In regard to love of finery, I beg, Eurydice, that you will read and try to remember what was written to Aristylla by Timoxena 1; and as for you, Pollianus, you must not think that your wife will refrain from immoderate display and extravagance if she sees that you do not despise these things in others, but, on the contrary, find delight in gilded drinking-cups, pictured walls, trappings for mules, and showy neckbands for horses. For it is impossible to expel extravagance from the wife's part of the house when it has free range amid the men's rooms.

Besides, Pollianus, you already possess sufficient maturity to study philosophy, and I beg that you will beautify your character with the aid of discourses which are attended by logical demonstration and mature deliberation, seeking the company and instruction of teachers who will help you. And for your wife you must collect from every source what is useful, as do the bees, and carrying it within your own self impart it to her, and then discuss it with her, and make the best of these doctrines her favourite and familiar themes. For to her

Thou art a father and precious-loved mother, Yea, and a brother as well.2
[p. 339] No less ennobling is it for a man to hear his wife say, ‘My dear husband,
Nay, but thou art to me 3
guide, philosopher, and teacher in all that is most lovely and divine.’ Studies of this sort, in the first place, divert women from all untoward conduct; for a woman studying geometry will be ashamed to be a dancer, and she will not swallow any beliefs in magic charms while she is under the charm of Plato's or Xenophon's words. And if anybody professes power to pull down the moon from the sky, she will laugh at the ignorance and stupidity of women who believe these things, inasmuch as she herself is not unschooled in astronomy, and has read in the books about Aglaonice, 4 the daughter of Hegetor of Thessaly, and how she, through being thoroughly acquainted with the periods of the full moon when it is subject to eclipse, and, knowing beforehand the time when the moon was due to be overtaken by the earth's shadow, imposed upon the women, and made them all believe that she was drawing down the moon.

It is said that no woman ever produced a child without the co-operation of a man, yet there are misshapen, fleshlike, uterine growths originating in some infection, which develop of themselves and acquire firmness and solidity, and are commonly called ‘moles.’ 5 Great care must be taken that this sort of thing does not take place in women's minds. For if they do not receive the seed of good doctrines and share with their husbands in intellectual advance [p. 341] ment, they, left to themselves, conceive many untoward ideas and low designs and emotions.

And as for you, Eurydice, I beg that you will try to be conversant with the sayings of the wise and good, and always have at your tongue's end those sentiments which you used to cull in your girlhood's days when you were with us, so that you may give joy to your husband, and may be admired by other women, adorned, as you will be, without price, with rare and precious jewels. For you cannot acquire and put upon you this rich woman's pearls or that foreign woman's silks without buying them at a high price, but the ornaments of Theano,6 Cleobulina,7 Gorgo,8 the wife of Leonidas, Timocleia, 9 the sister of Theagenes, Claudia 10 of old, Cornelia, 11 daughter of Scipio, and of all other women who have been admired and renowned, you may wear about you without price, and, adorning yourself with these, you may live a life of distinction and happiness.

If Sappho thought that her beautiful compositions in verse justified her in writing 12, in the L.C.L. i. p. 69. to a certain rich woman,

Dead in the tomb shalt thou lie, Nor shall there be thought of thee there, For in the roses of Pierian fields Thou hast no share,
[p. 343] why shall it not be even more allowable for you to entertain high and splendid thoughts of yourself, if you have a share not only in the roses but also in the fruits which the Muses bring and graciously bestow upon those who admire education and philosophy?

1 Plutarch's wife presumably; who Aristylla was we do not know.

2 Adapted from Homer, Il. vi. 429.

3 Adapted from Homer, Il. vi. 429.

4 Cf. Moralia, 416 F. The belief that Thessalian women had the power to draw down the moon was wide-spread in antiquity. It may suffice here to refer to Aristophanes, Clouds, 749, and for Aglaonice to Plutarch, Moralia 417 A.

5 Cf. Aristotle, De generatione animalium, iv. 7.

6 Wife of Pythagoras, cf. 142 C, supra.

7 Also called Eumetis, daughter of Cleobulus; cf. 148 C-E, 150 E, and 154 A-C, infra.

8 Daughter of Cleomenes, king of Sparta; cf. Herodotus, vii. 239.

9 Plutarch tells of Timocleia's intrepid behaviour after the battle of Chaeroneia in Moralia, 259 C, and Life of Alexander, chap. xii. (p. 671 A).

10 Claudia vindicated her virtue when the goddess Cybele was brought to Rome; Livy xxix. 14.

11 Better known as the mother of the Gracchi, who said of her sons, ‘These aremy jewels.’

12 Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Gr. iii. p. 111, Sappho, No. 68; J.M. Edmonds, Lyra Graeca

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