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1 The passage probably refers to the remark of a Babylonian that Darius would take Babylon when mules bear offspring. See Hdt. 3.151 and passim for details of the account of the taking of Babylon.
2 Literally, "cut off the extremities of his face," i.e. the nose and ears; the story is given by Hdt. 3.153 ff., who calls Zopyrus the son of Megabyzus. 520-519 B.C.
3 In order to trick the Babylonians.
4 This probably refers to the boast of the Babylonians (Hdt. 3.151) that the Persians would only take Babylon "when mules bear offspring." A little later one of Zopyrus' mules foaled.
5 519 B.C.
6 c. 520 B.C. Not to be confused with the Tyrrhenians (Etruscans) of Italy. These Tyrrhenians came to Lemnos in all probability from Asia Minor c. 700 B.C.
7 The famous hero of Marathon, 490 B.C.
8 These are presumably presents made out of dire necessity. Modern historians say that Miltiades "conquered" Lemnos c. 510 or c. 493 B.C.; see Hdt. 6.140.
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