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CYNOSCE´PHALAE (Κυνὸς κεφαλαί),the names of two ranges of hills, so called from their supposed resemblance to the heads of dogs.


In Thessaly, a little to the south of Scotussa, in whose territory they were situated. They are described by Polybius (18.5) as rugged, broken, and of considerable height; and are memorable as the scene of two battles: one fought, in B.C. 364, between the Thebans and Alexander of Pherae, in which Pelopidas was slain; and the other, of still greater celebrity, fought in B.C. 197, in which the last Philip of Macedon was defeated by the Roman consul Flamininus. (Plut. Pel. 32; Strab. ix. p.441; Plb. 18.3, seq.; Liv. 33.6, seq.; Plut. Flam. 8; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 459, seq.)


Hills between Thebes and Thespiae. (Xen. Hell. 5.4. 15, Agesil. 2.22.) Near them, or on them, was a village of the same name, which is mentioned by the biographers of Pindar as the birthplace of the poet. (Steph. B. sub voce Κυνὸς κεφαλαί.

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