yet bene put in execution.

And that ye may yet know further, for the more conuincing these Libellers of wilfull malice, who impudently affirme, That this Oath of Allegiance was deuised for deceiuing and intrapping of Papists in points of Conscience; The trewth is, that the Lower house of Parliament at the first framing of this Oath, made it to containe, That the Pope had no power to excommunicate me; which I caused them to reforme, onely making it to conclude, That no excommunication of the Popes, can warrant my Subiects to practise against my Person or State; denying the deposition of Kings to be in the Popes lawfull power; as indeed I take any such temporall violence, to be farre without the limits of such a Spirituall censure as Excommunication is. So carefull was I that nothing should be con- tained in this Oath, except the profession of natural Allegiance, and ciuil and temporall obedience, with a promise to resist to all contrary vnciuill violence.

This Oath now grounded vpon so great and iust an occasion, set forth in so reasonable termes, and ordained onely for making of a trew distinction betweene Papists of quiet disposition, and in all other things good subiects, and such other Papists as in their hearts maintained the like violent bloody Maximes, that the Powder-Traitours did: This Oath, I say, being published and put in practise, bred such euill blood in the Popes head and his Cleargie, as Breue after Breue commeth forth, vt vndam vnda sequitur; prohibiting all Catholikes from taking the same, as a thing cleane contrary to the Catholike faith; and that the taking thereof cannot stand with the saluation of their soules.

There commeth likewise a letter of Cardinall Bellarmines to Blackwell to the same purpose; but discoursing more at length vpon the said Oath. Whereupon, after I had entred in consideration of their vniust impugning that so iust and law- full an Oath; and fearing that by their vntrew calumnies and Sophistrie the hearts of a number of the most simple and ignorant of my people should bee misse-led, vnder that faire and deceitfull cloake of Conscience; I thought good to set foorth an Apologie for the said Oath: wherein I prooued, that as this Oath con- tained nothing but matter of ciuill and temporall Obedience, due by Subiects to their Soueraigne Prince; so this quarrelling therewith was nothing but a late usurpation of Popes (against the warrant of all Scriptures, ancient Councels and Fathers) vpon the Temporall power of Kings, wherewith onely my Apologie doeth meddle. But the publishing of this Booke of mine hath brought such two An- swerers, or rather Railer vpon mee, as all the world may wonder at: For my Booke being first written in English, an English Oath being the subiect thereof, and the vse of it properly belonging to my Subiects of England; and immediately there- after being translated into Latine, vpon a desire that some had of further publish- ing it abroad; it commeth home to mee now answered in both the Languages. And, I thinke, if it had bene set foorth in all the tongues that were at the con- fusion of Babel, it would haue bene returned answered in them all againe. Thus may a man see how busie a Bishop the Diuell is, and how hee omitteth no diligence for venting of his poysoned wares. But herein their malice doeth clearly appeare, that they pay mee so quickly with a double answere; and yet haue neuer answered their owne Arch-priest, who hath written a booke for the maintenance of the same Oath, and of the temporall authoritie of Kings, alledging a cloud of their Scholemen against them.

As for the English Answere, my vnnaturall and fugitiue Subiect, I will neither defile my pen, nor your sacred eyes or eares with the describing of him, who ashames, nay, abhorres not to raile, nay, to rage and spew foorth blasphemies against the late Queene of famous memory. A Subiect to raile against his naturall Soueraigne by birth; A man to raile against a Lady by sexe; A holy man (in outward profession) to insult vpon the dead; nay to take Radamanthus office ouer his head, and to sit downe and play the Iudge in hell; And all his quarrell is, that either her Successour, or any of her seruants should speake honourably of her. Cursed be he that curseth the Anointed of God: and destroyed mought he be with the destruction of Korah, that hath sinned in the contradiction of Korah. Without mought such dogs and swine be cast forth, I say, out of the Spirituall Ierusalem.

As for my Latine Answere, I haue nothing to say to his person; hee is not my Subiect; hee standeth or falleth vnto his owne Lord: But sure I am, they two haue casten lotts vpon my Booke, since they could not diuide it: the one of them, my fugitiue, to raile vpon my late Predecessour, (but a rope is the fittest answere for such an Historian;) the other, a stranger, thinketh he may be boldest both to pay my person and my Booke, as indeed he doeth; which how iustly either in matter or maner, wee are now to examine.

But first, who should be the trew Authour of this booke, I can but guesse. Hee calleth himselfe Mattheus Tortus, Cardinall Bellarmins Chaplaine. A throwne1 Euangelist indeed, full of throward Diuinitie; an obscure Authour, vtterly vn- known to mee, being yet little knowne to the world for any other of his workes: and therefore must be a very desperate fellow in beginning his apprentisage, not onely to refute, but to raile vpon a King. But who will consider the carriage of the whole booke, shall finde that hee writeth with such authoritie, or at the least tam elato stylo, so little sparing either Kings in generall, or my person in particular; and with such a greatnesse, Habemus 2 enim exemplaria Breuium illorum in ma- nibus, and Decernimus: 3 as it shall appeare, or at least bee very probable, that it is the Masters, and not the mans labour; especially in one place, where he quarrelleth mee for casting vp his moralis certitudo and piè credi vnto him; hee there grossely forgetting himselfe, faith, malâ fide nobiscum agit,4 thereby making this Authour to be one person with Bellarmine. But let it bee the worke of a Tortus indeed, and not of a personated Cardinall; yet must it bee the Cardinals deed, since Master Tortus is the Cardinals man, and doeth it in his Masters defence. The errand then being the Cardinals, and done by his owne man, it cannot but bee accounted as his owne deed; especially since the English Answerer doeth foure times promise, that Bellarmine, or one by his appointment, shall sufficiently answere it.

And now to come to his matter and maner of Answere: Surely if there were no more but his vnmanerly maner, it is enough to disgrace the whole matter thereof. For first, to shew his pride, in his Printers preface of the Politan edition of this elegans libellus, hee must equall the Cardinals greatnesse with mine in euery thing. For through hee confesseth this Master Tortus to bee an obscure man; yet being the Cardinals Chapleine, he is sufficient enough forsooth to an- swere an English booke, that lacketh the name of an Authour; as if a personated obscure name for Authour of a Cardinals booke, were a meete match for answering a KINGS Booke, that lacketh the name of an Authour; and a Cardinals Chapleine to meete with the Deane of the Kings Chappell, whom Parsons with the Cardinall, haue (as it seemeth) agreed vpon to intitle to bee the Authour of my Apologie. And not onely in the Preface, but also through the whole booke doeth hee keepe this comparatiue greatnesse. Hee must bee as short in his answere, as I am in my Booke, hee must refute all that I haue said against the Popes second Breue, with equall breauitie, and vpon one page almost, as I haue done mine: and because I haue set downe the substance of the Oath in foureteene Articles; in iust as many Articles must he set downe that Acte of Parliament of mine, wherein the Oath is contained: And yet, had hee contented himselfe with his owne pride, by the demonstration of his owne greatnesse, without further wronging of mee, it had bene the more tollerable. But what cause gaue I him to farce his whole booke with iniuries, both against my Person and Booke ? For whereas in all my Apologie I haue neuer giuen him a foule word, and especially neuer gaue him the Lye: hee by the contrary giueth mee nine times the Lye in expresse termes, and seuen times chargeth mee with falsehood, which phrase is equiualent with a Lye. And as for all other wordes of reproch, as nugae, conuitia, temeritas, vanitas, impudentia, blasphemiae sermonis barbaries, cum eadem faelicitate scribendi, cauil- lationes, applicatio inepta, fingere historias, audacia quae in hominem sanae mentis cadere non potest, vel sensu communi caret, imperitia & leuitas, omnem omnino pudorem & conscientiam exuisse, mala fide nobiscum agit, vt lectoribus per fas & nefas imponat: of such like reproches, I say, I doubt if there bee a page in all his Booke free, except where hee idlely sets downe the Popes Breues, and his owne 1 Letter. And in case this might onely seeme to touch the vnknowen Authour of the Booke, whome notwithstanding he knew well enough, as I shew before; hee spareth not my Person with my owne name: sometimes saying, that Pope Clement thought mee to bee inclined to their Religion:5 Sometimes, that I was a Puritane in Scotland, and a persecutour of Protestants.6 In one place hee con- cludeth, Quia Iacobus non est Catholicus, hoc ipso Hæreticus est.7 In another place, Ex Christiano Caluinistam fecerunt.8 In another place hee sayeth, Neque omnino verum est, Iacobum nunquam deseruisse Religionem quam primò susceperat.9 And in another place, after that hee hath compared and ranked mee with Iulian the Apostate, hee concludeth, Cùm Catholicus not sit, neque Christianus est.10 If this now bee mannerly dealing with a King, I leaue it to you to iudge, who cannot but resent such indignities done to one of your qualitie.

And as for the Matter of his Booke, it well fittes indeede the Manner thereof: for hee neuer answereth directly to the maine question in my Booke. For whereas my Apologie handleth onely two points, as I told you before; One, to prooue that the Oath of Allegiance doeth onely meddle with the ciuill and temporall Obedience, due by Subiects to their naturall Soueraignes: The other, that this late vsurpa- tion of Popes ouer the temporall power of Princes, is against the rule of all Scrip- tures, auncient Councels and Fathers: hee neuer improoues the first, but by a false inference; that the Oath denyeth the Popes power of Excommunication directly, since it denieth his authoritie in deposing of Kings. And for the second point, he bringeth no proofe to the contrary, but, Pasce oues meas: and, Tibi dabo claues regni Cælorum: and, That no Catholike euer doubted of it. So as I may trewly say of him, that hee either vnderstandeth not, or at least will not seeme to vnderstand my Booke, in neuer directly answering the maine question, as I haue alreadie saide; and so may I iustly turne ouer vpon himselfe that doome of ig- norance, which in the beginning of his Booke hee rashly pronounceth vpon mee; saying, that I neither vnderstand the Popes Breues, his Letter, nor the Oath it selfe: And as hee delighteth to repeate ouer and ouer, I know not how oft, and triumpheth in this wrong inference of his; That to deny the Popes power to de- pose Kings, is to denie the Popes Primacie, and his spirituall power of Excom- munication: So doeth hee, vpon that ground of Pasce oues meas, giue the Pope so ample a power ouer Kings, to throne or dethrone them at his pleasure (and yet onely subiecting Christian Kings to that slauerie) as I doubt not but in your owne Honours yee will resent you of such indignities; the rather since it concernes so many of you as professe the Romish religion, farre more then me: For since he accounteth me an heretike, and like Iulian the Apostate; I am consequently extra caulam, and none of the Popes flocke, and so am in the case of Ethnicke Princes, ouer whom he confesseth the Pope hath no power. But yee are in the Popes folde; and you, that great Pastour may leade as sheepe to the slaughter, when it shall please him. And as the Asses eares must be homes, if the Lion list so to interprete it; so must yee be remooued as scabbed sheepe from the flocke, if so the Pope thinke you to be, though your skinne be indeed neuer so sound.

Thus hath he set such a new goodly interpretation vpon the wordes of Christ, Pasce oues meas, as if it were as much to say, as, depose Christian Kings; and that Quodcunque solueris gaue the Pope power to dispense with all sorts of Oathes, Vowes, Penalties, Censures and Lawes, euen with the naturall obedience of Subiects to their Souereigne Lords; much like to that new coyned glosse that his brother Baronius 11 made vpon the wordes in Saint Peters vision, Surge Petre, occide & manduca; That is (said he to the Pope) Goe kill and confound the Venetians.

And because I haue in my Booke (by citing a place in his controuersies) dis- couered him to be a small friend to Kings, he is much commoued: For whereas in his said Controuersies, speaking de Clericis,12 he is so bolde as to affirme, that Church-men are exempted from the power of earthly Kings; and that they ought them no subiection euen in temporall matters, but onely vi rationis and in their owne discretion, for the preseruation of peace and good order; because, I say, citing this place of his in my Booke, I tell with admiration, that hee freeth all Church-men from any subiection to Kings, euen those that are their borne Sub- iects: hee is angry with this phrase, and sayth it is an addition for breeding enuie vnto him, and raising of hatred against him: For, sayth hee, although Bellar- mine affirmed generally, that Church-men were not subiect to earthly Kings; yet did hee not insert that particular clause [though they were borne and dwelling in their Dominions] as if the words of Church-men and earthly Kings in generall imported not as much: for Layickes as well as Church-men are subiect to none but to their naturall Soueraigne: And yet doeth hee not sticke to confesse, that he meant it, though it was not fit (he sayth) to be expressed.

And thus quarrels hee me for reuealing his Printed secret. But whose hatred did hee feare in this ? was it not yours ? Who haue interest, but Kings, in with- drawing of due subiection from Kings? And when the greatest Monarches amongst you will remember, that almost the third part of your Subiects and of your Territories, is Church-men, and Church-liuings; I hope, yee will then con- sider and weigh, what a feather hee pulles out of your wings, when hee denudeth you of so many Subiects and their possessions, in the Popes fauour: nay, what briars and thornes are left within the heart of your dominions, when so populous and potent a partie shall haue their birth, education and lieulihood in your Countries, and yet owe you no subiection, nor acknowledge you for their Soveraignes? So as where the Church-men of old were content with their tythe of euery mans goods; the Pope now will haue little lesse then the third part of euery Kings Subiects and Dominions. And as in this place, so throughout all the rest of his booke, hee doeth nothing but amplifie the Popes power ouer Kings, and exaggerate my vnreasonable rigour for pressing this Oath; which hee will needs haue to bee nothing but a renewed Oath of Supremacie in more subtill and craftie termes, onely to robbe the Pope of his Primacie and spirituall power; making his temporall power and authoritie ouer Princes, to be one of the chiefe Articles of the Catholike Faith.

But that it may the better appeare vnto you, that all my labour and intention in this errand, was onely to meddle with that due temporall Obedience which my Subiects owe vnto mee; and not to intrap or inthrall their Consciences, as hee most falsely affirmes: Yee shall first see how farre other Godly and Christian Emperours and Kings were from acknowledging the Popes temporall Supremacie ouer them; nay, haue created, controlled and deposed Popes: and next, what a number of my Predecessors in this Kingdome haue at all occasions, euen in the times of the greatest Greatnesse of Popes, resisted and plainely withstood them in this point.

And first, all Christian Emperours were for a long time so farre from acknowl- edging the Popes Superioritie ouer them, as by the contrary the Popes acknowl- edged themselues for their Vassals, reuerencing and obeying the Emperours as their Lords, for proofe whereof, I remit you to my Apologie.

And for the creating of Popes; the Emperours were in so long and continual possession thereof, as I will vse for my first witnesse a Pope himselfe; who (in a Synode 13 of an hundredth fiftie and three Bishops and Abbots) did ordeine, That the Emperour Charles the Great should haue the Right of choosing the Pope, and ordeining the Apostolicall Seate, and the Dignitie of the Romane Principalitie: nay, farther hee ordeined; That all Archbishops and Bishops should receiue their Inuestiture from the Emperour, or else bee of no auaile; And, that a Bishop want- ing it, should not bee consecrate, pronouncing an Anathema against all that should disobey this Sentenice.

And that the Emperours assent to the Popes Election was a thing ordinary for a long time, Platina,14 and a number of the Popes owne writers beare witnesse: And Bellarmine 15 himselfe, in his booke of Controuersies, cannot get it hand- somely denied. Nay, the Popes were euen forced then to pay a certaine summe of money to the Emperours for their Confirmation: And this lasted almost seuen hundreth yeeres after Christ; witnesse Sigebert 16 and Luitprandus,17 with other Popish Historians.

And for Emperours deposing of Popes, there are likewise diuers examples. The Emperour Ottho 18 deposed Pope Iohn the twelfth of that name, for diuers crimes and vices; especially of Lecherie. The Emperour Henry 19 the third in a short time deposed three Popes; Benedict the ninth, Siluester the third, and Gregorie the sixt, as well for the sinne of Auarice, as for abusing their extraordinarie authoritie against Kings and Princes.

And as for Kings that haue denied this Temporall Superioritie of Popes; First, wee haue the vnanime testimonie of diuers famous Historiographers for the generall of many Christian Kingdomes. As Walthram 20 testifieth, That the Bishops of Spaine, Scotland, England, Hungarie, from ancient institution till this moderne noueltie, had their Inuestiture by Kings, with peaceable inioyning of their Temporalities whooly and entirely; and whosoeuer (sayeth hee) is peaceably solicitous, let him peruse the liues of the Ancients, and reade the Histories, and hee shall understand thus much. And for verification of this generall Assertion; wee will first beginne at the practise of the Kings of France, though not named by Walthram in this his enumeration of Kingdomes: amongst whom my first witnesse shall bee that vulgarly knowne letter of Philip le Bel21 King of France, to Pope Boniface the eighth, the beginning whereof, after a scornefull saluation, is, Sciat tua maxima fatuitas, nos in temporalibus nemini subesse.

And likewise after that Lewes 22 the ninth, surnamed Sanctus, had by a publique instrument (called Pragmatica sanctio) forbidden all the exactions of the Popes Court within his Realme: Pope Pius 23 the second, in the beginning of Lewes the eleuenth his time, greatly misseliking this Decree so long before made, sent his Legate to the said King Lewes, with Letters-patents, vrging his promise which hee had made when hee was Dolphin of France, to repeale that Sanction if euer hee came to bee King. The King referreth the Legate ouer with his Letters-patents to the Councell of Paris: where the matter being propounded, was impugned by Iohannes Romanus, the Kings Atturney; with whose opinion the Vniuersitie of Paris concurring, an Appeale was made from the attempts of the Pope to the next generall Councell; the Cardinall departing with indignation.

But that the King of France and Church thereof haue euer stoken to their Gallican immunitie, in denying the Pope any Temporall power ouer them, and in resisting the Popes as oft as euer they prest to meddle with their Temporall power, euen in the donation of Benefices; the Histories are so full of them, as the onely examples thereof would make vp a bigge Volume by it selfe. And so farre were the Sorbonistes for the Kings and French Churches priuiledge in this point, as they were wont to maintaine; That if the Pope fell a quarrelling the King for that cause, the Gallican Church might elect a Patriarch of their owne, renouncing any obedience to the Pope. And Gerson was so farre from giuing the Pope that temporall authority ouer Kings (who otherwise was a deuoute Roman Catholike) as hee wrote a Booke de Auferibilitate Papæ; not onely from the power ouer Kings, but euen ouer the Church.

And now pretermitting all further examples of forraigne Kings actions, I will onely content me at this time with some of my owne Predecessors examples of this kingdome of England; that it may thereby the more clearly appeare, that euen in those times when the world was fullest of darkened blindnes and ignor- ance, the Kings of England haue oftentimes, not onely repined, but euen strongly resisted and withstood this temporall vsurpation and encrochment of ambitious Popes.

And I will first begin at King Henry 24 the first of that name, after the Con- quest; who after he was crowned gaue the Bishopricke of Winchester to William Gifford, and forwith inuested him into all the possessions belonging to the Bishop- ricke, contrary to the Canons of the new Synod. King Henry 25 also gaue the Archbishopricke of Canterbury to Radulph Bishop of London; and gaue him inuestiture by a Ring and a Crosiers staffe.

Also Pope Calixtus 26held a Councell at RHEMES, whither King Henry had appointed certaine Bishops of England and Normandie to goe; Thurstan also, elected Archbishop of Yorke, got leaue of the King to goe thither, guing his faith that hee would not receiue Consecration of the Pope; And comming to the Synode, by his liberall gifts (as the fashion is) wanne the Romanes fauour, and by their meanes obtained to bee consecrated at the Popes hand: Which assoone as the King of England knewe, hee forbade him to come within his Dominions.

Moreouer King Edward the first prohibited the Abbot of Waltham 27and Deane of Pauls, to collect a tenth of euery mans goods for a supply to the holy Land, which the Pope by three Bulles had committed to their charge; and the said Deane of Pauls compeering before the King and his Councell, promised for the reuerence he did beare vnto the King, not to meddle any more in that matter, without the Kings good leaue and permission. Here (I hope) a Church-man disobeyed the Pope for obedience to his Prince euen in Church matters: but this new Iesuited Diuinitie was not then knowen in the world.

The same Edward I. impleaded the Deane of the Chappell of Vuluerhampton, because the said Deane had, against the priuiledges of the Kingdome, giuen a Prebend of the same Chappell to one at the Popes command: whereupon the said Deane compeered, and put himselfe in the Kings will for his offence.

The said Edward I. depriued also the Bishop of Durham of all his liberties, for disobeying a prohibition of the Kings. So as it appeareth, the Kings in those dayes thought the Church-men their Subiects, though now we be taught other Seraphicall doctrine.

For further proofe whereof Iohn of Ibstocke was committed to the goale by the sayde King, for hauing a suite in the Courte of Rome seuen yeeres for the Rectorie of Newchurch.

And Edward II. following the footsteps of his Father; after giuing out a Summons against the Abbot of Walden, for citing the Abbot of Saint Albons and others in the Court of Rome, gaue out letters for his apprehension.

And likewise, because a certaine Prebend of Banburie had drawen one Beuer- coat by a Plea to Rome without the Kings Dominions, therefore were letters of Caption sent foorth against the said Prebend.

And Edward III. following likewise the example of his Predecessours; Because a Parson of Liche had summoned the Prior of S. Oswalds before the Pope at Auinion; for hauing before the Iudges in England recouered the arrerage of a pension; directed a Precept, for seasing vpon all the goods both Spirituall and Temporall of the said Parson, because hee had done this in preiudice of the King and Crowne. The said King also made one Harwoden to bee declared culpable and worthie to bee punished, for procuring the Popes Bulles against a Iudgement that was giuen by the Kings Iudges.

And likewise; Because one entred vpon the Priorie of Barnewell by the Popes Bul, the said Intrant was committed to the Tower of London, there to remaine during the Kings pleasure.

So as my Predecessors (ye see) of this Kingdome, euen when the Popes tri- umphed in their greatnesse, spared not to punish any of their Subiects, that would preferre the Popes Obedience to theirs, euen in Church-matters: So farre were they then from either acknowledging the Pope for their temporall Superiour, or yet from doubting that their owne Church-men were not their Subiects. And now I will close vp all these examples with an Act of Parliament in King Richard II. his time; whereby it was prohibited, That none should procure a Benefice from Rome, vnder paine to be put out of the Kings protection. And thus may yee see, that what those Kings successiuely one to another by foure generations haue acted in priuate, the same was also maintained by a publicke Law.

By these few examples now (I hope) I haue sufficiently cleered my selfe from the imputation, that any ambition or desire of Noueltie in mee should haue stirred mee, either to robbe the Pope of any thing due vnto him, or to assume vnto my selfe any farther authoritie, then that which other Christian Emperours and Kings through the world, and my owne Predecessours of England in especiall, haue long agone maintained. Neither is it enough to say (as Parsons doeth in his Answere to the Lord Coke) That farre more Kings of this Countrey haue giuen many more examples of acknowledging, or not resisting the Popes vsurped Au- thoritie; some perchance lacking the occasion; and some the abilitie of resisting them; for euen by the Ciuill Law, in the case of violent intrusion and long and wrongfull possession against mee, it is enough if I prooue that I haue made lawfull interruption vpon conuenient occasions.

But the Cardinall thinkes the Oath, not onely vnlawfull for the substance thereof, but also in regard of the Person whom vnto it is to be sworne: For (saith he) The King is not a Catholique; And in two or three other places of his booke, he sticketh not to call me by my name very broadly, an Heretike, as I haue already told. But yet before I be publikely declared an Heretike; by the Popes owne Law my people ought not to refuse their Obedience vnto me. And (I trust) if I were but a subiect, and accused by the Pope in his Conclaue before his Cardinals, hee would haue hard prouing mee an Heretike, if he iudged me by their owne ancient Orders.

For first, I am no Apostate, as the Cardinal would make me; not onely hauing euer bene brought vp in that Religion which I presently professe, but euen my Father and Grandfather on that side professing the same: and so cannot be prop- erly an Heretike, by their owne doctrine, since I neuer was of their Church. And as for the Queene my Mother of worthy memorie; although she continued in that Religion wherein shee was nourished, yet was she so farre from being super- stitious or Iesuited therein, that at my Baptisme (although I was baptized by a Popish Archbishop) she sent him word to forbeare to vse the spettle in my Baptisme; which was obeyed, being indeed a filthy and an apish tricke, rather in scorne then imitation of Christ. And her owne very words were, That she would not haue a pockie priest to spet in her childs mouth. As also the Font wherein I was Christened, was sent from the late Queene here of famous memory, who was my God-mother; and what her Religion was, Pius V. was not ignorant. And for further proofe, that that renowned Queene my Mother was not superstitious; as in all her Letters (whereof I receiued many) she neuer made mention of Re- ligion, not laboured to perswade me in it; so at her last words, she commanded her Master-houshold, a Scottish Gentleman my seruant and yet aliue, she com- manded him ( I say) to tell me; That although she was of another Religion then that wherein I was brought vp; yet she would not presse me to change, except my owne Conscience forced mee to it; For so that I led a good life, and were carefull to doe Iustice and gouerene well; she doubted not but I would be in a good case with the profession of my owne Religion. Thus am I no Apostate, nor yet a deborder from that Religion which one part of my Parents professed, and an other part gaue mee good allowance of. Neither can my Baptisme in the rites of their Religion make me an Apostate, or Heretike in respect of my present pro- fession, since we all agree in the substance thereof, being all Baptized In the Name of the Father, the Sonne, and the holy Ghost: vpon which head there is no variance amongst vs.

And now for the point of Heretike; I will neuer been ashamed to render an accompt of my profession, and of that hope that is in me, as the Apostle pre- scribeth. I am such a Catholike Christian, as beleeueth the three Creeds; That of the Apostles, that of the Councell of Nice, and that of Athanasius; the two latter being Paraphrases to the former: And I beleeue them in that sense, as the ancient Fathers and Councels that made them did vnderstand them: To which three Creeds all the Ministers of England doe subscribe at their Ordination. And I also acknowledge for Orthodoxe all those other formes of Creedes, that either were deuised by Councels or particular Fathers, against such particular Heresies as most reigned in their times.

I reuerence and admit the foure first generall Councels as Catholique and Orthodoxe: And the said foure generall Councels are acknowledged by our Acts of Parliament, and receiued for Orthodoxe by our Church.

As for the Fathers; I reurence them as much and more then the Iesuites doe, and as much as themselues euer craued. For what euer the Fathers for the first flue hundreth yeeres did with an vnanime consent agree vpon, to be beleeued as a necessary point of saluation, I either will beleeue it also, or at least will be humbly silent; not taking vpon mee to condemne the same: But for euery priuate Fathers opinion, it bindes not my conscience more then Bellarmines; euery one of the Fathers vsually contradicting others. I will therefore in that case follow S. Augus- tines28 rule in iudging of their opinions, as I finde them agree with the Scriptures: what I finde agreeable thereunto I will gladly imbrace; what is otherwise I will (with their reuerence) reiect.

As for the Scriptures; no man doubteth I will beleeue them: But euen for the Apocrypha; I hold them in the same accompt that the Ancients did: They are still printed and bound with our Bibles, and publikely read in our Churches: I reuerence them as the writings of holy and good men: but since they are not found in the Canon, wee accompt them to bee secundæ lectionis, or ordinis29 (which is Bellarmines owne distinction) and therefore not sufficient whereupon alone to ground any article of Faith, except it be confirmed by some other place of Canonicall Scripture; Concluding this point with Ruffinus (who is no Nouelist, I hope) That the Apocryphall books were by the Fathers permitted to be read; nor for confirmation of Doctrine, but onely for instruction of the people.

As for the Saints departed, I honour their memory, and in honour of them doe we in our Church obserue the dayes of so many of them, as the Scripture doeth canonize for Saints; but I am loath to beleeue all the tales of the Legended saints.

And first for the blessed Virgin Marie, I yeeld her that which the Angel Gabriel pronounced of her, and which in her Canticle shee prophecied of herselfe: that is, That she 30 is blessed amongst women, and That all generations 31 shall call her blessed. I reuerence her as the Mother of Christ, whom of our Sauiour tooke his flesh, and so the Mother of God, since the Diuintie and Humanitie of Christ are inseparable. And I freely confesse, that shee is in glory both aboue Angels and men, her owne Sonne (that is both God and man) onely excepted. But I dare not mocke her and blaspheme against God, calling her not onely Diua but Dea, and praying her to command and controule her Sonne, who is her God; and her Saviour: Nor yet not I thinke, that shee hath no other thing to doe in heauen, then to heare euery idle mans suite, and busie her selfe in their errands; whiles requesting, whiles commanding her Sonne, whiles comming downe to kisse and make loue with Priestes, and whiles disputing and brawling with Deuils. In heauen shee is in eternall glory and ioy, neuer to bee interrupted with any worldly businesse; and there I leaue her with her blessed Sonne our Saviour and hers in eternall felicitie.

As for Prayer to Saints; Christ (I am sure) hath commanded vs to Come all to him that are loaden with sinne, and hee will relieue vs: 32 and Saint Paul hath forbidden vs to worship Angels;33 or to vse any such voluntary worship, that hath a shew of humilitie in that it spareth not the flesh. But what warrant wee haue to haue recourse vnto these Dij Penates or Tutelares, these Courtiers of God, I know not; I remit that to these Philosophicall Neoterike Diuines. It satisfieth mee to pray to God through Christ as I am commanded, which I am sure must be the safest way; and I am sure the safest way is the best way in points of saluation. But if the Romish Church hath coined new Articles of Faith, neuer heard of in the first 500. yeeres after Christ, I hope I shall neuer bee condemned for an Heretike, for not being a Nouelist. Such are the priuate Masses, where the Priest playeth the parth both of the Priest and of the people; And such are the Amputation of the one halfe of the Sacrament from the people; The Transsubstantion, Elevation for Adoration, and Circumportation in Procession of the Sacrament; the workes of Supererogation, rightly named Thesaurus Ecclesiae; the Baptising of Bels, and a thousand other trickes: But aboue all, the worshipping of Images. If my faith bee weake in these, I confesse I had rather beleeue too little then too much: And yet since I beleeue as much as the Scriptures doe warrant, the Creeds doe perswade, and the ancient Councels decreed; I may well be a Schismatike from Rome, but I am sure I am no Heretike.

For Reliques of Saints; If I had any such that I were assured were members of their bodies, I would honourably bury them, and not giue them the reward of condemned mens members, which are onely ordeined to bee depriued of buriall: But for worshipping either them or Images, I must account it damnable Idolatrie.

I am no Iconomachus; I quarrell not the making of Images, either for publike decoration, or for mens priuate vses: But that they should bee worshipped, bee prayed to, or any holinesse attributed vnto them, was neuer knowen of the Ancients: And the Scriptures are so directly, vehemently and punctually against it, as I wonder what braine of man, or suggestion of Sathan durst offer it to Christians; and all must bee salued with nice Philosophicall distinctions: As, Idolum nihil est: and, They worshop (forsooth) the Images of things in being, and the Image of the trew God. But the Scripture forbiddeth to worship the Image of any thing that God created. It was not a nihil then that God forbade onely to be worshipped, neither was the brasen Serpent, nor the body of Moses a nihil; and yet the one was destroyed, and the other hidden for eschewing of Idolatrie. Yea, the Image of God himselfe is not onely expresly forbidden to bee worshipped, but euen to bee made. The reason is giuen, That no eye euer saw God; and how can we paint his face, when Moses (the man that euer was most familiar with God) neuer saw but his backe parts ? Surely, since he cannot be drawn to the viue, it is a thankelesse labour to marre it with a false representation; which no Prince, nor scarce any other man will bee contented with in their owne pictures. Let them therefore that maintaine this doctrine, answere it to Christ at the latter day, when he shall accuse them of Idolatrie; And then I doubt if hee will bee payed with such nice sophisticall Distinctions.

But Christs Crosse must haue a particular priuiledge (say they) and bee worshipped ratione contactus. But first wee must know what kinde of touching of Christs body drew a vertue from it; whether euery touching, or onely touching by faith ? That euery touching of his body drew not vertue from it, is more then manifest. When the woman34 in the bloody fluxe touched him, she was healed of her faith: But Peter then told him that a crowd and throng of many people then touched him; and yet none of them receiued any benefite or vertue from him. Iudas touched him many and many a time, besides his last kisse; so did the vil- laines that buffeted and crucified him; and yet I may safely pronounce them accursed, that would bestow any worship vpon their reliques: yea wee cannot denie but the land of Canaan it selfe (whereupon our Lord did dayly tread) is so visibly accursed, beeing gouerned by faithlesse Turkes, full of innumerable sects of hereticall Christians, and the very fertilitie thereof so farre degenerated into a pitifull sterilitie, as hee must bee accursed that accounteth it blessed. Nay, when a certaine woman 35 blessed the belly that bare Christ, and the breastes that gaue him sucke; Nay, rather (saith hee) Blessed are those that heare the Word of God, and keepe it. Except then they could first prooue that Christ had re- solued to blesse that tree of the Crosse whereupon hee was nailed; they can neuer proue that his touching it could giue it any vertue. And put the case it had a vertue of doing miracles, as Peters shadow had; yet doeth it not follow, that it is lawful to worship it, which Peter would neuer accept of. Surely the Prophets that in so many places curse those that worship Images, that haue eyes and see not, that haue eares and heare not, would much more haue cursed them that worship a piece of a sticke, that hath not so much as any resemblance or representation of eyes or eares.

As for Purgatorie and all the trash 36 depending thereupon, it is not worth the talking of; Bellarmine cannot finde any ground for it in all the Scriptures. Onely I would pray him to tell me; If that faire greene Meadow that is in Purgatorie,37 haue a brooke running thorow it; that in case I come there, I may haue hawking vpon it. But as for me; I am sure there is a Heauen and a Hell, praemium & poena, for the Elect and reprobate: How many other roomes there be, I am not on God his counsell. Multæ sunt mansiones in domo Patris mei,38 saith Christ, who is the trew Purgatorie for our sinnes: But how many chambers and anti-chambers the diuell hath, they can best tell that goe to him: But in case there were more places for soules to goe to then we know of, yet let vs content vs with that which in his Word he hath reuealed vnto vs, and not inquire further into his secrets. Heauen and Hell are there reuealed to be the eternall home of all mankinde: let vs indeauour to winne the one and eschew the other; and there is an end.

Now in all this discourse haue I yet left out the maine Article of the Romish faith; and that is the Head of the Church or Peters Primacie; for who denieth this, denieth fidem Catholicam, saith Bellarmine. That Bishops ought to be in the Church, I euer maintained it, as an Apostolique institution, and so the ordinance of God; contrary to the Puritanes, and likewise to Bellarmine; 39 who denies that Bishops haue their Iurisdiction immediatly from God (But it is no wonder he takes the Puritanes part, since Iesuits are nothing but Puritan-papists.) And as I euer maintained the state of Bishops, and the Ecclesiasticall Hierarchie for order sake; so was I euer an enemie to the confused Anarchie or paritie of the Puritanes, as well appeareth in my ΒΑΣΙΛΙΚΟΝ ΔΩΡΟΝ. Heauen is gouerned by order, and all the good Angels there; nay, Hell it selfe could not subsist without some order; And the very deuils are diuided into Legions, and haue their chiefetaines: how can any societie then vpon earth, subsist without order and degrees ? And therefore I cannot enough wonder with what brasen face this Answerer could say, That I was a Puritane in Scotland, and an enemie to Protestants:40 I that was persecuted by Puritanes there, not from my birth onely, but euen since foure moneths before my birth ? I that in the yeere of God 84. erected Bishops, and depressed all their popular Paritie, I then being not 18. yeeres of aage ? I that in my said Booke to my Sonne, doe speake tenne times more bitterly of them nor of the Papists; hauing in my second Edition thereof, affixed a long Apologetike Preface, onely in odium Puritanorum ? and I that for the space of sixe yeeres before my comming into England, laboured nothing so much as to depresse their Paritie, and re-erect Bishops againe ? Nay, if the dayly Commentaries of my life and actions in Scot- land, were written (as Iulius Caesars were) there would scarcely a moneth passe in all my life, since my entring into the 13. yeere of my aage, wherein some accident or other would not conuince the Cardinall of a Lye in this point. And surely I giue a faire commendation to the Puritanes in that place of my booke, Where I affirme that I haue found greater honestie with the highland and border theeues, then with that sort of people. But leauing him to his owne impudence, I returne to my purpose.

Of Bishops and Church Hierarchie I very well allowe (as I said before) and likewise of Ranks and Degrees amongst Bishops. Patriarches (I know) were in the time of the Primitiue Church, and I likewise reuerence that Institution for order sake: and amongst them was a contention for the first place. And for my selfe (if that were yet the question) I would with all my heart giue my consent that the Bishop of Rome should haue the first Seate: I being a westerne King would goe with the Patriarch of the West. And for his temporall Principalitie ouer the Signory of Rome, I doe not quarrell it neither; let him in God his Name be Primus Episcopus inter omnes Episcopos, and Princeps Episcoporum; so it be no other- wise but as Peter was Princeps Apostolorum. But as I well allow of the Hierarchie of the Church for distinction of orders (for so I vnderstand it) so I vtterly deny that there is an earthly Monarch thereof, whose word must be a Law, and who cannot erre in his Sentence, by an infallibilitie of Spirit. Because earthly King- domes must haue earthly Monarches; it doeth not follow, that the Church must haue a visible Monarch too: for the world hath not One earthly temporall Monarch. Christ is his Churches Monarch, and the holy Ghost his Deputie: Reges gentium dominantur eorum, vos autem non sic.41 Christ did not promise before his ascension, to leaue Peter with them to direct and instruct them in all things; but he promised to send the holy Ghost vnto them for that end.42

And as for these two before cited places, whereby Bellarmine maketh the Pope to triumph ouer Kings: I meane Pasce oues, and Tibi dabo claues:43 the Cardinall knowes well enough, that the same words of Tibi dabo, are in another place spoken by Christ in the plurall number. And he likewise knowes what reason the Ancients doe giue, why Christ bade Peter pascere oues: and also what a cloude of witnesses there is, both of Ancients, and euen of late Popish writers, yea diuers Cardinals, that do all agree that both these speeches vsed to Peter, were meant to all the Apostles represented in his person: Otherwise how could Paul 44 direct the Church of Corinth to excommunicate the incestuous person cum spiritu suo, whereas he should then haue sayd, cum spiritu Petri? And how could all the Apostles haue otherwise vsed all their censures, onely in Christs Name, and neuer a word of his Vicar? Peter (wee reade) did in all the Apostles meetings sit amongst them as one of their number: And when chosen men were sent to Antiochia from that great Apostolike Councel at Ierusalem45 (Acts 15.) The text saith, It seemed good to the Apostles and Elders with the whole Church, to send chosen men, but no mention made of the Head thereof; and so in their Letters no mention is made of Peter, but onely of the Apostles, Elders and Brethren. And it is a wonder, why Paul rebuketh the Church of Corinth for making exception of Persons, because some followed Paul, some Apollos, some Cephas,46 if Peter was their visible Head! for then those that followed not Peter or Cephas, renounced the Catholike faith. But it appeareth well that Paul knew little of our new doctrine, since he handleth Peter so rudely, as he not onely compareth but preferreth himselfe vnto him.47 But our Cardinall proues Peters superioritie, by Pauls going to visite him.48In- deed Paul saith, hee went to Ierusalem to visite Peter, and conferre with him; but he should haue added, and to kisse his feet.

To conclude then, The trewth is that Peter was both in aage, and in the time of Christs calling him, one of the first of the Apostles; In order the principall of the first twelue, and one of the three whom Christ for order sake preferred to all the rest. And no further did the Bishop of Rome claime for three hundred yeeres after Christ: Subiect they were to the generall Councels, and euen but of late did the Councell of Constance depose three Popes, and set vp the fourth. And vntill Phocas dayes (that murthered his master) were they subiect to Emperours. But how they are now come to be Christs Vicars, nay, Gods on earth, triple- crowned, Kings of heauen, earth and hell, Iudges of all the world, and none to iudge them; Heads of the faith, Absolute deciders of all Controuersies by the infallibility of their spirit, hauing all power both Spirituall and Temporall in their hands; the high Bishops, Monarches of the whole earth, Superiours to all Em- perours and Kings; yea, Supreme Vice-gods, who whether they will or not cannot erre: how they are now come (I say) to the toppe of greatnesse, I know not: but sure I am, Wee that are Kings haue greatest neede to looke vnto it. As for me, Paul and Peter I know, but these men I know not: And yet to doubt of this, is to denie the Catholique faith; Nay, the world it selfe must be turned vpside downe, and the order of Nature inuerted (making the left hand to haue the place before the Right, and the last named to bee the first in honour) that this primacie may bee maintained.49

Thus haue I now made a free Confession of my Faith: And (I hope) I haue fully cleared my selfe from being an Apostate; and as farre from being an Here- tike, as one may bee that beleeueth the Scriptures, and the three Creedes, and acknowledgeth the foure first generall Councels. If I bee loath to beleeue too much, especially of Nouelties, men of greater knowledge may well pitie my weakenesse; but I am sure none will condemne me for an Heretike, saue such as make the Pope their God; and thinke him such a speaking Scripture, as they can define Heresie no otherwise, but to bee whatsoeuer Opinion is maintained against the Popes definition of faith. And I will sincerely promise, that when euer any point of the Religion I professe, shalbe proued to be new, and not Ancient, Catholike, and Apostolike (I meane for matter of Faith) I will as soone renounce it; closing vp this head with the Maxime of Vincentius Lirinensis,50 that I will neuer refuse to imbrace any opinion in Diuinity necessary to saluation, which the whole Catholike Church With an vnanime consent, haue constantly taught and beleeued euen from the Apostles dayes, for the space of many aages thereafter without any interruption. But in the Cardinals opinion, I haue shewed my selfe an Heretike (I am sure) in playing with the name of Babylon, and the Towne vpon seuen hilles; as if I would insinuate Rome at this present to be spiritually Babylon. And yet that Rome is called Babylon, both in Saint Peters Epistle,51 and in the Apocalyps, our Answerer freely confesseth. As for the definition of the Antichrist, I will not vrge so obscure a point, as a matter of Faith to bee necessarily beleeued of all Christians; but what I thinke herein, I will simply declare.

That there must be an Antichrist, and in his time a generall Defection; we all agree. But the Time, Seat, and Person of this Antichrist, are the chiefe Ques- tions whereupon wee differ: and for that we must search the Scriptures for our resolution. As for my opinion; I thinke S. Paul in the 2. to the Thessalonians52 doeth vtter more clearely that which Saint Iohn speaketh more mystically of the Antichrist.

First, that in that place hee meaneth the Antichrist, it is plaine, since hee saith, There must bee first a Defection; and that in the Antichrists time onely that eclipse of Defection must fall vpon the Church,53 all the Romish Catholikes are strong enough: otherwise their Church must be daily subiect to erre, which is cleane contrary to their maine doctrine. Then describing him (hee saith) that The man of Sinne, Filius perditionis, shall exalt himselfe aboue all that is called God.54 But who these be whom of the Psalmist55 saith Dixi vos Dij estis, Bellarmine can tell. In old Diuinitie it was wont to bee Kings; Bellarmine will adde Churchmen; Let it bee both. It is well enough knowen, who now exalteth himselfe aboue both the swords.

And after that S. Paul hath thus described the Person, he next describeth the Seat, and telleth that He shall sit in the Temple of God,56 that is, the bosome of the Church; yea, in the very heart thereof. Now where this Apostolike Seat is, I leaue to bee guessed: And likewise who it is that sitting there, sheweth himselfe to be God; pardoning sinnes, redeeming soules, and defining Faith, controlling and iudging all men, and to be iudged of none.

Anent the Time, S. Paul is plainest of all: For hee calleth the Thessalonians to memorie, That when hee was with them, hee told them these things; 57 and therefore they know (saith hee) what the impediment was, and who did withhold that the man of Sinne was not reuealed,58 although the mysterie of iniquitie was already working.59 That the Romane Emperours in Saint Pauls time needed no reuealing to the Christians to bee men of Sinne or sinfull men, no childe doubteth: but the reuela- tion hee speaketh of was a mysterie, a secret; It should therefore seeme that hee durst not publish in his Epistle what that impediment was. It may be he meant by the translating of the Seat of the Romane Empire, and that the translation thereof should leaue a roume for the man of Sinne to sit downe in. And that he meant not that man of Sinne of these Ethnicke Emperours in his time, his intro- duction to this discourse maketh it more then manifest. For he saith (fearing they should be deceiued, thinking the day of the Lords second comming to bee at hand) he hath therefore thought good to forewarne them that this generall Defection must first come: Whereby it well appeareth that hee could not meane by the present time but by a future, and that a good long time; otherwise he proued ill his argument, that the Lords comming was not at hand. Neither can the forme of the Destruction of this man of Sinne agree with that maner of spoile, that the Gothes and Vandals made of Ethnick60 Rome: For our Apostle saith, That this wicked man shull bee consumed by the Spirit of the Lords mouth, and abolished by his comming.61 Now I would thinke that the word of God and the Preaching thereof, should be meant by the Spirit of the Lords mouth,62 which should peece and peece consume and diminish the power of that man of Sinne, till the brightnes of the Lords second comming should vtterly abolish him. And by his expressing the meanes of his working, he doeth likewise (in my opinion) explane his meaning very much: For he saith, It shall be by a strong delusion, by lying wonders, &c.63 Well, what Church it is that vanteth them of their innumerable miracles, and yet most of them contrary to their owne doctrine; Bellarmine can best tell you with his hungry Mare, that turned her taile to her prouender and kneeled to the Sacra- ment: And yet (I am sure) he will be ashamed to say, that the holy Sacrament is ordained to be worshipped by Oues & Boues, & caetera pecora campi.64

Thus haue I prooued out of S. Paul now, that the time of the Antichrists com- ming, and the generall Defection was not to be till long after the time that he wrote in; That his Seat was to be in the Temple and Church of God; and, That his Action (which can best point at his Person) should be to Exalt himselfe aboue all that were called Gods. S. Iohn indeed doth more amply, though mystically describe this Antichrist, which vnder the figure of a monstrous Beast, with seuen heads and ten homes, he sets forth in the xiij. chap. and then interpreteth in the xvij. where hee calles her a Whore sitting vpon many waters,65 and riding vpon the sayd monstrous Beast; 66 concluding that chapter with calling that Woman, that great City which reigneth ouer the Kings of the earth.67 And both in that Chapter, and in the beginning of the next he calles that great Citie, Babylon.68

So as to continue herein my formerly purposed Methode, of the Time, Seat, and Person of Antichrist; this place doth clearely and vndenyably declare that Rome is, or shalbe the Seat of that Antichrist. For first, no Papist now denieth that by Babylon here Rome is directly meant; and that this Woman is the Anti- christ, doeth clearely appeare by the time of his working (described by 42. moneths in the xiij.Chap.69) which doeth iustly agree with that three yeeres and a halfes time, which all the Papists giue to the Reigne of Antichrist. Besides that, the Beast it selfe with seuen heads and tenne horses, hauing one of her heads wounded and healed againe, is described iust alike in the xiij. and xvij. Chap. being in the former prooued to be the Antichrist by the time of her reigne; and in the latter Rome by the name of Babylon, by the confession of all the Papists; So as one point is now cleare, that Rome is the Seat of the Antichrist.

Neither will that place in the eleuenth Chapter serue to shift off this point, and proue the Antichrists Seat to bee in Ierusalem; where it is saide; That the Corpses of the Witnesses shall lie in the great City, spiritually Sodome and Egypt,70 where our Lord also was crucified. For the word spiritually is applied both to Sodome, Egypt and Ierusalem in that place; And when hee hath named Sodome and Egypt, hee doeth not subioyne Ierusalem with a single vbi; but with an vbi &, as if hee would say; and this Antichrists abomination shall bee so great, as his Seate shall bee as full of Spirituall whoredomes and Idolatries, as Sodome and Egypt was; nay, and so bloody in the persecution of the Saints, as our Lord shall be crucified againe in his members. And who hath so meanely read the Scriptures (if he haue euer read them at all) that knoweth it not to be a common phrase in them, to call Christ persecuted and slaine, when his Saints are so vsed ? So did Christ say,71 speaking of the latter day; and in the same style did hee speake to S. Paul at his conuersion.72 And that Babylon, or Rome (since Bellarmine is con- tented it bee so called) is that great Citie where our Lord was crucified, the last verse of the xviij. Chap. doeth also clearely proue it: For there it is said, That in that City was found the blood of the Prophets, and of the Saints, and of all that were slaine vpon the earth; 73and I hope Christ was one of them that were slaine vpon the earth. And besides that it may well bee said that hee was slaine in that great Citie Babylon, since by the Romane authoritie hee was put to death, vnder a Romane Iudge, and for a Romane quarrell: for he could not be a friend to Caesar, that was not his enemie.

This point now being cleared of the Antichrists Seate, as I haue already sayd; we are next to find out the Time when the Antichrist shall reigne, if it be not already come. In the xiij. Chapter S. Iohn saith,74 that this Beast with the seuen heads and tenne homes, had one of his heads wounded and healed againe; 75 and interpreting that in the xvij. he saith, that these seuen heads are also seuen Kings, whereof fiue are fallen, one is, and an other is not yet come, and when hee commeth hee shall continue a short space. And the Beast that was and is not, is the eight, and yet one of the seuen.76 By which Beast hee meaneth the Antichrist, who was not then come, I meane in the Apostles dayes, but was to come after. So as betweene the time of the Apostles and the ende of the worlde, must the Time of the Anti- christs comming be; and with this the Papists doe also agree. Whereby it ap- peareth that Babylon, which is Rome, shall bee the Seate of the Antichrist; but not that Ethnicke Rome which was in the Apostles dayes (for Iohn himselfe pro- fesseth that hee is to write of nothing, but that which is to come after his time.)77 Nor yet that turning Christian Rome while shee was in the conuerting, which immediatly followed the Apostles time, glorious by the Martyrdome of so many godly Bishops: But that Antichristian Rome, when as the Antichrist shal set downe his seat there, after that by the working of that Mysterie of iniquitie, Christian Rome shall become to be corrupted; and so that deadly wound, which the Gothes and Vandales gaue Rome, shall bee cured in that Head or King, the Antichrist, who thereafter shall arise and reigne for a long space.

But here it may bee obiected, that the Antichrist cannot reigne a long space; since S. Iohn saith in two or three sundry places, that the Antichrist shall worke but the space of three yeeres and a halfe. Surely who will but a little acquaint himselfe with the phrases and Stile of S. Iohn in his Apocalyps, shall finde that he doth ordinarily set downe numerum certum pro incerto.78 So doeth hee in his twelue thousand of euery Tribe that will bee safe; so doeth he in his Armie of two hundred thousand, that were sent to kill the third part of the men;79 and so doeth he in diuers other places. And therefore who will but remember that in all his Visions in the said Booke, hee directly imitates the fashions of the Prophet Ezekiels, Daniels, and Zacharies Visions (borrowing their phrases that prophecied before Christ, to vtter his Prophecies in, that was to speake of the last dayes) shall finde it very probable that in these three dayes and a halfe, hee imitated Daniels Weekes, accounting for his Weeke the time betweene Christs first and second comming, and making Antichrist to triumph the halfe of that time or spirituall Weeke. For as to that literall interpretation (as all the Papists make it) of three yeeres and a halfe, and that time to fall out directly the very last dayes, saue flue and fourtie, before Christ his second comming, it is directly repugnant to the whole New Testament. For Christ saith, That in the latter dayes men shall be feasting, marrying, and at all such worldly businesse, when the last houre shall come in a clap vpon them; One shall be at the Mill; One vpon the top of the house,80 and so foorth. Christ telleth a Parable of the flue foolish Virgins,81 to shew the vnlooked-for comming of this houre, Nay, hee saith, the Sonne of man, nor the Angels in heauen know not this time. S. Peter biddeth vs Watch And Pray, euer awaiting vpon that houre. And S. Iohn in this same Apocalyps doeth 82 twise tell vs, that Christ will come as a thiefe in the night; And so doeth Christ say in the Euangel.83 Whereas if the Antichrist shall reigne three yeeres and a halfe before the Latter day, and that there shall bee but iust fourtie flue dayes of time after his destruction; then shall not the iust day and houre of the Latter day, bee vnknowne to them that shall be aliue in the world, at the time of Antichrists destruction. For first according to the Papists doctrine, all the world shall know him to be the Antichrist, both by the two Witnesses doctrine, and his sudden destruction; And consequently they cannot be ignorant, that the Latter day shall come iust fourtie fiue dayes after: and so Christ shall not come as a thiefe, nor the world bee taken at vnawares; contrary to all the Scriptures before alleadged, and many more. And thus haue we proued Rome to be the Seat of the Antichrist, and the second halfe of that spirituall Weeke betweene the first and second comming of Christ, to be the time of his Reigne: For in the first halfe thereof the mysterie of iniquitie began to worke; but the man of Sinne was not yet reuealed.

But who these Witnesses should be, is a great question. The generall conceit of the Papists is, that it must bee Enoch and Elias. And heerein is Bellarmine so strong, as hee thinketh him in a great errour (if not an Heretike) that doubteth of it. But the vanitie of the Iewish fable I will in few words discouer.

The Cardinall,84 in his booke of Controuersies, bringeth foure places of Scripture for probation of this idle dreame: two in the Old Testament, Malachie and Ecclesiasticus, and two in the New, Christ in Matthew (hee might haue added Marke too) and Iohn in the xj. of the Apocalyps. First, for the generall of all those places, I dare boldly affirme, That there is not a word in them, nor in all the rest of the Scriptures that saith, that either Enoch or Elias shall returne to fight against Antichrist, and shall bee slaine by him, nor any such like matter. Next as to euery place in particular, to begin with Malachie, I know not who can better interpret him then Christ, who twise in Matthew,85 Chap. xj. and xvij. and once in Marke,86 tels both the multitude, and his owne Disciples, that Iohn Baptist was that promised Elias. And heerein doeth Bellarmine deale most vnfaithfully with Christ: for in his demonstration that Antichrist is not yet come, because Enoch and Elias are not yet returned; hee, for his probation thereof, citeth these wordes of Christ in the xvij of Matthew, Elias shall indeed come, and restore all things; but omits his very next wordes interpreting the same, That hee is already come, in the person of Iohn Baptist. Nay, whereby hee taketh vpon him to an- swere Biblianders obiection, that Christ did by Iohn the Baptist, vnderstand the prophecie of Elias comming to be accomplished, he picketh out the words, Qui habet aures, audiat, in the xj. of Matthew, immediately following that purpose of Elias, making of them a great mysterie: and neuer taketh knowledge, that in the xvij. by himselfe before alleaged, Christ doeth interpret Malachie in the same maner without any subioyning of these words, Qui habet aures, audiat; adioyning shamelesly hereunto a foule Paraphrase of his owne, telling vs what Christ would haue said; nay, in my conscience, he meant what Christ should and ought to haue said, if he had bene a good Catholike, setting downe there a glosse of Orleance that destroyes the Text. Thus ye see: how shamefully he abuseth Christs words, who in three sundry places (as I haue said) interpreteth the second comming of Elias to be meant by Iohn the Baptist. He likewise cauils most dis- honestly vpon that word Venturus. For Christ vseth that word but in the re- peating their opinion: but interpreting it that he was already come in the person of Iohn Baptist. As if hee had said, The prophecie is indeed trew that Elias shall come; but I say vnto you, that Elias iam venit,87 meaning of Iohn Baptist: and so he first repeats the words of the prophecie in the future time, as the Prophet spake them; and next sheweth them to be now accomplished in the person of Iohn, in the present time. Neither can these words of Malachie [Dies magnus & hor- ribilis 88] falsifie ChristS Commentarie vpon him.89 For if that day whereupon the Sauiour of the world suffered, when the Sunne 90 was totally obscured from the sixt houre to the ninth; the Vaile of the Temple rent asunder from the top to the bottome; and the earth did quake, the stones were clouen, the graues did open themselues, and the dead arose: If that day (I say) was not a great and horrible day, I know not what to call a horrible day. Which day no doubt had destroyed the whole nation of the Iewes without exception by a iust Anatheme, if the said Iohn the fore-runner had not first conuerted many by the doctrine of Repentance and by Baptisme. But why should I presume any more to interprete Malachie,91 since it is sufficient that Christ himselfe hath interpreted him so ? And since Ipse dixit; nay, ter dixit, per quem facta sunt omnia, what mortall man dare interprete him otherwise; nay, directly contrary ?

Now for that place of Ecclesiasticus; 92 as the son of Sirach onely borroweth it from Malachie (as appeareth by these words of his, of conuerting the sonnes hearts to their fathers, which are Malachies93 own words) so doth ChristS Commentary serue as well to interprete the one as the other: it being no shame for that mortal Iesus, to be commented & interpreted by the immortall and trew Iesvs, though to the shame & confusion of the Iesuits heresies herein.

But Enoch must be ioyned to Elias in this errand, onely to beare vp the couples, as I thinke. For no place of Scripture speaketh of his returning againe, onely it is said in Ecclesiasticus 94 the 44. that Enoch pleased God, and was translated to Paradise, vt daret Gentibus sapientiam, or paenitentiam; since they will haue it so. And what is this to say ? marry that Enoch shall returne againe to this world, and fight against the Antichrist. A prettie large Comment indeed, but no right Commentary vpon that Text. When Bellarmine was talking of Elias; he in- sisted, That Elias must come to conuert the Iewes principally, restituere tribus Iacob. But when he speaketh here of Enoch, he must dare Gentibus pænitentiam, and not a word of Iewes. Belike they shall come for sundry errands, and not both for one: Or like Paul and Peter, the one shall be Apostle for the Iewes, and the other for the Gentiles. What need such wilde racked Commentaries for such three wordes? Will not the sense stand well and clearely enough, that Enoch pleased God, and was translated to Paradise; that by the example of his reward, the Nations might repent and imitate his Holy footsteps ? For what could more mightily perswade the Nations to repent; then by letting them see that holy Man carried quicke vp to Heauen, for reward of his vprightnesse; whereas all the rest of the people died and went to corruption ? And where Scripture faileth, the Cardinall must helpe himselfe with the Fathers, to prooue both that Enoch and Elias are yet aliue, and that they shall hereafter die; but with the like felicitie, as in his alledging of Scriptures; to vse his owne words of mee in his pamphlet:95 For which purpose he citeth flue Fathers; Irenæus, Tertullian, Epiphanius, Hierome and Augustine. Vpon this they all agree in deed, that Enoch and Elias are still aliue both, which no Christian (I hope) will denie: For Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob are all still aliue,96 as Christ telleth vs; for God is Deus viuentium, non mortuorum. Much more then are Enoch and Elias aliue, who neuer tasted of death after the maner of other men. But as to the next point, that they should die hereafter, his first two witnesses,97 Irenaeus and Tertullian say the direct contrary: For Irenaeus saith, that they shall remaine in Paradise, till the consummation, conspicantes incorruptionem. Now to remaine there till the consummation, and to see incorruption is directly contrary to their returning to the world againe and suffering of death. Tertullian 98 likewise agreeing hereunto, saith most clearely, That Enoch hath neuer tasted of death, vt æternitatis candidatus: now he is ill priuiledged with eternitie, if he must die againe. As for his places cited out of the other three Fathers, they all confirme that first point, That they are stil aliue; but that they must die again, they make no mention.

But he speaking of the Ancient Fathers, let mee take this occasion to forewarne you concerning them: That though they mistake and vnderstand not rightly many mysteries in the Apocalyps, it is no wonder: For the booke thereof, was still sealed in their dayes. And though the mysterie of iniquitie was already work- ing, yet was not the man of Sinne yet reuealed.99 And it is a certaine rule in all darke prophecies; That they are neuer clearely vnderstood, till they be accomplished.

And thus hauing answered his two places, in the Old Testament, by his third in the New Testament, conteining Christs owne words: which being luce clariora, I need speake no more of them. I am now to speake of the fourth place of Scripture, which is in the xj. of the Apocalyps: 100 For the two Witnesses (for- sooth) there mentioned, must be Enoch and Elias. But how this can stand with any point of Diuinitie or likelihood of reason, that these two glorified Bodies shall come downe out of heauen or Paradise, (make it what you will) preach, and fight against the Antichrist, bee slaine by him after many thousand yeeres ex- empted from the naturall course of death, rise againe the third day in imitation of Christ, and then (hauing wrought many wonders) to goe vp againe to Heauen, making an ordinary Poste betwixt Heauen and Earth: how this (I say) can agree either with Diuinitie or good Reason, I confesse it passeth my capacitie. And especially that they must be clad in Sackcloth, whose bodies (I hope) haue bene so long agone free from sinne, as I thinke they shall neede no more such macera- tion for sinne: For they must be now either in Heauen or Paradise: If in heauen, (as doubtlesse they are) their bodies must bee glorified; for no corruptible thing can enter there; 101 and consequently they can no more bee subiect to the sensible things of this world, especially to death: But if they be in earthly Paradise, we must first know where it is. Bellarmine 102 indeed in his Controuersies is much troubled to finde out the place where Paradise is, and whether it bee in the earth, or in the ayre. But these are all vanities. The Scriptures tell vs, that Paradise and the garden of Eden therein, was a certaine place vpon the earth, which God chose out to set Adam into,103 and hauing thereafter for his sinne banished him from the same, it is a blasphemie to thinke that any of Adams posteritie came euer there againe. For in Adam were all his posteritie accursed, and banished from the earthly Paradise: like as all the earth in generall, and Paradise in speciall were accursed in him; the second Adam hauing by grace, called a certaine number of them to bee Coheritours with him of the heauenly Paradise and Ierusalem. And doubtlesly, the earthly Paradise was defaced at the Flood, if not before: and so lost all that exquisite fertilitie and pleasantnesse, wherein it once surpassed all the rest of the earth. And that it should be lifted vp in the ayre, is like one of the dreames of the Alcoran. Surely no such miracle is mentioned in the Scriptures, and hath no ground but from the curious fancies of some boyling braines, who cannot be content, Sapere ad sobrietatem.104

In heauen then for certaine are Enoch and Elias: for Enoch (saith the Text) walked with God,105 and was taken vp, and Elias was seene caried vp to heauen in a fierie chariot.106 And that they who haue beene the In-dwellers of Heauen these many thousand yeeres, and are freed from the Lawes of mortalitie; that these glorious and incorruptible bodies (I say) shall come in the world againe, preach and work miracles, and fighting against the Antichrist be slaine by him, whom naturall death could not before take hold of: as it is a fabulous inuention, so is it quite contrary to the nature of such sanctified creatures. Especially I wonder, why Enoch should bee thought to bee one of these two Witnesses for Christ: For it was Moses and Elias that were with Christ, at the transfiguration; signifying the Law and the Prophets: which would be the fittest witnesses for conuincing of Antichrist. But why they haue exempted Moses, and put Enochs head in the yoake, I cannot conceiue. So as I haue too much laboured in the refuting of this foolish, and indeed childish fable; which I am so farre from beleeuing in any sort, as I protest in GodS presence, I cannot hold any learned Diuine (in our aage now) to be a Christian, that will beleeue it; but worthy to bee ranked with the Scribes and Pharises, that raued and dreamed vpon the comming againe of Elias, though Christ told them the contrary. As for some of the Ancients that mistooke this matter, I doe not censure them so hardly; for the reason that I haue already alleaged concerning them.

And hauing now refuted that idle fable; that those two Witnesses were Enoch and Elias: it falleth mee next to guesse, what in my opinion should bee meant by them. I confesse, it is farre easier to refute such a groundlesse fable as this is, contrary to all grounds of Diuinitie and Reason; then to set downe a trew inter- pretation of so high and darke a Mistery. And therefore as I will not presume to bind any other man to my opinion herein, if his owne reason leade him not there- unto; so shall I propone such probable coniectures, as (I hope) shall be free from Heresie, or vnlawfull curiostie.

In two diuers fashions may the Mysterie of these Witnesses be lawfully and probably interpreted, in my opinion. Whereof the one is, that by these two Witnesses should be meant the Old and New Testaments: For as the Antichrist cannot chuse but bee an aduersary to the Word of God aboue all things; so will hee omit no endeuour to disgrace, corrupt, suppresse and destroy the same. And now whether this Booke of the two Testaments, or two Witnesses of Christ, haue suffered any violence by the Babylonian Monarchie or not; I need say nothing; Res ipsa loquitur. I will not weary you with recounting those Common Places vsed for disgracing it: as calling it a Nose of waxe, a dead Letter, a leaden Rule, a hundreth such like phrases of reproch. But how farre the Traditions of men, and authoritie of the Church are preferred to these Witnesses, doeth sufficiently appeare in the Babylonian doctrine. And if there were no more but that little booke, with that prettie Inscription, De l'Insuffisance de l'Escriture Sainte, 107 it is enough to proue it.

And as to the corrupting thereof; the corruptions of the old Latine translation must not be corrected, though it bid euertere domum in stead of euerrere, for seek- ing of a penie; 108 and though it say of Iohn, Sic eum volo manere donec veniam,109 in place of Si, though it be knowne a plaine Lie, and that the very next words of the Text disproue the same. Nay, so farre must wee be from correcting it, as that the Vulgar Translation must be preferred by Catholikes, to the Bible in the owne Originall tongue. And it is a small corrupting of Scriptures to make all, or the most part of the Apocrypha of equall faith with the Canonicall Scriptures, contrary to the Fathers opinions and Decrees of ancient Councels ? And what blasphemous corrupting of Scripture is it, to turne Dominus into Domina throughout the whole Psalmes ? And thus our Ladies Psalter 110 was lately re- printed in Paris. Is not this to confound ChristS person with hers ? And as for suppressing of the Scriptures; how many hundreth yeeres were the people kept in such blindenes, as these Witnesses were almost vnknowne ? for the Layicks durst not, being forbidden, and the most part of the Cleargie, either would or could not meddle with them.

Thus were these two Witnesses of Christ, (whom of himselfe saith, Scrutamini Scripturas, illae enim testimonium perhibent de me) 111 These 112 two Oliues bringing peace to all the beleeuers, euen peace of Conscience: These 113 two Candlesticks standing in the sight of God, and giuing light to the Nations; represented by Candlesticks euen in the very order of the Roman Masse: 114 Thus were these two Witnesses (I say) disgraced, corrupted and suppressed (nay, so suppressed and silenced, as he was brent for an Heretike that durst presume to looke vpon them) kept close in a strange tongue, that they might not be vnderstooff, Legends and lying wonders supplying their places in the Pulpits. And so did their Bodies lie in the streets of the great Citie, spiritually Sodome,115 for spiritual fornication which is idolatrie; spiritually Egypt, for bringing the Saints of God in bondage of humane traditions116 [Quare oneramini ritibus.] So did their bodies (I say) lie 3. dayes and a halfe; 117 that is, the halfe of that spirituall Weeke betweene Christ his first and second comming; and as dead carkases indeed did the Scriptures then lye with- out a monument, being layed open to all contempt, cared for almost by none, vnderstood by as few; nay, no man durst call for them for feare of punishment, as I haue already said. And thus laying dead, as it were, without life or vigour (as the Law of God did till it was reuiued in Iosias time 118) The Inhabitants of the earth, that is, wordly men reioyced and sent gifts to other,119 for ioy that their fleshly libertie was now no more awed, nor curbed by that two edged sword, for they were now sure, that do what they would, their purse would procure them pardons from Babylon. Omnia vaenalia Romae; so as men needed no more to looke vp to heauen, but downe to their purses to finde Pardons. Nay, what needed any more suing to heauen, or taking it by violence and feruencie of zeale; when the Pardons came and offered themselues at euery mans doores ? And diuers spirituall men vanted themselues, that they neither understood Old Testament nor New.

Thus were these 2. Witnesses vsed in the second halfe of this spiritual weeke; who in the first halfe thereof were clad in sackcloth; 120 that is, preached repentance to all nations, for the space of 500. or 600. yeres after Christ: God making his Word or Witnes so triumph, riding vpon the white horse 121 in the time of the Primi- tiue Church, as that they ouercame al that opposed themselues vnto it, beating downe euery high thing, as Paul122 saith; excluding from heauen al that beleeue not therein: as strongly with the spiritual fire thereof, conuincing the stif-necked pride of vnbeleeuers, as euer Moses or Elias did, by the plagues of Egypt and famine, conuince the rebellious Egyptians and stif-necked Israelites.

Neither shall it be enough to disgrace, corrupt and suppresse them; but Killed must they be at the last.123 To which purpose commeth forth124 Censura generalis, vt mucrone censorio iugulare eas possit; and cutteth their throats indeed: For the author ordaineth al translations, but their owne to be burnt, which is yet commonly practised: nay he professeth, he commeth not to correct but to destroy them, controlling and calling euery place of Scripture Heretical, that disagreeth from their Traditions (with almost as many foule words and railing epithetes, as the Cardinal bestoweth on my Apologie) not ruling, nor interpreting Scripture by Scripture, but making their Traditions to be such a touchstone for it, as he condemneth of Heresie, not onely those places of Scripture that he citeth, but layeth the same general condemnation vpon al other the like places where- soeuer they be written in the Scriptures. And yet (praised be God) we beginne now with our eyes, as our predecessors haue done in some aages before, to see these Witnesses rise againe,125 and shine in their former glory: God, as it were, setting them vp againe vpon their feete, and raising them to the Heauens in a tri- umphall cloud of glory,126 like Elias his fiery chariot. Which exalting of the Gospel againe, hath bred such an earthquake 127 and alteration amongst many Nations: as a tenth part, or a good portion of these that were in subiection to that Great Citie, to wit, Babylon, are fallen from her; seuen thousand, that is, many thousands hauing bene killed vpon the occasion of that great alteration; and many other conuerted to the feare of God, and giuing glory to the God of heauen. This now is one of the wayes, by which (I thinke) this place of Scripture may be lawfully and probably interpreted.

The other is more common, and seemeth more literally to agree with the Text. And this is to interpret, not the word of God, but the Preachers thereof to bee meant by these Witnesses. Few they were that first began to reueale the man of Sinne, and discouer his corruptions; and therefore well described by the number of two Witnesses: 128 Nam in ore duorum aut trium testium stabit omne verbum. And in no greater number were they that began this worke, then the greatnesse of the errand did necessarily require. They prophesied in sackecloth,129 for they preached re- pentance. That diuers of them were put to cruell deaths, is notorious to the world: And likewise that (in the persons of their Successours in doctrine) 130 they rose againe; and that in such power and efficacie, as is more then miraculous: For where it is accounted in the Scriptures a miraculous worke of God wrought by his holy Spirit,131 When the Apostle Saint Peter, conuerted about three thousand in one day; 132 these Witnesses I speak of, by the force of the same Spirit, conuerted many mightie Nations in few yeeres, who still continue praising God, that hee hath deliuered vs from the tyrannie of Antichrist, that reigneth ouer that great Citie; and with a full crie proclaiming, Goe out of her my people, lest yee bee partaker of her sinnes and of her plagues.133 Let therefore these Miracle-mongers that surfeit the world, and raise the price of paper daily, with setting foorth old, though new gilded Miracles and Legends of lies; Let such (I say) consider of this great and wonderfull Miracle indeed, and to their shame, compare it with their paultry wares. Thus hauing in two fashions deliuered my coniecture, what I take to bee meant by these two Witnesses in the xj. of the Apocalyps, there beeing no great difference betweene them: In the one, taking it to bee the Word of God it selfe; In the other, the Word of God too, but in the mouthes of his Preachers: It resteth now that I come to the third point of the description of Antichrist; which is anent his Person.

That by the Whore of Babylon that rideth vpon the Beast, is meant a Seate of an Empire, and a successiue number of men sitting thereupon, and not any one man; doeth well appeare by the forme of the description of the Antichrist thorow- out all the said Booke. For in the last verse 134 of the xvij. Chapter, the Woman is expounded to bee, That great Citie that reigneth ouer the Kings of the earth; which cannot signifie the onely Person of one man, but a successiue number of men (as I haue already said) whose Seat 135 that great Citie must be: like as in the same Chapter, The seuen heads of the Beast are two wayes expounded. First, they are called seuen Hils, which is plaine; and next they are called seuen Kings, which cannot bee meant by the Kings that shall giue their power to the Beast,136 and bee subiect vnto her, which is immediatly after expressed by the tenne hornes:137 But rather appeareth to be those seuen formes of gouernment of that Seat: flue of which had already beene and fallen; As Kings, Consuls, Dictators, Decemuiri and Tribuni militum. The sixt was in the time of S. Iohn his writing of this booke, which was the Gouernement of the Emperour. The seuenth which was not yet come, and was to last but for a short space, was the Ecclesiasticall gouernment by Bishops,138 which was not come vpon the translation of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople; though their gouernment was in a manner substitute to the Em- perours: For though that forme of Gouernement lasted about the space of 276. yeeres; yet was it but short in comparison of the long time of the reigne of the Antichrist (not yet expired) which succeeded immediatly thereunto. And the eight, which is the Beast that was and is not, and is to goe to perdition,139 is the Antichrist: the eight forme of Gouernment indeed by his absolutenesse, and yet the seuenth, because hee seemeth but to succeed to the Bishop in an Ecclesiasticall forme of Gouernement, though by his greatnesse hee shall make Babylons Empire in glory, like to that magnificence wherein that great Citie triumphed, when it most flourished: which in Saint Iohns time was much decayed, by the factions of the great men, the mutinies of the armies, and the vnworthines of the Emperours. And so that flourishing state of that great Citie or Beast, which it was in before S. Iohns time, and being much 140 decayed was but in a maner in his time, should be restored vnto it againe by Antichrist: who as he ascendeth out of the bottomless pit, so must he goe to Destruction. And likewise by that great lamentation that is made for the destruction of Babylon in the eighteenth Chapter, both by the Kings, and by the Merchants of the earth; where it is thrice repeated for aggrauating the pitie of her desolation, that That great Citie fell in an houre: By that great lamentation (I say) it well appeareth, That the raigne of Antichrist 141 must con- tinue longer then three yeeres and a halfe, or any one mans time: For the Kings that had committed fornication 142 with her, & in delicijs vixerant, behoued to haue had a longer time for contracting of that great acquaintance: And the Merchants of the earth 143 set her forth and describe her at great length, as the very staple of all their riches; which could not be so soone gathered as in one mans time. And to conclude now this description of the Antichrist; I will set downe vnto you all that is spoken of him in the Apocalyps in a short methode, for the further explaining of these three points that I haue already handled.

The Antichrist is foure times (in my opinion) described by Iohn in the Apo- calyps, in foure sundry visions; and a short Compendium of him repeated againe in the xx. Chapter. He is first described by a pale Horse 144 in the vision of the Seales in the sixt Chapter: For after that Christ had triumphed vpon a white Horse 145 in the first Seale, by the propagation of the Gospel; and that the red Horse 146 in the second Seale, is as busie in persecution, as Christ is in ouercom- ming by the constancie of his Martyrs; and that famine and other plagues signi- fied by the blacke Horse 147 in the third Seale, haue succeeded to these former persecutions: Then commeth forth the Antichrist vpon a pale horse 148 in the 4. Seale, hauing Death for his rider, and Hell for his conuoy; which rider fitted well his colour of palenesse: and he had power giuen 149 him ouer the fourth part of the earth (which is Europe) to kill with the sword, and vse great persecution; as Ethnick Rome did, figured by the red horse: and to kill with spirituall hunger or famine of the trew word of God; as the black horse did by corporal famine & with death, whereby spiritual death is meant. For the Antichrist, signified by this pale horse, shal afflict the Church both by persecution and temporal death; as also by alluring the Nations to idolatry, and so to spiritual death: and by the beast of the earth shall he procure their spiritual death; for he shall send out the Locusts (ouer whom he is King) mentioned in the 9. Chap. of this booke; and the 3. frogs, mentioned in the 16. of the same; for intising of al Kings and nations to drinke of the cup of her abominations. That that description now of Antichrist endeth there, it is more then plaine: for at the opening of the first Seale, the soules and blood of the murthered Saints cry for vengeance and hasting of iudgment;150 which in the sixt Seale is granted vnto them by ChristS comming at the Latter day: signified by heauens departing away, like a scroll when it is rolled:151 with a number of other sentences to the same purpose.

But because this might seeme a short and obscure description of the Antichrist, he describeth him much more largely and specifikely, especially in the vision of the Trumpets 152 in the 9. Chapter. For there he saith, at the blowing of the first Trumpet, Heresies being first spread abroad in three of the foure former blasts; to wit, in the first, third, and fourth blast (for I take temporall persecution to be onely signified by the second blast) he then saw a starrefallfrom Heauen, to whom was giuen the key of the bottomles pit; 153 which being opened by him, with the smoke thereof came foorth a number of Locusts,154 whom hee largely describeth, both by their craft & their strength; and then telleth the name of this their king, who brought then out of the bottomles pit, which is, Destroyer.155 By this starre fallen from heauen, being signified, as I take it, some person of great dignitie in the Church, whose duetie being to giue light 156 to the world (as Christ saith) doth contrary thereunto fall away like Lucifer, and set vp a kingdome, by the sending forth of that noisome packe of craftie cruell vermine, described by Locusts: and so is the Seat of the Antichrist begun to be erected, whose doctrine is at length declared in the second woe, after the blast of the sixt Trumpet;157 where it is said, That the remnant of men which were not killed by the plagues,158 repented not of the workes of their hands, that they should not worship diuels, and idols of gold, and of siluer & of brasse, and of stone, and of wood, which neither can see, heare, nor goe. (As for worshipping of diuels; looke your great Iesuited doctour, Vasques:159 and as for all the rest, it is the maine doctrine of the Roman Church.) And then it is subioyned in this Text, that they repented not of their murther, their sorcerie, their fornications, nor their theft.160

By their murther, their persecution is meant, and bloody massacres. For their Sorcery consider of their Agnus Dei, that will slocken fire; of the hallowed shirts, and diuers sorts of Reliques; and also of Prayers that will preserue men from the violence of shot, of fire, of sword, of thunder, and such like dangers; And iudge, if this be not very like to Sorcerie and incantation of charmes.

By their Fornication is meant both their spirituall fornication of Idolatry, and also their corporall fornication; which doth the more abound amongst them, as well by reason of the restraint of their Churchmen from marriage, as also because of the many Orders of idle Monastike liues amongst them, as well for men as women: And continuall experience prooueth, that idlenesse is euer the greatest spurre to lecherie. And they are guiltie of Theft, in stealing from God the titles and greatnes of power due to him, and bestowing it vpon their head, the Antichrist: As also by heaping vp their treasure with their iuggling wares and merchandise of the soules of men, by Iubiles, Pardons, Reliques and such like strong delusions.

That he endeth this description of Antichrist in the same ninth Chapter may likewise well appeare, by the Oath that that Mightie Angell sweareth161 in the sixth verse of the tenth Chapter: And after the blast of the sixt Trumpet, that time shall bee no more, and that when the seuenth Angell 162 shall blow his Trumpet, the mysterie of God shalbe finished, as he had declared it to his seruants the Prophets. Onely in the eleuenth Chapter he describeth the meanes whereby the Antichrist163 was ouercome, whose raigne he had before described in the ix. Chapter; and telleth vs that the two witnesses,164 after that they haue beene persecuted by the Antichrist shall in the end procure his destruction. And in case any should thinke, that the Antichrist is onely spoken of in the xj. Chapter, and that the Beast spoken of in the xiij. and xvij. Chapters doth onely signifie Ethnicke Rome; there needeth no other refutation of that conceit, then to remember them, that the Antichrist is neuer named in all that xj. Chapter, but where he is called in the seuenth verse thereof the Beast that commeth foorth of the bottomless pit: 165 which by the description of the place he commeth out of, prooueth it to be the same Beast which hath the same originall in the xvij. Chapter, and in the very same words; so as it is euer but the same Antichrist repeated, and diuersly described in diuers visions.

Now in the xij. and xiij.Chapters and so foorth till the xvij. he maketh a more large and ample propheticall description of the state of the Church, and reigne of the Antichrist: For in the xij. Chap. he figureth the Church by a Woman 166 flying from the Dragon (the Deuill) to the wildernesse; And when the Dragon seeth hee cannot otherwise ouer-reach her, hee speweth foorth waters like floods to carry her away;167 which signifieth many Nations, that were let loose to persecute and vexe the Church. And in the xxiij. Chapter,168 out of that Sea of Nations that persecuted her, ariseth that great Citie (Queene of all the Nations, and head of that persecu- tion) figured by a Beast with seuen heads and tenne homes, 169like a Leopard;170 as well for the colour because it was full of spots, that is, defiled with corruptions; as also vsing a bastard forme of gouernement, in shew spirituall, but in deed tem- porall ouer the Kings of the earth; like the Leopard that is a bastard beast be- twixt a Lion and a Parde: hauingfeete like a Beare, to signifie his great strength, and the mouth of a Lion, to shew his rauenous and cruell disposition.

This Beast who had his powerfrom the Dragon, and had gotten a deadly wound in one of his heads,171 or formes of gouernment (by the Gothes and Vandals) and yet was healed againe; opened his mouth to blasphemies,172 and made warre against the Saints:173 nay, all the world must worship him; which worship Ethnicke Rome neuer craued of any, being contented to call their neighbour Kings Amici & socij populi Romani. And whether worship or adoration, euen with that same title, he vsed to Popes at their creation, our Cardinall can best tell you.

But then commeth another beast vp out of the earth,174 hauing indeed a more firme and setled originall: for she doeth visibly and outwardly succeed to the trew Church, and therefore she hath two homes like the Lambe, in outward shew repre- senting the spouse of Christ, and pretending Christ to be her defence: But she speaketh like the Dragon, teaching damnable and deuilish doctrine. And this Apostatike (I should say Apostolike) Church, after that she hath made her great power manifest to the world, by doing all that the first Beast could doe,175 In con- spectu eius; that is, by shewing the greatnesse of her power, to be nothing in- feriour to the greatnesse of the former Ethnicke Empire: she then is mooued with so great a desire to aduance this Beast, now become Antichrist, as she causeth the earth and all that dwell therein, to worship this former Beast or Roman Monarch; transferring so, as it were, her owne power in his person. Yea, euen Emperours and Kings shall be faine to kisse his feet. And for this purpose shall shee worke great Miracles, wherein she greatly prides her selfe, deceiuing men with lying wonders and efficacie of lyes, as S. Paul176 saith. And amongst the rest of her wonders, she must bring Fire out of heauen,177 Fulmen excommunication[i]s, which can dethrone Princes: So that all that will not worship the image of the Beast,178 that is, his vnlimited Supremacie, must be killed and burnt as Heretikes. Yea, so peremp- tory will this Beast or false Prophet be (so called in the xvj. Chapter of this booke) for the aduancement of the other Beast or Antichrist; as all sorts and rankes of people must receiue the marke 179 or name of that Beast in their right hand, or in their forehead; without the which it should be lawfull to none to buy, or sell: 180 by the Marke in theforehead, signifying their outward profession and acknowledgement of their subiection vnto her; and by the Marke in their right hand, signifying their actuall implicite obedience vnto her, who they thinke cannot erre, though she should commaund them to rebell against their naturall princes; like that Caeca obedientia whereunto all the Iesuits are sworne: and like those Romish Priests in this Coun- trey, that haue renounced and forsworne againe that Oath of Allegiance, grounded vpon their naturall Oath; which though at their taking it, they confessed they did it out of conscience, and as obliged thereunto by their naturall duetie; yet now must they forsweare it againe, for obedience to the Popes command; to whose will their conscience and reason must be blindly captiuated. And who euer denied this absolute power, might neither buy nor sell; for no man was bound to keepe any faith, or obserue any ciuill contracts with Heretikes: yea, to aequiuo- cate and commit periury towards them, is a lawfull thing in a Catholike.

Now as to the Mysterie anent the Number of his name;181 whether it shalbe vnder- stood by the number composed of the Letters in that Greeke word ΛΑΤΕΙΝΟΣ ;182 which word well sutes with the Romish Church, Romish Faith, and Latine Ser- uice: Or whether in respect that in the Text it is called the number of the man, ye will take it for the number or date of the yeere of God, wherein that first man liued, that first tooke the title of the Antichrist vpon him; I leaue it to the Readers choice. By that first Man, I meane Bonifacius tertius, who first called himselfe Vniuersall Bishop; which S. Gregorie, that liued till within three yeeres of his time,183 foretold would be the style of the Antichrist, or his Præcursor: for though he died threescore yeeres before the 666. of Christ; yet was that Title but fully setled vpon his Successors, sixtie yeeres after his time. Or if ye list to count it from Pompey his spoiling of the Temple, to this same Mans time; it will goe very neere to make iust vp the said number 666.

Now the raigne of the Antichrist being thus prophetically described in the xiij. Chapter, his fall is prophecied in the xiiij. First by the ioyfull and triumphall New song184 of the Saints in heauen: And next by the proclamation of three Angels; whereof the first hauing an euerlasting Gospel 185 in his hand to preach to all Nations (the trew armour indeed wherewith the Witnesses fought against the Antichrist;) The first Angel, I say, proclaimed Feare and glory to God, since the houre of his Iudgement was come.186 And the second proclaimed the fall of Babylon,187 which is the destruction of the Antichrist. And the third prohibited vnder great paines, euen the paine of eternall damnation, that none should worship the Beast,188 or receiue his Marke. But though that in the rest of this Chapter the Latter day be againe prophecied, as a thing that shall come shortly after the reuealing of the man of Sinne: yet in the xv. Chap. he telleth of seuen plagues,189 vnder the name of Vials, that shall first fall vpon the Antichrist and his kingdome; which, being particularly set downe in the xvj. Chapter, he reckoneth among the rest. In the fift viall,190 the plague of darkenesse; yea, such darkenesse as the kingdome of Antichrist shall be obscured. Whereby at the powring foorth of the sixt Viall the way of the Kings of the East shall be prepared; 191 the man of Sinne being begun to be reuealed, and so all impediments remooued that might let the inuasion of that Monarchie: euen as that great riuer Euphrates that runneth by the literall Babylon, guarded it from the Kings of the East, the Medes and Persians, the time of the Babylonian Monarchie, till by the drying thereof, or vnexpected passage made through it by Cyrus,192 Babylon was wonne, and Baltasar destroyed, and his Monarchie ouerthrowne, euen while hee was sitting in that literall Babylon, corporally drunken and quaffing in the vessels ordained for GodS Seruice; and so sitting as it were in the Temple of God, and abusing the holy Mysteries thereof.

For remedy whereof, at the powring forth of the sixt Viall, three vncleane spirits, like frogs, shall then come foorth out of the mouth of the Dragon, that beast, and of the false prophet;193 which I take to be as much to say, as that how soone as the kingdome of Antichrist shall be so obscured, with such a grosse and a palpable ignorance, as learning shall be almost lost out of the world, and that few of the very Priests themselues shall be able to reade Latine, much lesse to vnderstand it; and so a plaine way made for the Destruction of Babylon: Then shall a new sect of Spirits arise for the defence of that falling Throne, called three in number, by reason of their three-fold direction; being raised and inspired by the Dragon Sathan, authorized and maintained by the Beast the Antichrist, and instructed by the false prophet the Apostatike Church, that hath the homes like the Lambe, but speaketh like the Dragon. These Spirits indeed, thus sent foorth by this threefold authoritie for the defence of their Triple-crowned Monarch, are well likened to frogges; for they are Amphibions, and can liue in either Element, earth or water: for though they be Churchmen by profession, yet can they vse the trade of politique Statesmen; going to the Kings of the earth, to gather them to the battell of that Great day of God Almightie.194 What Massacres haue by their per- swasion bene wrought through many parts of Christendome, and how euilly Kings haue sped that haue bene counselled by them; all the vnpartiall Histories of our time doe beare record. And whatsoeuer King or State will not receiue them, and follow their aduise, rooted out must that King or State be, euen with Gunpowder ere it faile. And thesefrogges had reason indeed to labour to become learned, thereby to dissipate that grosse mist of ignorance, wherewith the reigne of Antichrist was plagued before their comming forth.195 Then doeth this Chapter conclude with the last plague that is powred out of the seuenth Viall vpon the Antichrist, which is the day of Iudgement: for then Babylon (saith he) came in remembrance before God.196

But in the 17. Chapter is the former Vision interpreted and expounded;197 and there is the Antichrist represented by a Woman, sitting vpon that many-headed Beast; because as Christ his trew Spouse and Church is represented by a Woman in the twelfth Chapter, so here is the Head of his adulterous spouse or false Church represented also by a woman, but hauing a cup full of abominations in her hand:198 as her selfe is called a Whoore,199 for her spiritual adulterie, hauing seduced the Kings of the earth to be partakers of her Spirituall fornication:200 And yet won- derful gorgious and glorious was she in outward shew; but drunken with the blood of the Saints,201 by a violent persecution of them. And that shee may the better bee knowen, hee writeth her name vpon her forehead agreeable to her qualities: A Mysterie,202 that great Babylon, the Mother of whoredomes and abominations of the earth. A Mysterie is a name that belongeth vnto her two maner of wayes: One, as shee taketh it to her selfe; another, as shee deserueth indeed. To her selfe shee taketh it, in calling herselfe the visible Head of the mysticall Body of Christ, in professing her selfe to bee the dispenser of the mysteries of God, and by her onely must they bee expounded: This great God in earth and Head of the Faith, being a Mystes by his profession; that is, a Priest. And if the obseruation of one be trew, that hee had of old the word Mysterie written on his Myter; then is this Prophecie very plainely accomplished. Now that indeed shee deserues that name, the rest of her Title doeth beare witnesse that sheweth her to bee the Mother of all the whoredomes and abominations of the earth:203 and so is she vnder the pretext of holinesse, a Mystery indeed of all inquitie and abominations; vnder the maske of pretended feeding of Soules, deuouring Kingdomes, and making Christendome swimme in blood.

Now after that this scarlet or bloody Beast and her Rider are described, by their shape, garments, name and qualities: the Angel doeth next interprete this vision vnto Iohn, expounding vnto him what is signified both by the Beast and her Rider; telling him, the seuen heads of the Beast are seuen Hilles,204 meaning by the situation of that Citie or seat of Empire; and that they are also seuen Kings or formes of gouernment in the said Citie, whereof I have told you my conceit already. As for the ten Hornes,205 which hee sheweth to be tenne Kings, that shall at one houre receiue their power and kingdome with the Beast, I take that number of ten to be Numerus certus pro incerto; euen as the number of seuen heads and ten homes vpon the Dragon the Deuill, cannot but be an vncertaine number. And that hee also imitates in those ten homes, the ten hornes of the seuen headed Beast in the seuenth of Daniel: and therefore I take these ten Kings to signifie, all the Christian Kings, and free Princes and States in generall, euen you whom to I consecrate these my Labours, and that of vs all he prophesieth, that although our first becomming absolute and free Princes, should be in one houre with the Beast: (for great Christian Kingdomes and Monarches did but rise, and receiue their libertie by the ruines of the Ethnicke Romane Empire, and at the destruction thereof) and at the very time of the beginning of the planting of the Antichrist there; and that we should for a long time continue to worship the Beast, hauing one Catholike or common consenting minde 206 in obeying her, yeelding our power and authoritie vnto her, and kissing her feete, drinking with her in her cup of Idolatrie, and fighting with the Lambe,207 in the persecution of his Saints, at her com- mand that gouerneth so many Nations and people: yet notwithstanding all this, wee shall in the time appointed by God, hauing thus fought with the Lambe, but being ouercome by him, that is conuerted by his Word, wee shall then (I say) hate the Whore,208 and make her desolate, and make her naked, by discouering her hypo- crisie and false pretence of zeale; and shall eate her flesh, and burne her with fire. And thus shall the way of the Kings of the East bee prepared,209 as ye heard in the sixteenth Chapter. And then doeth hee subioyne the reason of this strange change in vs: for (saith hee) God hath put it in their hearts to fulfill his will, and with one consent to giue their Kingdomes to the Beast, till the words of God be full filled,210 according to that sentence of Solomon; That the hearts of Kings are in the handes of God, to bee turned at his pleasure.211 And hauing thus interpreted the Beast or Empire; hee in a word expounds, that by the Woman that rode vpon her, or Monarch that gouerned her, was meant that great Citie212 that reigned ouer the Kings of the earth: by the Seate of the Empire pointing out the qualitie of the persons that should sit and domine there.

Then is the greatnesse of her fall, and the great lamentation that both the Kings and Merchants of the earth shall make for the same, proclaimed by an other Angel in the eighteenth Chapter. The Kings lamenting her fall,213 because they lied in pleasure with her; which no Kings could doe with Ethnicke Rome, who conquered them by her sword: for shee honoured them with Titles, and dispensed with their lustes and vnlawfull marriages. And the Merchants of the earth,214 and all Shipmasters, and traffikers vpon the Sea, shall lament the fall of that great Citie, which neuer had a fellow, for the losse of their riches and traffique, which they enioyed by her meanes. And there he describeth all sorts of rich wares,215 whereof that great Citie was the Staple: for indeed shee hath a necessary vse for all such rich and glorious wares, as well for ornaments to her Churches and princely Prelates, as for garments and ornaments to her woodden Saints; for the blessed Virgin must be dayly clothed and decked in the newest and most curious fashion, though it should resemble the habit of a Curtizane. And of all those rich wares, the most precious is last named, which is the Soules of men: 216 for so much bestowed vpon Masses, and so much doted to this or that Cloyster of Monkes or Friers, but most of all now to that irregular and incomprehensible order of Iesuites; shal both redeeme his owne Soule, and all his parents to the hundreth generation, from broyling in the fire of Purgatory. And (I hope) it is no small merchandise of Soules, when men are so highly deluded by the hopes and promise of Saluation, as to make a Frier murther his Soueraigne; 217 a yong knaue attempt the murther of his next Successour; 218 many one to conspire and attempt the like against the late Queene; and in my time, to attempt the destruction of a whole Kingdome and State by a blast of Powder: and hereby to play bankerupt with both the soules mentioned in the Scriptures, Animus & Anima.

But notwithstanding of this their great Lamentation, they are commanded by a voyce from heauen to doe two things: One, to flee from Babylon, lest they bee partakers of her sinnes,219 and consequently of her punishment. Which warning I pray God that yee all, my Beloued Brethren and Cousins, would take heed vnto in time, humbly beseeching him to open your eyes for this purpose. The other com- mand is, to reward her as shee hath rewarded you; yea, euen to the double.220 For as she did flie but with your feathers, borrowing as well her Titles of greatnesse and formes of honouring her from you; as also enioying all her Temporall liuing by your liberalities; so if euery man doe but take his owne againe, she will stand vp 221 naked; and the reason is giuen, because of her pride: For shee glorifieth her selfe liuing in pleasure, and in her heart saith, shee sitteth as a Queene (outward pro- speritie being one of their notes of a trew Church) and is no Widow;222 for her Spouse Christ is bound to her by an inuiolable knot (for he hath sworne neuer to forsake her) and she shall see no mourning: for she cannot erre, nor the gates of Hell shall not preuaile against her.

But though the earth and worldly men lament thus for the fall of Babylon in this eighteenth Chapter, yet in the nineteenth, Heauen and all the Angels and Saints 223 therein doe sing a triumphall Cantique 224for ioy of her fall, praising God for the fall of that great Whore: Great indeed, for our Cardinall 225 confesseth, that it is hard to describe what the Pope is, such is his greatnesse. And in the end of that Chapter is the obstinacie of that Whore described, who euen fought to the vttermost against him that sate on the white Horse,226 and his armie; till the Beast227 or Antichrist was taken, and the false Prophet, or false Church with him, who by Miracles, and lying wonders deceiued them that receiued the marke of the Beast; and both were cast quicke into the burning lake of fire and brimestone; vnde nulla re- demptio. Like as in the ende of the former Chapter, to describe the fulnesse of the Antichrists fall (not like to that reparable wound that Ethnicke Rome gate) it is first compared to a Milstone cast into the sea,228 that can neuer rise and fleete againe: And next it is expressed by a number of ioyfull things that shall neuer bee heard there againe, where nothing shall inhabite but desolation.229 But that the patience and constancie of Saints on earth, and God his Elected may the better bee strengthened and confirmed; their persecution in the latter dayes, is shortly prophesied and repeated againe, after that Satan hath beene bound,230 or his furie restrained, by the world enioying of peace for a thousand yeeres, or a great indefinite time; their persecuters being named Gog and Magog,231 the secret and reuealed enemies of Christ. Whether this be meant of the Pope and the Turke, or not; (who both began to rise to their greatnesse about one time) I leaue to bee, guessed; alwayes their vtter confusions232 is there assuredly promised: and it is said; that the Dragon, the Beast, and the false Prophet,233 shall all three bee cast in that lake of fire and brimstone, to be tormentedfor euer.234 And thereafter is the latter day described againe (which must be hastened for the Elects sake235) and then for the further comfort of the Elect, and that they may the more constantly and patiently endure these temporall and finite troubles, limited but to a short space; in the last two Chapters 236are the ioyes of the eternall Ierusalem largely described.

Thus hath the Cardinals shamelesse wresting of those two places of Scripture, Pasce oues meas, and Tibi dabo claues, for proouing of the Popes supreame Tem- porall authoritie ouer Princes; animated mee to prooue the Pope to bee THE ANTIChrist, out of this foresaid booke of Scripture; so to pay him in his owne money againe. And this opinion no Pope can euer make me to recant; except they first renounce any further medling with Princes, in any thing belonging to their Temporall Iurisdiction. And my onely wish shall bee, that if any man shall haue a fancie to refute this my coniecture of the Antichrist; that hee answere mee orderly to euery point of my discourse; not contenting him to disprooue my opinion, except hee set downe some other Methode after his forme for interpreta- tion of that Booke of the Apocalyps, which may not contradict no part of the Text, nor conteine no absurdities: Otherwise, it is an easie thing for Momus to picke quarrels in another mans tale, and tell it worse himselfe; it being a more easie practise to finde faults, then amend them.

Hauing now made this digression anent the Antichrist, which I am sure I can better fasten vpon the Pope, then Bellarmine can doe his pretended Temporall Superioritie ouer Kings: I will returne againe to speake of this Answerer; who (as I haue already told you) so fitteth his matter with his manner of answering, that as his Style is nothing but a Satyre and heape full of iniurious and reproch- full speaches, as well against my Person, as my Booke; so is his matter as full of lyes and falsities indeed, as hee vniustly layeth to my charge: For three lies hee maketh against the Oath of Alleagiance, conteined and maintained in my Booke; besides that ordinary repeated lie against my Booke, of his omitting to answere my lyes, trattles, iniurious speaches and blasphemies. One grosse lye he maketh euen of the Popes first Breue. One lye of the Puritanes, whom he would gladly haue to be of his partie. And one also of the Powder-Traitours, anent the occa- sion that mooued them to vndertake that treasonable practise. Three lies hee makes of that Acte of Parliament wherein this Oath of Allegiance is conteined. Hee also maketh one notable lie against his owne Catholike Writers. And two, of the causes for which two Iesuites haue beene put to death in England. And he either falsifies, denies or wrests flue sundry Histories and a printed Pamphlet: besides that impudent lye that hee maketh of my Person; that I was a Puritane in Scotland, which I haue already refuted. And for the better filling vp of his booke with such good stuffe; hee hath also flue so strange and new principles of Diuinitie therein, as they are either new, or at least allowed by very few of his owne Religion. All which lyes, with diuers others, and fiue strange, and (as I thinke) erroneous points of Doctrine, with sundry falsifications of Histories; are set downe in a Table by themselues in the end of this my Epistle, hauing their Refutation annexed to euery one of them.

But as for the particular answering of his booke; it is both vnnecessary and vncomely for me to make a Reply. Vnnecessary, because (as I haue already told you) my Booke is neuer yet answered, so farre as belongeth to the maine question anent the Oath of Allegiance: the picking of aduantages vpon the wrong placing of the figures in the citations, or such errors in the Print by casuall addition, or omission of words that make nothing to the Argument; being the greatest weap- ons wherewith hee assaults my Booke. And vncomely it must needs be (in my opinion) for a King to fall in altercation with a Cardinal, at least with one no more nobly descended then he is: That Ecclesiasticall dignitie, though by the sloath of Princes (as I said before) it be now come to that height of vsurped honour, yet being in the trew originall and foundation thereof nothing else, but the title of the Priests and Deacons of the Parish Churches in the towne of Rome; at the first, the stile of Cardinals being generally giuen to all Priests and Deacons of any Cathedral Church, though the multitude of such Cardinal Priests and Deacons resorting to Rome, was the cause that after bred the restraining of that title of Cardinall Priests and Deacons, onely to the Parish priests and Deacons of Rome. And since that it is S. Gregorie, who in his Epistles sixe hundreth yeeres after Christ, maketh the first mention of Cardinals (and so these now Electours of the Apostolike Sea, beeing long and many hundreth yeeres vnknowen or vnheard of, after the Apostolik aage; and yet doeth hee speake of them but in this sence as I haue now described) I hope the Cardinall, who calleth him the Apostle of England, cannot blame mee that am King thereof, to acknowledge the Cardinall in no other degree of honour, then our said Apostle did. But how they should now become to bee so strangely exalted aboue their first originall institution, that from Parish-priests and Deacons (Priests inferiours) they should now come to bee Princes and Peeres to Kings; and from a degree vnder Bishops (as both Bellarmine 237 and Onuphrius 238 confesse) to bee now the Popes sole Electours, supplying with him the place of a Generall Councell; whereby the conuening of Generall Councels is now vtterly antiquated and abolished; nay, out of their number onely, the Pope to be elected; who claimeth the absolute Superioritie ouer all Kings: how this their strange vsurped exaltation (I say) should thus creepe in and bee suffered, it belongeth to all them in our place and calling to looke vnto it; who being God his Lieutenants in earth, haue good reason to bee iealous of such vpstart Princes, meane in their originall, come to that height by their owne creation, and now accounting themselues Kings fellowes. But the speciall harme they do vs, is by their defrauding vs of our common & Christian interest in General Councels; they hauing (as I said) vtterly abolished the same, by rolling it vp, & making as it were a Monopoly thereof, in their Conclaue with the Pope. Whereas, if euer there were a possibilitie to be expected of reducing all Christians to an vniformitie of Religion, it must come by the means of a Generall Councel: the place of their meeting being chosen so indifferent, as all Christian Princes, either in their owne Persons, or their Deputie Commissioners, and all Church-men of Christian profession that beleeue and professe all the ancient grounds of the trew, ancient, Catholike, and Apostolike Faith, might haue tutum accessum thereunto; All the incendiaries and Nouelist fire-brands on either side being debarred from the same, as well Iesuites as Puritanes.

And therefore hauing resolued not to paine my selfe with making a Replie for these reasons heere specified, grounded as well vpon the consideration of the matter, as of the person of the Answerer; I haue thought good to content my selfe with the reprinting of my Apologie: hauing in a manner corrected nothing but the Copiers or Printers faults therein, and prefixed this my Epistle of Dedication and Warning thereunto; that I may yet see, if any thing will be iustly said against it: Not doubting but enow of my Subiects will replie vpon these Libellers, and an- swere them sufficiently; wishing Yov deepely to consider, and weigh your com- mon interest in this Cause. For neither in all my Apologie, nor in his pretended Refutation thereof, is there any question made anent the Popes power ouer mee in particular, for the excommunicating or deposing of mee: For in my particular; the Cardinall doeth mee that grace, that hee saith, The Pope thought it not ex- pedient at this time to excommunicate mee by name; our question being onely generall, Whether the Pope may lawfully pretend any temporall power ouer Kings, or no ?

That no Church-men can by his rule bee subiect to any Temporall Prince, I haue already shewed you; And what Obedience any of you may looke for of any of them de facto, hee plainely forewarneth you of, by the example of Gregory the Great his obedience to the Emperour Mauritius; not being ashamed to slaunder that great Personages Christian humilitie and Obedience to the Emperour, with the title of a constrained and forced obedience, because hee might, or durst doe no otherwise. Whereby he not onely wrongs the said Gregory in particular, but euen doeth by that meanes lay on an heauie slaunder and reproach vpon the Christian humilitie and patience of the whole Primitiue Church, especially in the time of persecution: if the whole glory of their Martyrdome and Christian patience shall bee thus blotted with that vile glosse of their coacted and constrained suffering, because they could or durst doe no otherwise; like the patience and obedience of the Iewes or Turkish slaues in our time, cleane contrary to Saint Paul 239 and Saint Peters 240 doctrine of obedience for conscience sake; and as contrary to Tertullians Apologie for Christians, and all the protestations of the ancient Fathers in that case. But it was good lucke for the ancient Christians in the dayes of Ethnicke Emperours, that this prophane and new conceit was then vnknowen among them: otherwise they would haue beene vtterly destroyed and rooted out in that time, and no man to haue pitied them, as most dangerous members in a Common- wealth; who would no longer be obedient, then till they were furnished with sufficient abilitie and power to resist and rebell.

Thus may ye see, how vpon the one part our Cardinall will haue all Kings and Monarchs to bee the Popes Vassals; and yet will not on the other side, allow the meanest of the Pope his vassals, to be subiect to any Christian Prince. But he not thinking it enough to make the Pope our Superior, hath in a late Treatise of his (called the Recognition of his bookes of Controuersies) made the people and Subiects of euery one of vs, our Superiors. For hauing taken occasion to reuisite againe his bookes of Controuersies, and to correct or explaine what he findeth amisse or mistaketh in them; in imitation of S. Augustine his retractions (for so he saith in his Preface) he doth in place of retracting any of his former errours, or any matter of substance; not retract, but recant indeed, I meane sing ouer againe, and obstinatly confirme a number of the grossest of them: Among the which, the exempting of all Church-men from subiection to any Temporall Prince, and the setting vp not onely of the Pope, but euen of the People aboue their naturall King; are two of his maine points.

As for the exemption of the Clerickes; he is so greedy there to proue that point, as he denieth Cæsar to haue beede Pauls lawfull Iudge: contrary to the expresse Text, and Pauls plaine Appellation,241 and acknowledging him his Iudge; besides his many times claiming to the Roman priuiledges, and auowing himselfe a Roman by freedome;242 and therefore of necessitie a Subiect to the Roman Emperour. But it is a wonder that these Romane Catholikes, who vaunt them- selues of the ancientie both of their doctrine and Church, and reproch vs so bitterly of our Nouelties, should not be ashamed to make such a new inept glosse as this vpon S. Pauls Text; which as it is directly contrary to the Apostles wordes, so is it without any warrant, either of any ancient Councell, or of so much as any one particular Father that euer interprets that place in this sort: Neither was it euer doubted by any Christian in the Primitiue Church, that the Apostles, or any other degree of Christians, were subiect to the Emperour.

And as for the setting vp of the People aboue their owne naturall King, he bringeth in that principle of Sedition, that he may thereby proue, that Kings haue not their power and authoritie immediatly from God, as the Pope hath his: For euery King (saith he) is made and chosen by his people; nay, they doe but so transferre their power in the Kings person, as they doe notwithstanding retaine their habituall power in their owne hands, which vpon certaine occasions they may actually take to themselues againe. This, I am sure, is an excellent ground in Diuinitie for all Rebels and rebellious people, who are hereby allowed to rebell against their Princes; and assume libertie vnto themselues, when in their discre- tions they shall thinke it conuenient.

And amongst his other Testimonies for probation, that all Kings are made and created by the People; he alledgeth the Creation of three Kings in the Scripture, Saul, Dauid and Ieroboam; and though hee bee compelled by the expresse words of the Text, to confesse, that God by his Prophet Samuel annointed both Saul 243 and Dauid;244 yet will he, by the post-consent of the people, proue that those Kings were not immediately made by God, but mediatly by the people; though he repeat thrise that word of Lott, by the casting whereof he confesseth that Saul was chosen. And if the Election by Lott be not an immediate Election from God; then was not Matthias,245 who was so chosen and made an Apostle, immediatly chosen by God: and consequently, he that sitteth in the Apostolike Sea cannot for shame claime to be immediatly chosen by God, if Matthias (that was one of the twelue Apostles, supplying Iudas his place) was not so chosen. But as it were a blasphemous impietie, to doubt that Matthias was immediatly chosen by God, and yet was hee chosen by the casting of Lots, as Saul was: so is it well enough knowen to some of you (my louing Brethren) by what holy Spirit or casting of Lots the Popes vse to be elected; the Colledge of Cardinals, his electors, hauing beene diuided in two mightie factions euer since long before my time; and in place of casting of Lotts, great fat pensions beeing cast into some of their greedy mouthes for the election of the Pope, according to the partiall humours of Princes. But I doe most of all wonder at the weakenesse of his memorie: for in this place he maketh the post-consent of the people to be the thing that made both these Kings, notwithstanding of their preceding inauguration and anoyntment by the Prophet at GodS commandement; forgetting that in the beginning of this same little booke of his, answering one that alledgeth a sentence of S. Cyprian, to prooue that the Bishops were iudged by the people in Cyprians time, he there confesseth, that by these words, the consent of the people to the Bishops Election must be onely vnderstood. Nor will he there any wayes be mooued to graunt, that the peoples power, in consenting to or refusing the Election of a Bishop, should be so vnderstood, as that thereby they haue power to elect Bishops: And yet do these words of Cyprian seeme to bee farre stronger, for granting the peoples power to elect Churchmen, then any words that he alledgeth out of the Scripture are for the peoples power in electing a King. For the very words of Cyprian 246 by himselfe there cited, are, That the very people haue principally the power, either to chuse such Priests as are worthy, or to refuse such as are vnworthie: And, I hope, hee can neuer prooue by the Scripture, that it had beene lawfull to the people of Israel, or that it was left in their choise, to haue admitted or refused Saul or Dauid at their pleasure, after that the Prophet had anoynted them, and presented them vnto them.

Thus yee see how little he careth (euen in so little a volume) to contradict himselfe, so it may make for his purpose; making the consent of the people to signifie their power of Election in the making of Kings; though in the making of Bishops, by the peoples consent, their approbation of a deed done by others must onely be vnderstood. And as for his example of Ieroboams 247 election to bee King; hee knoweth well enough, that Ieroboam was made King in a popular mutinous tumult and rebellion; onely permitted by God, and that in his wrath, both against these two Kings and their people. But if he will needs helpe himselfe, against all rules of Diuinitie, with such an extraordinary example for proofe of a generall Rule; why is it not as lawfull for vs Kings to oppose hereunto the ex- ample of Iehu248 his Inauguration to the Kingdome; who vpon the Prophets priuat anointment of him, and that in most secret manner, tooke presently the Kings office vpon him, without euer crauing any sort of approbation from the people ?

And thus may ye now clearely see, how deepe the claime of the Babylonian Monarch toucheth vs in all our common interest: for (as I haue already told) the Pope, nor any of his Vassals, I meane Church-men must be subiect to no Kings nor Princes: and yet all Kings and their Vassals must not onely be subiect to the Pope, but euen to their owne people. And now, what a large libertie is by this doctrine left to Church-men, to hatch or foster any treasonable attempts against Princes; I leaue it to your considerations, since do what they will, they are ac- countable to none of vs: nay, all their treasonable practises must be accounted workes of pietie, and they (being iustly punished for the same) must be presently inrolled in the list of Martyrs and Saints; like as our new printed Martyrologie hath put Garnet and Ouldcorne in the Register of English Martyrs abroad, that were hanged at home for Treason against the Crowne and whole State of England: so as I may iustly with Isaiah,249 pronounce a Woe to them that speake good of euill, and euill of good; which put light for darkenesse, and darkenesse for light; which iustifie the wicked for a reward, and take away the righteousnes of the righteous from him.250 For euen as in the time of the greatest blindnesse in Popery, though a man should find his wife or his daughter lying a bed in her Confessors armes; yet was it not lawfull for him so much as to suspect that the Frier had any errand there, but to Confesse and instruct her: Euen so, though Iesuites practising in Treason be sufficiently verified, and that themselues cannot but confesse it; yet must they be accounted to suffer Martyrdome for the Faith, and their blood worke miracles, and frame a stramineum argumentum vpon strawes; when their heads are standing aloft, withered by the Sunne and the winde, a publike spectacle for the eternall commemoration of their treacherie. Yea, one of the reasons, that is giuen in the Printers Epistle of the Colonian edition of the Cardinall or his Chaplains pam- phlet, why he doth the more willingly print it, is; because that the innocencie of that most holy and constant man Henry Garnet, is declared and set forth in that booke; against whom, some (he knew not who) had scattered a false rumour of his guiltinesse of the English treason.

But, Lord, what an impudencie or wilfull ignorance is this, that he, who was so publickely and solemnely conuicted and executed, vpon his owne so cleare, vn- forced and often repeated confession, of his knowledge and concealing of that horrible Treason, should now be said to haue a certaine rumour spred vpon him of his guiltinesse, by I know not who ? with so many attributes of godlinesse, con- stancie and innocencie bestowed vpon him, as if publike Sentences and Execu- tions of Iustice, were rumors of I know not who. Indeed, I must confesse, the booke it selfe sheweth a great affection to performe, what is thus promised in the Preface thereof: for in two or three places therein, is there most honorable lying mention made of that straw-Saint; wherein, though he confesse that Garnet was vpon the foreknowledge of the Powder-Treason, yet in regard it was (as he saith) onely vnder the Seale of Confession, he sticketh not to praise him for his conceal- ing thereof, and would gladly giue him the crowne of glory for the same: not being ashamed to proclaime it as a principall head of Catholique doctrine; That the secret of Sacramentall confession ought not to be reuealed, not for the eschewing of whatsoeuer euill. But how damnable this doctrine is, and how dangerously preiudiciall to all Princes and States; I leaue it to you to iudge, whom all it most highly concerneth. For although it bee trew, that when the Schoolemen came to be Doctors in the Church, and to marre the old grounds in Diuinitie by sowing in among them their Philosophicall distinctions; though they (I say) do main- taine, That whatsoeuer thing is told a Confessor vnder the vaile of confession, how dangerous foeuer the matter be, yet he is bound to conceale the parties name: yet doe none of them, I meane of the old Schoolmen, deny; that if a matter be reuealed vnto them, the concealing whereof may breed a great or publike danger; but that in that case the Confessor may disclose the matter, though not the per- son, and by some indirect means make it come to light, that the danger thereof may be preuented. But that no treason nor deuilish plot, though it should tend to the ruine or exterminion of a whole Kingdome, must be reuealed, if it be told vnder Confession, no not the matter so farre indirectly disclosed, as may giue occasion for preuenting the danger thereof: though it agree with the conceit of some three or foure new Iesuited Doctors, it is such a new and dangerous head of doctrine, as no King nor State can liue in securitie where that Position is maintained.

And now, that I may as well prooue him a lyar in facto, in his narration of this particular History; as I haue shewed him to be in iure, by this his damnable and false ground in Diuinity: I will trewly informe you of Garnets case, which is farre otherwise then this Answerer alleadgeth. For first, it can neuer be accounted a thing vnder Confession, which he that reueals it doth not discouer with a remorse, accounting it a sinne whereof hee repenteth him; but by the contrary, discouers it as a good motion, and is therein not dissuaded by his Confessor, nor any pen- ance enioyned him for the same: and in this forme was this Treason reuealed to Garnet, as himselfe confessed. And next, though he stood long vpon it, that it was reuealed vnto him vnder the vaile of Confession, in respect it was done in that time, while as the partie was making his Confession vnto him; Yet at the last hee did freely confesse, that the party reuealed it vnto him as they were walking, and not in the time of Confession: But (he said) he deliuered it vnto him vnder the greatest Seale that might bee, and so he tooke that he meant by the Seale of Con- fession; And it had (as he thought) a relation to Confession, in regard that hee was that parties Confessor, and had taken his Confession sometimes before, and was to take it againe within few dayes thereafter. He also said, that he pre- tended to the partie, that he would not conceale it from his Superior. And further it is to be noted, that he confessed, that two diuers persons conferred with him anent this Treason; and that when the one of them which was Catesby, conferred with him thereupon, it was in the other parties presence and hearing: and what a Confession can this be in the hearing of a third person ? And how farre his last words (whereof our Answerer so much vaunts him) did disproue it to haue bene vnder Confession, the Earle of Northamptons booke doeth beare witnesse.

Now as to the other parties name, that reuealed the Powder-Treason vnto him, it was Greenewell the Iesuite; and so a Iesuite reuealed to a Iesuite this Treasonable plot, the Iesuite reuealer not shewing any remorse, and the Iesuite whom-to it was reuealed not so much as enioyning him any penance for the same. And that ye may know that more Iesuits were also vpon the partie, Owldcorne the other Powder-Martyr, after the misgiuing and discouery of that Treason, preached consolatory doctrine to his Catholique auditorie; exhorting them not to faint for the misgiuing of this enterprise, nor to thinke the worse thereof that it succeeded not; alleadging diuers Presidents of such godly enterprises that mis- gaue in like maner: especially, one of S. Lewes King of France, who in his second iourney to the Holy-land died by the way, the greatest part of his armie being destroyed by the plague; his first iourney hauing likewise misgiuen him by the Soldans taking of him: exhorting them thereupon not to giue ouer, but still to hope that God would blesse their enterprise at some other time, though this did faile.

Thus see ye now, with what boldnesse and impudencie hee hath belied the publiquely knowne veritie in this errand; both in auowing generally that no Iesuite was any wayes guilitie of that Treason, for so he affirmeth in his booke; and also that Garnet knew nothing thereof, but vnder the Seale of Confession. But if this were the first lye of the affaires of this State, which my fugitiue Priests and Iesuits haue coyned and spread abroad, I could charme them of it, as the prouerbe is. But as well the walles of diuers Monasteries and Iesuites Colledges abroad, are filled with the painting of such lying Histories, as also the bookes of our said fugitiues are farced with such sort of shamelesse stuffe; such are the innumerable sorts of torments and cruell deathes, that they record their Martyrs to haue suffred here, some torne at foure Horses; some sowed in Beares skinnes, and then killed with Dogges; nay, women haue not bene spared (they say) and a thousand other strange fictions; the vanities of all which I will in two words discouer vnto you.

First, as for the cause of their punishment, I doe constantly maintaine that which I haue said in my Apologie: That no man, either in my time, or in the late Queenes, euer died here for his conscience. For let him be neuer so deuout a Papist, nay, though he professe the same neuer so constantly, his life is in no danger by the Law, if hee breake not out into some outward acte expresly against the words of the Law; or plot not some vnlawfull or dangerous practise or attempt; Priests and Popish Church-men onely excepted, that receiue Orders beyond the Seas; who for the manifold treasonable practises that they haue kindled and plotted in this countrey, are discharged to come home againe vnder paine of Treason, after their receiuing of the said Orders abroad; and yet, without some other guilt in them then their bare home-comming, haue none of them bene euer put to death. And next, for the cruell torments and strange sorts of death that they say so many of them haue bene put vnto; if there were no more but the Law and con- tinually obserued custome of England, these many hundred yeeres, in all criminall matters, it will sufficiently serue to refute all these monstrous lies: for no tortures are euer vsed here, but the Manacles or the Racke, and these neuer but in cases of high Treason; and all sorts of Traitours die but one maner of death here, whether they be Papist or Protestant Traitors; Queene Maries time onely excepted. For then indeed no sorts of cruell deathes were spared vnexecuted vpon men, women and children professing our Religion: yea, euen against the Lawes of God and Nature, women with childe were put to cruell death for their profession; and a liuing childe falling out of the mothers belly, was throwen in the same fire againe that consumed the mother. But these tyrannous persecutions were done by the Bishops of that time, vnder the warrant of the Popes authoritie; and therefore were not subiect to that constant order and formes of execution, which as they are heere established by our Lawes and customes, so are they accordingly obserued in the punishment of all criminals: For all Priestes and Popish Traitours here receiue their Iudgements in the temporall Courts, and so doe neuer exceed those formes of execution which are prescribed by the Law, or approued by continuall custome. One thing is also to bee marked in this case that strangers are neuer called in question here for their religion, which is farre otherwise (I hope) in any place where the Inquisition domines.

But hauing now too much wearied you with this long discourse, whereby I haue made you plainely see, that the wrong done vnto mee in particular first by the Popes Breues, and then by these Libellers, doth as deepely interest you all in generall, that are Kings, free Princes, or States as it doth me in particular: I will now conclude, with my humble prayers to God, that he will waken vs vp all out of that Lethargike slumber of Securitie, wherein our Predecessors and wee haue lien so long; and that wee may first grauely consider, what we are bound in con- science to doe for the planting and spreading of the trew worship of God, accord- ing to his reuealed will, in all our Dominions; therein hearing the voice of our onely Pastor (for his Sheepe will know his Voyce,251 as himselfe sayeth) and not following the vaine, corrupt and changeable traditions of men. And next, that we may prouidently looke to the securitie of our owne States, and not suffer this incroching Babylonian Monarch to winne still ground vpon vs. And if God hath so mercifully dealt with vs, that are his Lieutenants vpon earth, as that he hath ioyned his cause with our interest, the spirituall libertie of the Gospell with our temporall freedome: with what zeale and courage may wee then imbrace this worke: for our labours herein being assured, to receiue at the last the eternall and inestimable reward of felicitie in the kingdome of Heauen; and in the meane time to procure vnto our selues a temporall fecuritie, in our temporall Kingdomes in this world.

As for so many of you as are alreadie perswaded of that Trewth which I pro- fesse, though differing among your selues in some particular points; I thinke little perswasion should moue you to this holy and wise Resolution: Our Greatnesse, nor our number, praised bee God, being not so contemptible, but that wee may shew good example to our neighbors; since almost the halfe of all Christian people and of all sorts and degrees, are of our profession; I meane, all gone out of Baby- lon, euen from Kings and free Princes, to the meanest sort of People. But aboue all (my louing Brethren and Cosins) keepe fast the vnity of Faith among your selues; Reiect 252 questions of Genealogies and Aniles fabulas,253 as Paul saith; Let not the foolish heate of your Preachers for idle Controuersies or indifferent things, teare asunder that Mysticall Body, whereof ye are a part, since the very coat of him whose members wee are was without a seame: And let not our diuision breed a slander of our faith, and be a word of reproch in the mouthes of our aduersaries, who make Vnitie to be one of the speciall notes of the trew Church.

And as for you (my louing Bethren and Cosins) whom it hath not yet pleased God to illuminate with the light of his trewth; I can but humbly pray with Elizeus, that it would please God to open your eyes, that yee might see what innumerable and inuincible armies of Angels are euer prepared and ready to defend the trewth of God: and with S. Paul 254 I wish, that ye were as I am in this case; especially that yee would search the Scriptures, and ground your Faith vpon your owne certaine knowledge, and not vpon the report of others; since euery Man must bee safe by his ownefaith.255 But, leauing this to God his mercifull prouidence in his due time, I haue good reason to remember you, to maintaine the ancient liberties of your Crownes and Common-wealthes, not suffering any vnder God to set himselfe vp aboue you; and therein to imitate your owne noble prede- cessors, who (euen in the dayes of greatest blindnesse) did diuers times coura- giously oppose themselues to the incroaching ambition of Popes. Yea, some of your Kingdomes haue in all aages maintained, and without any interruption enioyed your libertie, against the most ambitious Popes. And some haue of very late had an euident proofe of the Popes ambitious aspiring ouer your Temporall power; wherein ye haue constantly maintained and defended your lawfull free- dome, to your immortall honour. And therefore I heartily wish you all, to doe in this case the Office of godly and iust Kings and earthly Iudges: which consisteth not onely in not wronging or inuading the Liberties of any other person (for to that will I neuer presse to perswade you) but also in defending and maintaining these lawfull Liberties wherewith God hath indued you: For yee, whom God hath ordained to protect your people from iniuries, should be ashamed to suffer your selues to be wronged by any. And thus, assuring my selfe, that ye will with a setled Iudgement, free of preiudice, weigh the reasons of this my Discourse, and accept my plainnesse in good part, gracing this my Apologie with your fauours, and yet no longer then till it shall be iustly and worthily refuted; I end, with my earnest prayers to the ALMIGHTIE for your prosperities, and that after your happie Temporall Raignes in earth, ye may liue and raigne in Heauen with him for euer.

1 Being a proper word to expresse the trew meaning of Tortus.

2 P. 46.

3 P. 63.

4 Pag. 69.

5 Pag. 47.

6 Pag. 98.

7 Pag. 87

8 Pag. 98.

9 Ibid.

10 Pag. 97.

11 Senten. Card. Baron. super excom. Venet.

12 Lib. de Cler. cap. 28.

13 Sigebert. ad ann. 773. Walthram. Naumburg. lib. de Episc. inuestitura. Mart. Polon. ad ann. 780. Theod. a Niem. de priuileg. & Iurib. Imperij & dist. 63. C. Hadrian.

14 See Platin. in vit. Pelag. 2. Gregor. i. & Seuerini.

15 Lib. de Clericis.

16 In Chron. ad ann. 680.

17 In vit. Agathen. & Anast. in vit. eiusd. Agath. & Herm. Contract. ad ann. 678. edit. poster. & dist. 63. c Agatho.

18 Luitpr. Hist. lib. 6. ca. 10. II. Rhegino ad an. 963. & Platin. in vit. Ioan. 13.

19 Marianus Scot. Sigeb. Abbas Vrsp. ad ann. 1046 & Plat. in vit. Greg. 6.

20 Walthram. Naumburg. in lib. de inuest.Episc. Vixit circa ann. 1110.

21 See Annales Franciae Nicolai Gillij in Phil.Pulchro.

22 Anno 1268. ex Arrestis Senatus Parisiens.

23 Ioan. Maierius. lib. de Scismat. & Concil.

24 Matth. Paris. in Henr. I. anno 1100.

25 Idem. ibid. anno 1113.

26 Idem. ibid. anno 1119.

27 Ex Archiuis Regni.

28 Lib. 2. cont. Cresconium. cap. 32.

29 Lib. I. de verb. Dei. c. 4.

30 Luk. 1. 28.

31 Ibid. ver. 48.

32 Matt. 11. 28.

33 Coloss. 2. 8, 23.

34 Luke 8.

35 Luk. 11. 28.

36 Iubilees, Indulgences, satisfactions for the dead, &c.

37 Lib. 2 de Purgat. cap. 7.

38 Iohn 14.

39 Bell. lib. 4. de Rom. Pont. cap. 25.

40 Page 98.

41 Luke 22. 25.

42 Iohn 14. 26.

43 Matth. 18. 18.

44 I. Cor. 5. 4.

45 Act. 15. 22, 23.

46 Cor. 1. 12.

47 Galat. 2.

48 Galat. 1. 18.

49 Bellar. de Rom. Pont. li. 1. cap. 17.

50 Libello aduersus hæreses.

51 1. Pet. 5. 13.

52 2. Thes. 2.

53 Verse 3.

54 Verse 3, 4.

55 Psal. 82. 6.

56 2. Thess. 2. 4.

57 Verse 5.

58 Verse 6.

59 Verse 7.

60 For so doeth Tortus call Rome when it was spoiled by them, though it was Christian many yeres before. 5 10

61 Verse 8.

62 Verse 8, 9.

63 Bellar. lib. 3. de Eucharist. cap. 8.

64 Reuel. 17. v. 1.

65 Vers. 3.

66 Vers. 18.

67 Vers. 5.

68 Cap. 18. v. 2.

69 Vers. 5.

70 Chap. 11. 8.

71 Matt. 25. 40.

72 Acts 9. 4.

73 Reuel. 18. 24.

74 Cha. 13. 3.

75 Chap. 17. 10.

76 Verse 11.

77 Reuel. 1. 1. & chap. 4. 1.

78 Chap. 7.

79 Chap. 9. 16, 18.

80 Matth. 24. 41.

81 Matth. 25.

82 Reuel. 3. 3. and 16. 15.

83 Matth. 24. 44.

84 Bellar. de Rom. Pont. lib. 3. cap. 6.

85 Matt. II. 14. and 17. 12.

86 Mar. 9. 13.

87 Matt. 17. 1.

88 Malach. 4. 5.

89 Matth. 27.

90 This obscuring of the Sunne was so extra- ordinary and fearefull, that Dionysius, onely led by the light of Nature and humane learning, cried out at the sight thereof, Aut Deus patitur, aut vices pa- tientis dolet.

91 Mala. 4. 6.

92 Ecclus. 48. 8.

93 Mala. 4. 6.

94 Ecclus. 44. 16.

95 Pag. 27.

96 Matt. 22, 32.

97 Lib. 5.

98 Lib. cont. Iudaos. cap. 2.

99 2. Thess. 2.

100 Reuelat. 11.

101 Reuel. 21. 27.

102 Lib. de Grat. primi hominis.

103 Gen. 2.

104 Rom. 12. 3.

105 Gen. 5. 24.

106 2. King. 2. 10, 11.

107 Cardinall Peron.

108 Luke 15. 8.

109 Iohn 21. 22, 23.

110 Made by Boneuentura Doctor Seraphicus.

111 Iohn 5. 39.

112 Reuel. 11. 4.

113 Ibid.

114 See Expositio Missae, annexed to Ordo Romanus, set forth by G. Cassander.

115 Verse 8.

116 Coloss. 2. 20.

117 Verse 8.

118 2. Chro. 34. 14.

119 Verse 10.

120 Verse 3.

121 Reuel. 6. 2.

122 I. Cor. 10. 4.

123 Reuel. 11. 7.

124 Printed at Venice. Anno 1562.

125 Verse 11.

126 12.

127 13.

128 Deut. 19. 15.

129 Reuel. 11. 3.

130 Sanguis Martyrum est semen Ecclesia.

131 Verse 11.

132 Actes 2. 41.

133 Reuel. 18. 4.

134 Cap. xvii. Verse 18.

135 Verse 9.

136 Verse 13.

137 Verse 12.

138 From the time of Constantine the Great, his remouing of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople, till the time of Bonifacius the third, to wit, about 276 yeeres.

139 Verse 11.

140 Not in respect of the extent, and limites of the Empire: but in regard of the gouernement thereof, and glory of the Citie.

141 Reuel. 18. Ver. 9. & 11. Ver. 10, 16, 19.

142 Vers. 9.

143 Verse 12.

144 1. Description of Antichrist.

145 Reuel. cap. 6.

146 Verse 2.

147 Verse 4.

148 Verse 5.

149 Verse 8.

150 Or them, after other Translations, whereby is ioyntly vnderstood the said pale horse together with his rider and conuoy, Death and Hell.

151 Verse 9; verse 10; verse 12.

152 Reu. Chap. 9. Verse 1.

153 Verse 2.

154 Verse 3.

155 Verse 11.

156 Matth. 5. 14.

157 Verse 13.

158 Verse 20.

159 Lib de Cultu Adoratio. lib. 3 disp. 1. cap. 5.

160 Vers. 21.

161 Cap. 10. ver. 6.

162 Verse 7.

163 Cap. 11.

164 Verse 3.

165 Cap. 11. Verse 7.

166 Chap. xii. Verse 6.

167 Verse 15.

168 Chap. xiii.

169 Verse 1.

170 Verse 2.

171 Verse 3.

172 Verse 6.

173 Verse 7.

174 Verse 11.

175 Verse 12.

176 2. Thes. 2. 9.

177 Verse 13.

178 Verse 15.

179 Verse 17.

180 Verse 16.

181 Verse 17.

182 Irenaeus aduersus Hares. lib. 5.

183 Epist. lib. 6. cap. 30.

184 Chap. xiiij. Verse 3.

185 Verse 6.

186 Verse 7.

187 Verse 8.

188 Verse 9.

189 Chap. xv. Verse 1.

190 Chap xvi. Verse 10.

191 Verse 12.

192 Dan. 53.

193 Verse 13.

194 Verse 14.

195 Verse 17.

196 Verse 19.

197 The fourth description. Chap. 17. Verse 3.

198 Verse 4.

199 Verse 6.

200 Verse 1.

201 Verse 2.

202 Verse 5.

203 Verse 5.

204 Verse 9.

205 Verse 12.

206 Verse 13.

207 Verse 14.

208 Verse 16.

209 Reuel. 16. 12.

210 Verse 17.

211 Prou. 21. 1.

212 Verse 18.

213 Chap. 18. Verse 9. 10.

214 Verse 11, 15, 16, 17, 18.

215 Verse 12, 13.

216 Verse 13.

217 Henry 3. K. of France.

218 Henry 4.

219 Verse 4.

220 Verse 6.

221 Cornicula Aesopica.

222 Verse 7.

223 Cap. xix. Verse 1.

224 Verse 2.

225 Bellar. in Res. ad Gerson, consid. 11.

226 Verse 19.

227 Verse 20.

228 Cap 18. 21.

229 Ibidem. Vers. 22. 23.

230 Cap xx. Verse 2.

231 Verse 8.

232 Verse 9.

233 Verse 10.

234 Verse 11, 12, 13.

235 Matth. 24. 22.

236 Cap. xxj. xxij.

237 Lib. de Clericis, cap. 16.

238 Lib. de Episcopatibus, Titulis & Diaconijs Cardinalium.

239 Rom. 13. 5

240 I. Pet. 2. 13.

241 Acts. 25. 10.

242 Acts 22. 28.

243 I. Sam. 10. 1.

244 1 Sam. 16. 12. 13.

245 Actes 1.

246 Cyprian. lib. 1. Epist. 4.

247 I King. 12. 20.

248 2. King. 9. 2, 3.

249 Isai 5. 20.

250 Verse 23.

251 Iohn 10. 27.

252 1. Tim. 1. 4.

253 Ibid. c. 4. 7.

254 Actes. 26. 29.

255 Abac. 2. 4.

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