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From the North.
[from our own Reporter.]

Fredericksburg, March 17.
--I have received some United States papers of the 14th inst., and transmit you some of the interesting items contained therein:

[from the N. Y. Herald, March 13.]

The Situation.--The news from the Rappahannock is unimportant. The pickets on the opposite side along certain portions of the line are one-half negroes and one half white men. The negroes are armed and uniformed the same as the whites. Only 150 yards intervene between our people and the enemy's and they are plainly to be distinguished, without the aid of a glass. [What a whopper even for the Herald.]

The whole of Van Dorn's force retreated towards Shelbyville on the night of the 11th and the means of crossing Luck river are destroyed. This postpones the expected engagement.

At Fort McAllister the Montank was struck with solid shot 70 times, and was lifted clear out of the water at the bow by the explosion of a torpedo, but not injured. The action was a terrific one, no less than 301 shells were thrown by our vessels, and 277 solid shot and shell by the enemy. Our firing was magnificent. The impregnability of our iron clads under the heaviest fire is pretty well established.

The attack on Charleston has not yet commenced. Charleston papers say neither the Indianola nor Queen of the West have been destroyed. A captured rebel officer states that negotiations for peace have been under consideration for the past three weeks at Richmond, but the fact had not been permitted to go before the public. The British steamer Queen of the Wave ran ashore near Charleston, and Dupont was using every exertion to save her. The British steamship Douro, captured off Cape Fear on the 9th by a U. S. gunboat was brought to New York on the 12th as a prize. Her cargo was 420 bales of cotton, and some turpentine and tobacco. She ran the blockade at Wilmington and was making for Nassau.

Gen. Hunter's quarrel with Foster is still unsettled. Hunter has ordered Gen. Neglee to New York, and in his farewell to his division he predicts that "truth is mighty, and will prevail."

The prize steamers Adela and Virginia and bark Moblen Williamson and brig J. W. Sawyer, with prize cargoes of twenty-seven vessels, are on the way from Key West. The steamship Peter Hoff, with a valuable cargo, was captured February 25th, off St. Thomas, by the Vanderbilt. Three prize schooners have also arrived at Key West.

The Florida is reported to have been at several places at the same time.

The Anglo Saxon arrived on the 12th. The London Times says the conservative States, (Illinois, &c.,) are taking steps which prove their object is peace, and finding a Federal Government unwilling to give effect to their desire, have superseded its action, and thus commenced "the second stage of this tremendous American revolution for themselves." Discussing the conflicting statements of Seward and Mercier, relative to the latter's mission to Richmond, the Times regrets Seward's denial of the humane act impaled to him by Mercier, which would reflect credit on him, and, at the expense of Mr. Seward's veracity, expresses the belief that Seward did listen to Mercier's counsels.

The London Globe thinks it the duty of either France or the United States to demand an apology for the contradiction existing between Seward and Mercier.

The Kangaroo, from Liverpool, arrived on the 11th and brought 825 bales of cotton. The City of Baltimore brought 369 bales.

Mr. Alexander Ramsay appeared and was sworn in as U. S. Senator from Minnesota on Thursday.

An engagement between Russians and Polish insurgents is reported, lasting eight hours. The Russians were defeated and fled, and took refuge on Prussian territory.

In Liverpool American cotton advanced ¼ to ½ penny, and other qualities declined ½ to 1 penny.

New Hampshire Election.--Returns show a decided gain for the conservatives and a corresponding falling off of the strength of the nigger heads. The conservative gain is in almost exact proportion to the Republican loss on the vote of last year. The Democratic gain in 91 towns is --the Republican loss is 1,712.

Concord, N. H., March 12--P. M.

--The returns from several towns in the 2d Congressional District received since this forenoon brings Mr. Rollins's majority down to so small a figure that it may require the official returns to settle the question.

In the U. S. Circuit Court J. F. North pleaded guilty to the charge of cruel and unusual punishment in hanging up a negro to the rigging on board the ship invincible, which caused his death. He pleads that he acted under the orders of his superiors, who are not yet amenable. He was sentenced to six months imprisonment and hard labor.

Gold jumped up to and closed at 161. Exchange 175, but rose to 177@178. It is surmised that the Secretary of the Treasury will soon pay out his new Treasury notes to the extent of $20,000,000 or so convertible into legal tender notes on presentation.

From Washington.

--An early strategic triumph on the Mississippi is anticipated by the War and Navy Departments. In a very few weeks, perhaps days, rebel communication across the Mississippi will be completely cut off, and they will thus be surrounded and reduced to a state of actual stage without the necessity of a large expenditure of life and blood in attacking Vicksburg or Port dson Yankee ingenuity is relied on more than the courage and muscle of armies.

It is believed a majority of the South are sick of the war, and would gladly return to the old Union, even with the peculiar institution impaired.

The "turreted monster," Admiral Porter says, was an old coal barge, with pork barrels piled on top of each other for a smoke-stack, and two old for quarter boats. Her furnaces were built of mud, and only intended to make black smoke, and not steam. She was towed within two miles of the first battery and let go, and soon Vicksburg was in a stew. Never did her batteries open with such a vim. The earth trembled, and the shot flew round this "Monitor," which returned no shot with her long wooden gun. She ran safely past and drifted down to the lower mouth of the canal. At daylight the rebels opened on her again with all their guns. The shot went through her without causing her to sink, as she was full of water already.--Our soldiers shouted and laughed like mad; out the laugh was somewhat against them when, at daylight, the Queen of the West was discovered at Warrenton, and the question arose, where was the Indianola? The Monitor was again act out in the stream and let go down on the Queen. All the forts got to firing and signalling, and as the Monitor approached, the Queen turned tall and ran down stream as fast as she could go, the Monitor after her, making all the speed of a five-knot current. The Warrenton Fort fired bravely and rapidly, and, it was reported that the Monitor in "a very vulnerable spot."

The Government is advised of rebel movements for privateers on the Pacific ocean.

Four Secession females were to-day arrested by the Provost Guard, on Pennsylvania Avenue, through which they were riding in a carriage, cheering for Jeff. Davis and singing Secession songs.

Latest.--London, Feb. 27.

--The Spanish Ministry have resigned. It is reported that Norway is forming a new Cabinet. The Polish question is unchanged.

General Magles's removal caused great regret.--Two or three Generals said "they would not be far behind Gen. Nagles in their journey northward." The belief is he has been removed because he does not sympathize with the Generals in the Department of the South, whose sympathies are altogether with the negro.

The famous steamer Union, one of the fastest afloat, is at Fortress Monroe, and, it is rumored, will take a cruise after the pirate Alabama, if the Captain can procure letters of marque for that purpose.

Cincinnati March 12.

--A skirmish took place yesterday twelve miles east of Paris Ky. A forage train was attacked by fifty guerillas who were beaten off by the teamsters and the guard. Reinforcements have been sent.

Fort McAllister.

--The Herald publishes a "correspondence" of about ten about the bombardment of Fort McAllister, &c. It says its capture was not the object of the expedition. The Fort is of "no consequence." The object was to last the strength and capacity of the and to train the gunners. Success is due as much to Commander Worden as to the qualities of the Monitors. "The time is not far distant when our iron-clads will give such a report of themselves as will be heard at the ends of the earth." [A loud report.]

Propositions for an armistices.

--Fernando Wood addresses a note to the editors of the Evening Post in reply to their comments on his statement at Stanford, Conn., on the evening of the 9th, "that propositions for an armistices, or peace had been submitted to the President on the 12th December last, which, had they been accepted, would have terminated this war by the 1st of April upon a basis satisfactory to the people North and South."

The Post inquired who made these propositions which would have settled the matter by All Fro's day what are they, and why not make them public? Mr. Wood replies that the statement was made by him deliberately, with a full and personal knowledge of the facts, and that he is constrained from the publicity of them only by the request of one of the principal officers of the Government.--When this interdiction shall be withdrawn, he will cheerfully gratify the curiosity of the Post.

Movements of the Democratic peace faction — Dangerous ground.

--Is the caption of the Herald's leader. It admonishes those deluded peace men that the popular reaction developed last fall against the Administration was caused by military blunders, extravagance, corruptions, and unjust, arbitrary proceedings of the party in power. Seymour was elected not to cause an inglorious peace, but to secure a successful prosecution of the war. The Abolition faction had misled the Administration, and therefore was rebuked, and good results have followed. But while the Abolition radicals have been somewhat tamed, and brought to reason and common sense, the boisterous Democratic copperheads seem to have lost their wits entirely. Vallandigham and Pendleton, Brooks, Ben Wood, and others, urge a prosecution of the war not against Jeff Davis, but against Abraham Lincoln. They preach peace on any terms, and outrageously advocate recognition of the Confederacy as the best way to restore the Union. They prate about the "Constitution as it is," while they demand a new one, in order to conciliate a gigantic armed conspiracy, which scorns all their peace offerings. They noisily advise the degradation of the loyal States to any peace the rebellion may require. They clamorously urge their party to the extent of riots, bloody conspiracies, and civil war in the North, in resisting the execution of the laws of the land. It is hardly disguised that these silly copperheads in their rabid partisan hostility, would have Lincoln expelled as a usurper, and Davis in stalled in the White House, for the time being as the ratified President of the United States, whatever the "Constitution as it is" may say to the contrary.

But the responsible and intelligent people know they have the power, and will have the opportunity in the State elections next autumn to compel Lincoln's impeachment if necessary, and in the Presidential election in 1864 they can secure a satisfactory change of the Administration. They know too, there can be no peace short of the defeat and dispersion of the rebel armies in the field; that it will be time enough to talk of concessions when the defiant spirit of the rebellion is broken. They know too, these itinerant apostles preaching resistance to the laws, are reckless and irresponsible politicians; that they preach what they will never dare themselves to practice, and that resistance to the Government means in the North what it has developed in the South--rebellion and civil war.

Northern copperhead peace preachers meantime, are off the track. They are playing with fire over a mine of explosive combustibles. There can be no peace — there can be no security for liberty, life, or property — except by the adhesion of the people to the Government and the laws. Let all teachers of resistance to the laws beware of the consequences of their folly. Let the President see that the laws looking to a decisive prosecution of the war are faithfully executed, and he will be sustained. Let him fail to do his duty, and he will be called to a strict account.

In and out of place.

--The noisy, outside politician, who says if he were a State Governor he would resist the conscription to the extent of gun powder, may threaten with impunity; but the man who is a Governor has some serious responsibilities to consider.

The London Times says the States which have been fighting so desperately to convert the American Republic into a single military monarchy, have all at once recollected that they are, after all, only members of a federation. Illinois and other States are taking stops which prove that their object is peace. Thus at least there appears a ray of hope. The States desire peace; and finding a Federal Government unwilling to give effect to their desire, have superseded its action, and thus commenced the second stage of this tremendous American revolution for themselves.

[from the Press Association.]

The following summary of news, by way of City Point, has been received by the Agent of the Associated Press:

‘ A conference took place in Washington last Wednesday between Lincoln, Hooker, and Stanton, and the Committee on the Conduct of the War, immediately after which Hooker hastened back to the Rappahannock.

A reconnoitering party secured the neck between the Rappahannock and Mattaponi rivers last week, breaking up several nests of smugglers, and capturing a large quantity of medicines and other contraband articles. Several small boats were burned.

President Lincoln will call for more men in a few days for the Southwest.

It was believed in Memphis Wednesday that an engagement was progressing at Port Hudson.

A report reached Cincinnati from Jackson, Tennessee, that a portion of Gen. Sullivan's division, composed of two hundred men and two pieces of artillery, had been surrounded and captured by the rebels.

A new arm has been introduced into the United States service, to meet exigencies on the Western rivers, called the "Mississippi Marine Brigade."--It is to operate against the rebel guerillas on river banks.

The rumors about the loss of the Florida are without foundation. She captured and burnt the Jacob Bell two weeks after being chased by the Sonera.

The New York Herald, of the 12th, says: ‘"The people of the loyal States are not in a frame of mind to tolerate the repetition of of the blunders and military disasters of 161 and 162. Military success is imperiously demanded and is the one thing needful to save the Administration and the country from shipwreck."’

Col. Lefferts, of the New York 7th regiment, has resigned.

Lincoln considers the raid at Fairfax Court House a serious matter, so far as horses are concerned. He says he can make a Brigadier-General in five minutes, but it is not so easy to replace 110 horses.

From Europe.

European advices, of the 26th February, represent that the American war caused an excitement in the English House of Lords. East Russell alluded to the question of a recognition of the Southern Confederacy, and requested Lord Stratheden to postpone until the 21 inst. a motion of which he had given notice for the presentation of copies of all dispatches from Mr. Mason to her Majesty's Government on the claim of the Southern Confederacy to be acknowledged as an independent Power by Great Britain; to which Lord Stratheden acceded laconically.

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