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North Dakota, State of

A northern frontier State, formed by the division of Dakota Territory into two States in 1889; is bounded on the north by the Canadian provinces of Assiniboia and Manitoba, east by Minnesota, south by South Dakota, and west by Montana. It is limited in latitude by 46° to 49° N., and in longitude by 96° 30′ to 104° 5′ W. Area, 70,795 square miles, in thirty-nine counties; population in 1890, 182,719; in 1900, 319,146. Capital, Bismarck.

Although the State yields coal to a profitable extent, its largest economic interests are comprised in its agricultural productions. In the calendar year 1900 [488] the yield of wheat was 13,176,213 bushels, valued at $7,642,204; oats, 6,299,284 bushels, valued at $2,015,771; barley, 1,998,840 bushels, valued at $699,594; and hay, 247,327 tons, valued at $1,397,398. The bonded debt in 1900 was $845,300 and floating debt, $61,000. The assessed valuation of taxable property, at one-third actual value, for 1899 was, real estate, $72,019,059; personal property, $41,626, 240; total, $113,636,299; tax rate, $4.50 per $1,000. The valuation of personal property included railroad property assessed at $16,985,084.


In 1780 a French trader settled at Pembina, now the county seat of Pembina county, which, in 1812, was occupied by a Scottish colony; but in 1823 the United States discovered that this place was a part of its territory and the national flag was raised over it. In 1858, when the State of Minnesota was organized, the Territory of Nebraska having been already separated, the remainder of Dakota was left without legal name or existence. By the act of Congress of March 2, 1861, the Territory of Dakota

State seal of North Dakota.

was organized, and in the following year its capital was located at Yankton. In 1883 the capital was removed to Bismarck, and in 1884 the act for the admission of Dakota into the Union was passed. In 1888 a convention met at Watertown and expressed a desire that the northern portion of the Territory be separated from the southern and formed into a State under the name of North Dakota. The Territory was accordingly divided and two States were created, North Dakota and South Dakota (q. v.), both being admitted into the Union on Nov. 3, 1889. In 1891 an aggregate of 1,600,000 acres of land, comprising a former Indian reservation, was thrown open to actual settlers. See United States, North Dakota, in vol. IX.

Territorial governors.

William Jayneappointed1861
Newton Edmundsappointed1863
Andrew J. Faulkappointed1866
John A. Burbankappointed1869
John L. Penningtonappointed1874
William A. Howardappointed1878
N. G. Ordwayappointed1880
Gilbert A. Pierceappointed1884
Louis K. Churchappointed1887
Arthur C. Melletteappointed1889

State governors.

John Millerelected1889
A. H. Burkeelected1891
E. Shortridgeterm beganJan., 1893
Roger Allinterm beganJan., 1895
Frank A. Briggsterm began1897
F. B. Fancherterm began1899
Frank Whiteterm began1901

United States Senators.

Name.No. of Congress.Term.
Gilbert A. Pierce51st1889 to 1891
Lyman R. Casey51st to 53d1889 to 1893
Henry C. Hansbrough52d to —1891 to —
William N. Roach53d to 56th1893 to 1899
James M. Porter56th to —1899 to —

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