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Or German Baptists, a body of Christians who trace their origin back to Alexander Mack, one of a small number of Pietists who had migrated to the province of Witgenstein, Germany, to escape persecution. In 1708 he became their minister, and after they were baptized in the Eder by being thrice immersed, a church was formed. In 1719 Mr. Mack and all his followers came by way of Holland to America and settled in and around Philadelphia. From this beginning the Dunkards have spread through the Eastern, Northern, and Western States. Their doctrine is similar to that of the Evangelical Churches. They endeavor to follow closely the teachings of the Bible. They dress plainly, refrain from taking active part in politics, affirm instead of taking an oath, settle their quarrels among themselves without going to law, do not join secret societies, etc. They hold that every believer should be immersed face forward, being dipped at the mention of each name of the Trinity. The Dunkards now consist of three bodies —the Conservative, Old Order, and Progressive. In 1900 they reported 2,993 ministers, 1,123 churches, and 111.287 members, the strongest branch being the Conservatives, who had 2,612 ministers, 850 churches, and 95,000 members.

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