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DIAMASTIGO´SIS (διαμαστίγωσις) was a solemnity performed at Sparta at the festival of Artemis Orthia, whose temple was called Limnaeon, from its situation in a marshy part of the town. (Paus. 3.16.6.) The solemnity was this:--Spartan youths (ἔφηβοι) were scourged on the occasion at the altar of Artemis, by persons appointed for the purpose, until their blood gushed forth and covered the altar. The scourging itself was preceded by a preparation, by which those who intended to undergo the diamastigosis tried to harden themselves against its pains. Pausanias describes the origin of the worship of Artemis Orthia, and of the diamastigosis, in the following manner :--A wooden statue of Artemis, which Orestes had brought from Tauris, was found in a bush by Astrabacus and Alopecus, the sons of Irbus. The two men were immediately struck mad at the sight of it. The Limnaeans and the inhabitants of other neighbouring places then offered sacrifices to the goddess; but a quarrel ensued among them, in which several individuals were killed at the altar of Artemis, who now demanded atonement for the pollution of her sanctuary. From henceforth human victims were selected by lot and offered to Artemis, until Lycurgus introduced the scourging of young men at her altar as a substitute for human sacrifices.

The diamastigosis, according to this account, was a substitute for human sacrifice, and Lycurgus made it also serve his purposes of education, in so far as he made it a part of the system of hardening the Spartan youths against bodily sufferings. (Plut. Lyc. 18, Instit. Laced. p. 254; Cic. Tusc. 5.27, § 77.) According to another far less probable account, the diamastigosis originated in a circumstance, recorded by Plutarch (Plut. Arist. 17), which happened before the battle of Plataeae.

The worship of Artemis Orthia was unquestionably very ancient, and the diamastigosis only a step from barbarism towards civilisation. Many anecdotes are related of the courage and intrepidity with which young Spartans bore the lashes of the scourge; some even died without uttering a murmur at their sufferings, for to die under the strokes was considered as honourable a death as that on the field of battle. (Cf. Müller's Dor. 2.9.6, note k, and 4.5.8, note c; Manso, Sparta, 1.2, p. 183.) [L.S]

D<*>A´NOMAE (διανομαί) or DIA´DOSEIS (διαδόσεις, Dem. c. Leoch. p. 1091.37) were public doles to the Athenian people, resembling the Roman CONGIARIUM To these belong the free distributions of corn (Aristoph. Wasps 715 ff.), the cleruchiae [COLONIA p. 477], the revenues from the mines, and the theoric fund (Dem. l.c.; THEORICON). (Cf. Boeckh, P. E. p. 216=Sthh.3 1.274.)

[W.S] [W.W]

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