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Let this, then, mark the boundary of Phrygia.1 I shall now return again to the Propontis and the coast that comes next after the Aesepus River, and follow the same order of description as before. The first country on this seaboard is the Troad, the fame of which, although it is left in ruins and in desolation, nevertheless prompts in writers no ordinary prolixity. With this fact in view, I should ask the pardon of my readers and appeal to them not to fasten the blame for the length of my discussion upon me rather than upon those who strongly yearn for knowledge of the things that are famous and ancient. And my discussion is further prolonged by the number of the peoples who have colonized the country, both Greeks and barbarians, and by the historians, who do not write the same things on the same subjects, nor always clearly either; among the first of these is Homer, who leaves us to guess about most things. And it is necessary for me to arbitrate between his statements and those of the others, after I shall first have described in a summary way the nature of the region in question. [2]

The seaboard of the Propontis, then, extends from Cyzicene and the region of the Aesepus and Granicus Rivers as far as Abydus and Sestus, whereas the parts round Ilium and Tenedos and the Trojan Alexandreia extend from Abydus to Lectum. Accordingly, Mt. Ida, which extends down to Lectum, lies above all these places. From Lectum to the Caïcus River, and to Canae,2 as it is called, are the parts round Assus and Adramyttium and Atarneus and Pitane and the Elaïtic Gulf; and the island of the Lesbians extends alongside, and opposite, all these places. Then come next the parts round Cyme, extending to the Hermus and Phocaea, which latter constitutes the beginning of Ionia and the end of Aeolis. Such being the position of the places, the poet indicates in a general way that the Trojans held sway from the region of the Aesepus River and that of the present Cyzicene to the Caïcus River,3 their country being divided by dynasties into eight, or nine, portions, whereas the mass of their auxiliary forces are enumerated among the allies. [3]

But the later authors do not give the same boundaries, and they use their terms differently, thus allowing us several choices. The main cause of this difference has been the colonizations of the Greeks; less so, indeed, the Ionian colonization, for it was farther distant from the Troad; but most of all that of the Aeolians, for their colonies were scattered throughout the whole of the country from Cyzicene to the Caïcus River, and they went on still farther to occupy the country between the Caïcus and Hermus Rivers. In fact, the Aeolian colonization, they say, preceded the Ionian colonization by four generations, but suffered delays and took a longer time; for Orestes, they say, was the first leader of the expedition, but he died in Arcadia, and his son Penthilus succeeded him and advanced as far as Thrace sixty years after the Trojan War, about the time of the return of the Heracleidae to the Peloponnesus; and then Archelaüs4 the son of Penthilus led the Aeolian expedition across to the present Cyzicene near Dascylium; and Gras, the youngest son of Archelaüs, advanced to the Granicus River, and, being better equipped, led the greater part of his army across to Lesbos and occupied it. And they add that Cleues, son of Dorus, and Malaüs, also descendants of Agamemnon, had collected their army at about the same time as Penthilus, but that, whereas the fleet of Penthilus had already crossed over from Thrace to Asia, Cleues and Malaüs tarried a long time round Locris and Mt. Phricius, and only later crossed over and founded the Phryconian Cyme, so named after the Locrian mountain. [4]

The Aeolians, then, were scattered throughout the whole of that country which, as I have said, the poet called Trojan. As for later authorities, some apply the name to all Aeolis, but others to only a part of it; and some to the whole of Troy, but others to only a part of it, not wholly agreeing with one another about anything. For instance, in reference to the places on the Propontis, Homer makes the Troad begin at the Aesepus River,5 whereas Eudoxus makes it begin at Priapus and Artace, the place on the island of the Cyziceni that lies opposite Priapus,6 and thus contracts the limits; but Damastes contracts the country still more, making it begin at Parium; and, in fact, Damastes prolongs the Troad to Lectum, whereas other writers prolong it differently. Charon of Lampsacus diminishes its extent by three hundred stadia more, making it begin at Practius,7 for that is the distance from Parium to Practius; however, he prolongs it to Adramyttium. Scylax of Caryanda makes it begin at Abydus; and similarly Ephorus says that Aeolis extends from Abydus to Cyme, while others define its extent differently.8 [5]

But the topography of Troy, in the proper sense of the term, is best marked by the position of Mt. Ida, a lofty mountain which faces the west and the western sea but makes a slight bend also towards the north and the northern seaboard. 9 This latter is the seaboard of the Propontis, extending from the strait in the neighborhood of Abydus to the Aesepus River and Cyzicene, whereas the western sea consists of the outer Hellespont10 and the Aegaean Sea. Mt. Ida has many foothills, is like the scolopendra11 in shape, and is defined by its two extreme limits: by the promontory in the neighborhood of Zeleia and by the promontory called Lectum the former terminating in the interior slightly above Cyzicene (in fact, Zeleia now belongs to the Cyziceni), whereas Lectum extends to the Aegaean Sea, being situated on the coasting voyage between Tenedos and Lesbos. When the poet says that Hypnos and Hera“came to many-fountained Ida, mother of wild beasts, to Lectum, where first the two left the sea,
12he describes Lectum in accordance with the facts; for he rightly states that Lectum is a part of Mt. Ida, and that Lectum is the first place of disembarkation from the sea for those who would go up to Mt. Ida, and also that the mountain is "many-fountained," for there in particular the mountain is abundantly watered, as is shown by the large number of rivers there,“all the rivers that flow forth from the Idaean mountains to the sea, Rhesus and Heptaporus
13and the following,14 all of which are named by the poet and are now to be seen by us. Now while Homer thus describes Lectum15 and Zeleia16 as the outermost foothills of Mt. Ida in either direction, he also appropriately distinguishes Gargarus from them as a summit, calling it "topmost."17 And indeed at the present time people point out in the upper parts of Ida a place called Gargarum, after which the present Gargara, an Aeolian city, is named. Now between Zeleia and Lectum, beginning from the Propontis, are situated first the parts extending to the straits at Abydus, and then, outside the Propontis, the parts extending to Lectum. [6]

On doubling Lectum one encounters a large wide-open gulf, which is formed by Mt. Ida as it recedes from Lectum to the mainland, and by Canae, the promontory opposite Lectum on the other side. Some call it the Idaean Gulf, others the Adramyttene. On this gulf18 are the cities of the Aeolians, extending to the outlets of the Hermus River, as I have already said.19 I have stated in the earlier parts of my work20 that, as one sails from Byzantium towards the south, the route lies in a straight line, first to Sestus and Abydus through the middle of the Propontis, and then along the coast of Asia as far as Caria. It behooves one, then, to keep this supposition in mind as one listens to the following; and, if I speak of certain gulfs on the coast, one must think of the promontories which form them as lying in the same line, a meridian line, as it were. [7]

Now as for Homer's statements, those who have studied the subject more carefully21 conjecture from them that the whole of this coast became subject to the Trojans, and, though divided into nine dynasties, was under the sway of Priam at the time of the Trojan War and was called Troy. And this is clear from his detailed statements. For instance, Achilles and his army, seeing at the outset that the inhabitants of Ilium were enclosed by walls, tried to carry on the war outside and, by making raids all round, to take away from them all the surrounding places:“Twelve cities of men I have laid waste with my ships, and eleven, I declare, by land throughout the fertile land of Troy.
22For by "Troy" he means the part of the mainland that was sacked by him; and, along with other places, Achilles also sacked the country opposite Lesbos in the neighborhood of Thebe and Lyrnessus and Pedasus,23 which last belonged to the Leleges, and also the country of Eurypylus the son of Telephus.“But what a man was that son of Telephus who was slain by him with the bronze,
24that is, the hero Eurypylus, slain by Neoptolemus. Now the poet says that these places were sacked, including Lesbos itself:“when he himself took well-built Lesbos;
25and“he sacked Lyrnessus and Pedasus;
26and“when he laid waste Lyrnessus and the walls of Thebe.
27It was at Lyrnessus that Briseïs was taken captive,“whom he carried away from Lyrnessus;
28and it was at her capture, according to the poet, that Mynes and Epistrophus fell, as is shown by the lament of Briseïs over Patroclus:“thou wouldst not even, not even, let me weep when swift Achilles slew my husband and sacked the city of divine Mynes;
29for in calling Lyrnessus "the city of divine Mynes" the poet indicates that Mynes was dynast over it and that he fell in battle there. But it was at Thebe that Chryseïs was taken captive:“We went into Thebe, the sacred city of Eëtion;
30and the poet says that Chryseïs was part of the spoil brought from that place.31 Thence, too, came Andromache:“Andromache, daughter of great hearted Eëtion; Eëtion who dwelt 'neath wooded Placus in Thebe Hypoplacia,32 and was lord over the men of Cilicia.
33This is the second Trojan dynasty after that of Mynes. And consistently with these facts writers think that the following statement of Andromache,“Hector, woe is me! surely to one doom we were born, both of us—thou in Troy in the house of Priam, but I at Thebae,
34should not be interpreted strictly, I mean the words "thou in Troy, but I at Thebae" (or Thebe), but as a case of hyperbaton, meaning "both of us in Troy—thou in the house of Priam, but I at Thebae." The third dynasty was that of the Leleges, which was also Trojan:“Of Altes, who is lord over the war-loving Leleges,
35by whose daughter Priam begot Lycaon and Polydorus. And indeed those who are placed under Hector in the Catalogue are called Trojans:“The Trojans were led by great Hector of the flashing helmet.
36And then come those under Aeneias:“The Dardanians in turn were commanded by the valiant son of Anchises
37and these, too, were Trojans; at any rate, the poet says,“Aeneias, counsellor of the Trojans.
38And then come the Lycians under Pandarus, and these also he calls Trojans:“And those who dwelt in Zeleia beneath the nethermost foot of Ida, Aphneiï,39 who drink the dark water of the Aesepus, Trojans; these in turn were commanded by Pandarus, the glorious son of Lycaon.
40And this was the sixth dynasty. And indeed those who lived between the Aesepus River and Abydus were Trojans; for not only were the parts round Abydus subject to Asius,“and they who dwelt about Percote and Practius41 and held Sestus and Abydus and goodly Arisbe42—these in turn were commanded by Asius the son of Hyrtacus,
43but a son of Priam lived at Abydus, pasturing mares, clearly his father's:“But he smote Democoön, the bastard son of Priam, who had come at Priam's bidding from his swift mares;
44while in Percote a son of Hicetaon was pasturing kine, he likewise pasturing kine that belonged to no other:45“And first he rebuked mighty Melanippus the son of Hicetaon, who until this time had been wont to feed the kine of shambling gait in Percote;
46so that this country would be a part of the Troad, as also the next country after it as far as Adrasteia, for the leaders of the latter were“the two sons of Merops of Percote.
47Accordingly, the people from Abydus to Adrasteia were all Trojans, although they were divided into two groups, one under Asius and the other under the sons of Merops, just as Cilicia48 also was divided into two parts, the Theban Cilicia and the Lyrnessian;49 but one might include in the Lyrnessian Cilicia the territory subject to Eurypylus, which lay next to the Lyrnessian Cilicia.50 But that Priam was ruler of these countries, one and all, is clearly indicated by Achilles' words to Priam:“And of thee, old sire, we hear that formerly thou wast blest; how of all that is enclosed by Lesbos, out at sea, city of Macar, and by Phrygia in the upland, and by the boundless Hellespont.
51 [8]

Now such were the conditions at the time of the Trojan War, but all kinds of changes followed later; for the parts round Cyzicus as far as the Practius were colonized by Phrygians, and those round Abydus by Thracians; and still before these two by Bebryces and Dryopes.52 And the country that lies next was colonized by the Treres, themselves also Thracians; and the Plain of Thebe by Lydians, then called Maeonians, and by the survivors of the Mysians who had formerly been subject to Telephus and Teuthras. So then, since the poet combines Aeolis and Troy, and since the Aeolians held possession of all the country from the Hermus River53 to the seaboard at Cyzicus, and founded their cities there, I too might not be guilty of describing them wrongly if I combined Aeolis, now properly so called, extending from the Hermus River to Lectum, and the country next after it, extending to the Aesepus River; for in my detailed treatment of the two, I shall distinguish them again, setting forth, along with the facts as they now are, the statements of Homer and others. [9]

According to Homer, then, the Troad begins after the city of the Cyziceni and the Aesepus River. And he so speaks of it:“And those who dwelt in Zeleia beneath the nethermost foot of Ida, Aphneii,54 who drink the dark water of the Aesepus, Trojans; these in turn were commanded by Pandarus the glorious son of Lycaon.
55These he also calls Lycians.56 And they are thought to have been called "Aphneii" after Lake "Aphnitis," for Lake Dascylitis is also called by that name. [10]

Now Zeleia57 is situated on the farthermost foothill of Mt. Ida, being one hundred and ninety stadia distant from Cyzicus and about eighty stadia from the nearest part of the sea, where the Aesepus empties. And the poet mentions severally, in continuous order, the places that lie along the coast after the Aesepus River:“And they who held Adrasteia and the land of Apaesus, and held Pityeia and the steep mountain of Tereia—these were led by Adrastus and Amphius of the linen corslet, the two sons of Merops of Percote.
58These places lie below Zeleia,59 but they are occupied by Cyziceni and Priapeni even as far as the coast. Now near Zeleia is the Tarsius River,60 which is crossed twenty times by the same road, like the Heptaporus River,61.which is mentioned by the poet.62 And the river that flows from Nicomedeia into Nicaea is crossed twenty-four times, and the river that flows from Pholoe into the Eleian country63 is crossed many times . . . Scarthon twenty-five times,64 and the river that flows from the country of the Coscinii into Alabanda is crossed many times, and the river that flows from Tyana into Soli through the Taurus is crossed seventy-five times. [11]

About . . .65 stadia above the outlet of the Aesepus River is a hill, where is shown the tomb of Memnon, son of Tithonus; and near by is the village of Memnon. The Granicus River flows between the Aesepus River and Priapus, mostly through the plain of Adrasteia,66 where Alexander utterly defeated the satraps of Dareius in battle, and gained the whole of the country inside the Taurus and the Euphrates River. And on the Granicus was situated the city Sidene, with a large territory of the same name; but it is now in ruins. On the boundary between the territory of Cyzicus and that of Priapus is a place called Harpagia,67 from which, according to some writers of myths, Ganymede was snatched, though others say that he was snatched in the neighborhood of the Dardanian Promontory, near Dardanus. [12]

Priapus68 is a city on the sea, and also a harbor. Some say that it was founded by Milesians, who at the same time also colonized Abydus and Proconnesus, whereas others say that it was founded by Cyziceni. It was named after Priapus, who was worshipped there; then his worship was transferred thither from Orneae near Corinth, or else the inhabitants felt an impulse to worship the god because he was called the son of Dionysus and a nymph; for their country is abundantly supplied with the vine, both theirs and the countries which border next upon it, I mean those of the Pariani and the Lampsaceni. At any rate, Xerxes gave Lampsacus to Themistocles to supply him with wine. But it was by people of later times that Priapus was declared a god, for even Hesiod does not know of him; and he resembles the Attic deities Orthane, Conisalus, Tychon, and others like them. [13]

This country was called "Adrasteia"69 and "Plain of Adrasteia," in accordance with a custom whereby people gave two names to the same place, as "Thebe" and "Plain of Thebe," and "Mygdonia" and "Plain of Mygdonia." According to Callisthenes, among others, Adrasteia was named after King Adrastus, who was the first to found a temple of Nemesis. Now the city is situated between Priapus and Parium; and it has below it a plain that is named after it, in which there was an oracle of Apollo Actaeus and Artemis. . . .70 But when the temple was torn down, the whole of its furnishings and stonework were transported to Parium, where was built an altar,71 the work of Hermocreon, very remarkable for its size and beauty; but the oracle was abolished like that at Zeleia. Here, however, there is no temple of Adrasteia, nor yet of Nemesis, to be seen, although there is a temple of Adrasteia near Cyzicus. Antimachus says as follows:“There is a great goddess Nemesis, who has obtained as her portion all these things from the Blessed.72 Adrestus73 was the first to build an altar to her beside the stream of the Aesepus River, where she is worshipped under the name of Adresteia.
” [14]

The city Parium is situated on the sea; it has a larger harbor than Priapus, and its territory has been increased at the expense of Priapus; for the Parians curried favor with the Attalic kings, to whom the territory of Priapus was subject, and by their permission cut off for themselves a large part of that territory. Here is told the mythical story that the Ophiogeneis74 are akin to the serpent tribe:75 and they say that the males of the Ophiogeneis cure snake-bitten people by continuous stroking, after the manner of enchanters, first transferring the livid color to their own bodies and then stopping both the inflammation and the pain. According to the myth, the original founder of the tribe, a certain hero, changed from a serpent into a man. Perhaps he was one of the Libyan Psylli,76 whose power persisted in his tribe for a certain time.77 Parium was founded by Milesians and Erythraeans and Parians. [15]

Pitya78 is in Pityus in the territory of Parium, lying below a pine covered mountain;79 and it lies between Parium and Priapus in the direction of Linum, a place on the seashore, where are caught the Linusian snails, the best in the world. [16]

On the coasting voyage from Parium to Priapus lie both the old Proconnesus and the present Proconnesus, the latter having a city and also a great quarry of white marble that is very highly commended; at any rate, the most beautiful works of art80 in the cities of that part of the world, and especially those in Cyzicus, are made of this marble. Aristeas was a Proconnesian—the author of the Arimaspian Epic, as it is called—a charlatan if ever there was one.81 [17]

As for "the mountain of Tereia,"82 some say that it is the range of mountains in Peirossus which are occupied by the Cyziceni and are adjacent to Zeleia, where a royal hunting ground was arranged by the Lydians, and later by the Persians;83 but others point out a hill forty stadia from Lampsacus, on which there is a temple sacred to the mother of the gods, entitled "Tereia's" temple. [18]

Lampsacus,84 a!so, is a city on the sea, a notable city with a good harbor, and still flourishing, like Abydus. It is about one hundred and seventy stadia distant from Abydus; and it was formerly called Pityussa, as also, it is said, was Chios. On the opposite shore of the Chersonesus is Callipolis, a small town. It is on the headland and runs far out towards Asia in the direction of the city of the Lampsaceni, so that the passage across to Asia from it is no more than forty stadia. [19]

In the interval between Lampsacus and Parium lay a city and river called Paesus; but the city is in ruins. The Paeseni changed their abode to Lampsacus, they too being colonists from the Milesians, like the Lampsaceni. But the poet refers to the place in two ways, at one time adding the first syllable,“and the land of Apaesus,
85and at another omitting it,“a man of many possessions, who dwelt in Paesus.
86And the river is now spelled in the latter way. Colonae,87 which lies above Lampsacus in the interior of Lampsacene, is also a colony of the Milesians; and there is another Colonae on the outer Hellespontine sea, which is one hundred and forty stadia distant from Ilium and is said to be the birthplace of Cycnus.88 Anaximenes says that there are also places in the Erythraean territory and in Phocis and in Thessaly that are called Colonae. And there is an Iliocolone in the territory of Parium. In the territory of Lampsacus is a place called Gergithium89 which is rich in vines; and there was also a city called Gergitha from Gergithes in the territory of Cyme, for here too there was a city called Gergithes, in the feminine plural, the birthplace of Cephalon the Gergithian. And still today a place called Gergithium is pointed out in the territory of Cyme near Larissa. Now Neoptolemus,90 called the Glossographer, a notable man, was from Parium; and Charon the historian91 and Adeimantus92 and Anaximenes the rhetorician93 and Metrodorus the comrade of Epicurus were from Lampsacus; and Epicurus himself was in a sense a Lampsacenian, having lived in Lampsacus and having been on intimate terms with the ablest men of that city, Idomeneus and Leonteus and their followers. It was from here that Agrippa transported the Fallen Lion, a work of Lysippus; and he dedicated it in the sacred precinct between the Lake and the Euripus.94 [20]

After Lampsacus come Abydus and the intervening places of which the poet, who comprises with them the territory of Lampsacus and part of the territory of Parium (for these two cities were not yet in existence in the Trojan times), speaks as follows:“And those who dwelt about Percote and Practius, and held Sestus and Abydus and goodly Arisbe—these in turn were led by Asius, the son of Hyrtacus, . . . who was brought by his sorrel horses from Arisbe, from the River Sellëeis.
95In speaking thus, the poet seems to set forth Arisbe, whence he says Asius came, as the royal residence of Asius:“who was brought by his horses from Arisbe, from the River Sellëeis.
”But these places96 are so obscure that even investigators do not agree about them, except that they are in the neighborhood of Abydus and Lampsacus and Parium, and that the old Percote,97 the site, underwent a change of name. [21]

Of the rivers, the Sellëeis flows near Arisbe, as the poet says, if it be true that Asius came both from Arisbe and from the Sellëeis River. The River Practius is indeed in existence, but no city of that name is to be found, as some have wrongly thought. This river also98 flows between Abydus and Lampsacus. Accordingly, the words,“and dwelt about Practius,
”should be interpreted as applying to a river, as should also those other words,“and those who dwelt beside the goodly Cephisus River,
99and“those who had their famed estates about the Parthenius River.
100There was also a city Arisba in Lesbos, whose territory is occupied by the Methymnaeans. And there is an Arisbus River in Thrace, as I have said before,101 near which are situated the Thracian Cebrenians. There are many names common to the Thracians and the Trojans; for example, there are Thracians called Scaeans, and a river Scaeus, and a Scaean Wall, and at Troy the Scaean Gates. And there are Thracian Xanthians, and in Troy-land a river Xanthus. And in Troy-land there is a river Arisbus which empties into the Hebrus, as also a city Arisbe. And there was a river Rhesus in Troy-land; and there was a Rhesus who was the king of the Thracians. And there is also, of the same name as this Asius, another Asius in Homer,“who was maternal uncle to horse-taming Hector, and own brother to Hecabe, but son of Dymas, who dwelt in Phrygia by the streams of the Sangarius.
102 [22]

Abydus was founded by Milesians, being founded by permission of Gyges, king of the Lydians; for this district and the whole of the Troad were under his sway; and there is a promontory named Gygas near Dardanus. Abydus lies at the mouth of the Propontis and the Hellespont; and it is equidistant from Lampsacus and Ilium, about one hundred and seventy stadia.103 Here, separating Europe and Asia, is the Heptastadium,104 which was bridged by Xerxes. The European promontory that forms the narrows at the place of the bridge is called the Chersonesus105 because of its shape. And the place of the bridge lies opposite Abydus. Sestus106 is the best of the cities in the Chersonesus; and, on account of its proximity to Abydus, it was assigned to the same governor as Abydus in the times when governorships had not yet been delimited by continents. Now although Abydus and Sestus are about thirty stadia distant from one another from harbor to harbor, yet the line of the bridge across the strait is short, being drawn at an angle to that between the two cities, that is, from a point nearer than Abydus to the Propontis on the Abydus side to a point farther away from the Propontis on the Sestus side. Near Sestus is a place named Apobathra,107 where the pontoon-bridge was attached to the shore. Sestus lies farther in towards the Propontis, farther up the stream that flows out of the Propontis. It is therefore easier to cross over from Sestus, first coasting a short distance to the Tower of Hero and then letting the ships make the passage across by the help of the current. But those who cross over from Abydus must first follow the coast in the opposite direction about eight stadia to a tower opposite Sestus, and then sail across obliquely and thus not have to meet the full force of the current. After the Trojan War Abydus was the home of Thracians, and then of Milesians. But when the cities were burned by Dareius, father of Xerxes, I mean the cities on the Propontis, Abydus shared in the same misfortune. He burned them because he had learned after his return from his attack upon the Scythians that the nomads were making preparations to cross the strait and attack him to avenge their sufferings, and was afraid that the cities would provide means for the passage of their army. And this too, in addition to the other changes and to the lapse of time, is a cause of the confusion into which the topography of the country has fallen. As for Sestus and the Chersonesus in general, I have already spoken of them in my description of the region of Thrace.108 Theopompus says that Sestus is small but well fortified, and that it is connected with its harbor by a double wall of two plethra,109 and that for this reason, as also on account of the current, it is mistress of the passage. [23]

Above the territory of the Abydeni, in the Troad, lies Astyra. This city, which is in ruins, now belongs to the Abydeni, but in earlier times it was independent and had gold mines. These mines are now scant, being used up, like those on Mt. Tmolus in the neighborhood of the Pactolus River. From Abydus to the Aesepus the distance is said to be about seven hundred stadia, but less by straight sailing.110 [24]

Outside Abydus lies the territory of Ilium—the parts on the shore extending to Lectum, and the places in the Trojan Plain, and the parts on the side of Mt. Ida that were subject to Aeneias. The poet names these last parts in two ways, at one time saying as follows:“The Dardanii in turn were led by the valiant son of Anchises,
111calling the inhabitants "Dardanii"; and at another time, "Dardani":“The Trojans and Lycians and Dardani that fight in close combat.
112And it is reasonable to suppose that this was in ancient times.the site of the Dardania mentioned by the poet when he says,“At first Dardanus was begotten by Zeus the cloud-gatherer, and he founded Dardania;
113for at the present time there is not so much as a trace of a city preserved in that territory.114 [25]

Plato115 conjectures, however, that after the time of the floods three kinds of civilization were formed: the first, that on the mountain tops, which was simple and wild, when men were in fear of the waters which still deeply covered the plains; the second, that on the foothills, when men were now gradually taking courage because the plains were beginning to be relieved of the waters; and the third, that in the plains. One might speak equally of a fourth and fifth, or even more, but last of all that on the seacoast and in the islands, when men had been finally released from all such fear; for the greater or less courage they took in approaching the sea would indicate several different stages of civilization and manners, first as in the case of the qualities of goodness and wildness, which in some way further served as a foundation for the milder qualities in the second stage. But in the second stage also there is a difference to be noted, I mean between the rustic and semi-rustic and civilized qualities; and, beginning with these last qualities, the gradual assumption of new names ended in the polite and highest culture, in accordance with the change of manners for the better along with the changes in places of abode and in modes of life. Now these differences, according to Plato,116 are suggested by the poet, who sets forth as an example of the first stage of civilization the life of the Cyclopes, who lived on uncultivated fruits and occupied the mountain tops, living in caves: “but all these things,” he says, “grow unsown and unploughed” for them. . . . “And they have no assemblies for council, nor appointed laws, but they dwell on the tops of high mountains in hollow caves, and each is lawgiver to his children and his wives.
117 And as an example of the second stage, the life in the time of Dardanus, who“founded Dardania; for not yet had sacred Ilios been builded to be a city of mortal men, but they were living on the foothills of many-fountained Ida.
118 And of the third stage, the life in the plains in the time of Ilus;119 for he is the traditional founder of Ilium, and it was from him that the city took its name. And it is reasonable to suppose, also, that he was buried in the middle of the plain for this reason—that he was the first to take up his abode in the plains:“And they sped past the tomb of ancient Ilus, son of Dardanus, through the middle of the plain past the wild fig tree.
120Yet even Ilus did not have full courage, for he did not found the city at the place where it now is, but about thirty stadia higher up towards the east, and towards Mt. Ida and Dardania, at the place now called "Village of the Ilians."121 But the people of the present Ilium, being fond of glory and wishing to show that their Ilium was the ancient city, have offered a troublesome argument to those who base their evidence on the poetry of Homer, for their Ilium does not appear to have been the Homeric city. Other inquirers also find that the city changed its site several times, but at last settled permanently where it now is at about the time of Croesus.122 I take for granted, then, that such removals into the parts lower down, which took place in those times, indicate different stages in modes of life and civilization; but this must be further investigated at another time. [26]

It is said that the city of the present Ilians was for a time a mere village, having its temple of Athena, a small and cheap temple, but that when Alexander went up there after his victory at the Granicus123 River he adorned the temple with votive offerings, gave the village the title of city, and ordered those in charge to improve it with buildings, and that he adjudged it free and exempt from tribute; and that later, after the overthrow of the Persians, he sent down a kindly letter to the place, promising to make a great city of it, and to build a magnificent sanctuary, and to proclaim sacred games.124 But after his death Lysimachus125 devoted special attention to the city, and built a temple there and surrounded the city with a wall about forty stadia in circuit, and also incorporated into it the surrounding cities, which were now old and in bad plight. At that time he had already devoted attention to Alexandreia, which had indeed already been founded by Antigonus and called Antigonia, but had changed its name, for it was thought to be a pious thing for the successors of Alexander to found cities bearing his name before they founded cities bearing their own. And indeed the city endured and grew, and at present it not only has received a colony of Romans but is one of the notable cities of the world. [27]

Also the Ilium of today was a kind of village-city when the Romans first set foot on Asia and expelled Antiochus the Great from the country this side of Taurus. At any rate, Demetrius of Scepsis says that, when as a lad he visited the city about that time, he found the settlement so neglected that the buildings did not so much as have tiled roofs. And Hegesianax says that when the Galatae crossed over from Europe they needed a stronghold and went up into the city for that reason, but left it at once because of its lack of walls. But later it was greatly improved. And then it was ruined again by the Romans under Fimbria, who took it by siege in the course of the Mithridatic war. Fimbria had been sent as quaestor with Valerius Flaccus the consul when the latter was appointed126 to the command against Mithridates; but Fimbria raised a mutiny and slew the consul in the neighborhood of Bithynia, and was himself set up as lord of the army; and when he advanced to Ilium, the llians would not admit him, as being a brigand, and therefore he applied force and captured the place on the eleventh day. And when he boasted that he himself had overpowered on the eleventh day the city which Agamemnon had only with difficulty captured in the tenth year, although the latter had with him on his expedition the fleet of a thousand vessels and the whole of Greece, one of the Ilians said: "Yes, for the city's champion was no Hector." Now Sulla came over and overthrew Fimbria, and on terms of agreement sent Mithridates away to his homeland, but he also consoled the Ilians by numerous improvements. In my time, however, the deified Caesar127 was far more thoughtful of them, at the same time also emulating the example of Alexander; for Alexander set out to provide for them on the basis of a renewal of ancient kinship, and also because at the same time he was fond of Homer; at any rate, we are told of a recension of the poetry of Homer, the Recension of the Casket, as it is called, which Alexander, along with Callisthenes and Anaxarchus, perused and to a certain extent annotated, and then deposited in a richly wrought casket which he had found amongst the Persian treasures.128 Accordingly, it was due both to his zeal for the poet and to his descent from the Aeacidae who reigned as kings of the Molossians—where, as we are also told, Andromache, who had been the wife of Hector, reigned as queen—that Alexander was kindly disposed towards the Ilians. But Caesar, not only being fond of Alexander, but also having better known evidences of kinship with the llians, felt encouraged to bestow kindness upon them with all the zest of youth: better known evidences, first, because he was a Roman, and because the Romans believe Aeneias to have been their original founder; and secondly, because the name Iulius was derived from that of a certain Iulus who was one of his ancestors,129 and this Iulus got his appellation from the Iulus who was one of the descendants of Aeneas. Caesar therefore allotted territory to them end also helped them to preserve their freedom and their immunity from taxation; and to this day they remain in possession of these favors. But that this is not the site of the ancient Ilium, if one considers the matter in accordance with Homer's account, is inferred from the following considerations. But first I must give a general description of the region in question, beginning at that point on the coast where I left off. [28]

After Abydus, then, comes the Dardanian Promontory, which I mentioned a little while ago,130 and also the city Dardanus, which is seventy stadia distant from Abydus. Between the two places empties the Rhodius River, opposite which, in the Chersonesus, is Cynos-Sema,131 which is said to be the tomb of Hecabe. But some say that the Rhodius empties into the Aesepus. This too is one of the rivers mentioned by the poet:“Rhesus, Heptaporus, Caresus, and Rhodius.
132Dardanus was an ancient settlement, but it was held in such contempt that it was oftentimes transplanted by some of the kings to Abydus and then resettled again by others on the ancient site. It was here that Cornelius Sulla, the Roman commander, and Mithridates surnamed Eupator met and arranged the terms for the conclusion of the war. [29]

Near by is Ophrynium, near which, in a conspicuous place, is the sacred precinct of Hector.133 And next comes the Lake134 of Pteleos. [30]

Then come Rhoeteium, a city situated on a hill, and, adjacent to Rhoeteium, a low-lying shore, on which are a tomb and temple of Aias, and also a statue of him, which was taken up by Antony and carried of to Aegypt; but Augustus Caesar gave it back again to the Rhoeteians, just as he gave back other statues to their owners. For Antony took away the finest dedications from the most famous temples, to gratify the Egyptian woman,135 but Augustus gave them back to the gods. [31]

After Rhoeteium come Sigeium, a destroyed city, and the Naval Station and the Harbor of the Achaeans and the Achaean Camp and Stomalimne,136 as it is called, and the outlets of the Scamander; for after the Simoeis and the Scamander meet in the plain, they carry down great quantities of alluvium, silt up the coat, and form a blind mouth, lagoons, and marshes. Opposite the Sigeian Promontory on the Chersonesus are Eleussa137 and the temple of Protesilaüs, both of which I have mentioned in my description of Thrace.138 [32]

The length of this coast, I mean on a straight voyage from Rhoeteium to Sigeium, and the monument of Achilles, is sixty stadia; and the whole of it lies below Ilium, not only the present Ilium, from which, at the Harbor of the Achaeans, it is about twelve stadia distant, but also the earlier Ilium, which lies thirty stadia farther inland in the direction of Mt. Ida. Now there are a temple and a monument of Achilles near Sigeium, as also monuments of Patroclus and Antilochus; and the Ilians offer sacrifices to all four heroes, both to these and to Aias. But they do not honor Heracles, giving as their reason his sacking of the city. But one might say that, although Heracles did sack it, yet he sacked it in such a way as still to leave it a city, even though damaged, for those who were later to sack it utterly; and for this reason the poet states it thus:“He sacked the city of Ilios and widowed her streets;
139for "widowed" means a loss of the male population, not a complete annihilation. But the others, whom they think fit to worship with sacrifices and to honor as gods, completely annihilated the city. Perhaps they might give as their reason for this that these waged a just war, whereas Heracles waged an unjust one "on account of the horses of Laomedon."140 But writers set over against this reason the myth that it was not on account of the horses but of the reward offered for Hesione and the sea-monster.141 But let us disregard these reasons, for they end merely in controversies about myths. And perhaps we fail to notice certain more credible reasons why it occurred to the Ilians to honor some and not others. And it appears that the poet, in what he says about Heracles, represents the city as small, if it be true that“with only six ships and fewer men he sacked the city of Ilium.
142And it is clearly shown by this statement that Priam became great and king of kings from a small beginning, as I have said before.143 Advancing a little farther along this shore, one comes to the Achaeïum, where begins the part of the mainland that belongs to Tenedos. [33]

Such, are the places on the sea. Above these lies the Trojan Plain, which extends inland for many stadia in the direction of the east as far as Mt. Ida. The part of this plain alongside the mountain is narrow, extending on one side towards the south as far as the region of Scepsis, and on the other towards the north as far as the Lycians of Zeleia. This is the country which the poet makes subject to Aeneias and the sons of Antenor, calling it Dardania; and below this is Cebrenia, which is level for the most part and lies approximately parallel to Dardania; and in it there was once a city called Cebrene.144 Demetrius suspects that the territory of Ilium subject to Hector extended inland from the naval station as far a Cebrenia, for he says that the tomb of Alexander145 is pointed out there, as also that of Oenone, who, according to historians, had been the wife of Alexander before he carried off Helen. And, he continues, the poet mentions“Cebriones, bastard son of glorious Priam,
146after whom, as one may suppose, the country was named—or the city too, which is more plausible; and Cebrenia extends as far as the territory of Scepsis; and the Scamander, which flows between, is the boundary; and the Cebreni and Scepsians were always hostile to one another and at war until Antigonus settled both peoples together in Antigonia, as it was then called, or Alexandreia, as it is now called; now the Cebreni, he adds, remained with the rest in Alexandreia, but the Scepsians, by permission of Lysimachus, went back to their homeland. [34]

From the mountain range of Ida in this region, according to Demetrius, two spurs extend to the sea, one straight to Rhoeteium and the other straight to Sigeium, forming together a semicircular line, and they end in the plain at the same distance from the sea as the present Ilium; this Ilium, accordingly, lies between the ends of the two spurs mentioned, whereas the old settlement lies between their beginnings; and, he adds, the spurs include both the Simoeisian Plain, through which the Simoeis runs, and the Scamandrian Plain, through which the Scamander flows. This is called the Trojan Plain in the special sense of the term; and here it is that the poet represents most of the fights as taking place, for it is wider; and here it is that we see pointed out the places named by the poet Erineus,147 the tomb of Aesyetes,148 Batieia,149 and the monument of Ilus.150 The Scamander and Simoeis Rivers, after running near to Sigeium and Rhoeteium respectively, meet a little in front of the present Ilium, and then issue towards Sigeium and form Stomalimne,151 as it is called. The two plains above mentioned are separated from each other by a great neck of land which runs in a straight line between the aforesaid spurs, starting from the present Ilium, with which it is connected, and stretches as far as Cebrenia and, along with the spur's on either side,152 forms a complete letter .153 [35]

A little above this154 is the Village of the Ilians, where the ancient Ilium is thought to have been situated in earlier times, at a distance of thirty stadia from the present city. And ten stadia above the Village of the Ilians is Callicolone, a hill, past which, at a distance of five stadia, flows the Simoeis. It therefore becomes easy to understand, first, the reference to Ares:“And over against her leaped Ares, like unto a dreadful whirlwind, in shrill tones cheering the Trojans from the topmost part of the city, and now again as he sped alongside Simoeis o'er Callicolone;
155for if the battle was fought on the Scamandrian Plain, it is plausible that Ares should at one time shout his cheers from the acropolis and at another from the region near the Simoeis and Callicolone, up to which, in all probability, the battle would have extended. But since Callicolone is forty stadia distant from the present llium, for what useful purpose would the poet have taken in places so far away that the line of battle could not have reached them? Again, the words,“And towards Thymbra fell the lot of the Lycians,
156are more suitable to the ancient settlement, for the plain of Thymbra is near it, as also the Thymbrius River, which flows through the plain and empties into the Scamander at the temple of the Thymbraean Apollo, but Thymbra is actually fifty stadia distant from the present Ilium, And again, Erineus,157 a place that is rugged and full of wild fig trees, lies at the foot of the ancient site, so that Andromache might appropriately say, “Stay thy host beside Erineus, where best the city can be approached and the wall scaled,
158but Erineus stands at a considerable distance from the present Ilium. Further, a little below Erineus is Phegus,159 in reference to which Achilles says,“But so long as I was carrying on war amid the Achaeans, Hector was unwilling to rouse battle away from the wall, but would come only as far as the Scaean Gates and Phegus.
160 [36]

However, the Naval Station, still now so called, is so near the present Ilium that one might reasonably wonder at the witlessness of the Greeks and the faintheartedness of the Trojans; witlessness, if the Greeks kept the Naval Station unwalled for so long a time, when they were near to the city and to so great a multitude, both that in the city and that of the allies; for Homer says that the wall had only recently been built (or else it was not built at all, but fabricated and then abolished by the poet, as Aristotle says); and faintheartedness, if the Trojans, when the wall was built, could besiege it and break into the Naval Station itself and attack the ships, yet did not have the courage to march up and besiege the station when it was still unwalled and only a slight distance away; for it is near Sigeium, and the Scamander empties near it, at a distance of only twenty stadia from Ilium. But if one shall say that the Harbor of Achaeans, as it is now called, is the Naval Station, he will be speaking of a place that is still closer, only about twelve stadia distant from the city, even if one includes the plain by the sea, because the whole of this plain is a deposit of the rivers—I mean the plain by the sea in front of the city; so that, if the distance between the sea and the city is now twelve stadia, it must have been no more than half as great at that time. Further, the feigned story told by Odysseus to Eumaeus clearly indicates that the distance from the Naval Station to the city is great, for after saying,“as when we led our ambush beneath the walls of Troy,
161 he adds a little below,“for we went very far from the ships.
162And spies are sent forth to find whether the Trojans will stay by the ships "far away," far separated from their own walls,“or will withdraw again to the city.
163And Polydamas says,“on both sides, friends, bethink ye well, for I, on my own part, bid you now to go to the city; afar from the walls are we.
164Demetrius cites also Hestiaea of Alexandreia as a witness, a woman who wrote a work on Homer's Iliad and inquired whether the war took place round the present Ilium and the Trojan Plain, which latter the poet places between the city and the sea; for, she says, the plain now to be seen in front of the present Ilium is a later deposit of the rivers. [37]

Again, Polites,“who was wont to sit as a sentinel of the Trojans, trusting in his fleetness of foot, on the topmost part of the barrow of aged Aesyetes,
165was doing a foolish thing, for even though he sat on the topmost part of it, still he might have kept watch from the much greater height of the acropolis, at approximately the same distance, with no need of fleetness of foot for safety; for the barrow of Aesyetes now pointed out is five stadia distant on the road to Alexandreia. Neither is the "clear running space"166 of Hector round the city easy to understand, for the present Ilium has no "clear running space," on account of the ridge that joins it. The ancient city, however, has a "clear running space" round it. [38]

But no trace of the ancient city survives; and naturally so, for while the cities all round it were sacked, but not completely destroyed, yet that city was so utterly demolished that all the stones were taken from it to rebuild the others. At any rate, Archaeanax of Mitylene is said to have built a wall round Sigeium with stones taken from there. Sigeium was seized by Athenians under Phrynon the Olympian victor, although the Lesbians laid claim to almost the whole of the Troad. Most of the settlements in the Troad belong, in fact, to the Lesbians, and some endure to this day, while others have disappeared. Pittacus of Mitylene, one of the Seven Wise Men, as they are called, sailed against Phrynon the general167 and for a time carried on the war, but with poor management and ill consequences. It was at this time that the poet Alcaeus says that he himself, being sorely pressed in a certain battle, threw away his arms. He addresses his account of it to a certain herald, whom he had bidden to report to the people at home that "Alcaeus is safe, but his arms have been hung up as an offering to Ares by the Attic army in the temple of Athena Glaucopis."168 But later, on being challenged to single combat by Phrynon, he took up his fishing-tackle, ran to meet him, entangled him in his fishing net, and stabbed and slew him with trident and dagger. But since the war still went on, Periander was chosen by both sides as arbiter and ended it. [39]

Demetrius says that Timaeus falsifies when he informs us that Periander fortified Achilleium against the Athenians with stones from Ilium, to help the army of Pittacus; for this place, he says, was indeed fortified by the Mitylenaeans against Sigeium, though not with such stones as those, nor yet by Periander. For how could the opponent of the Athenians have been chosen as arbiter? Achilleium is the place where stands the monument of Achilles and is only a small settlement. Sigeium, also, has been razed to the ground by the Ilians, because of its disobedience; for the whole of the coast as far as Dardanus was later subject to the Ilians and is now subject to them. In ancient times the most of it was subject to the Aeolians, so that Ephorus does not hesitate to apply the name Aeolis to the whole of the coast from Abydus to Cyme.169 Thucydides says that Troy was taken away from the Mitylenaeans by the Athenians in the Pachetian part170 of the Peloponnesian War. [40]

The present Ilians further tell us that the city was, in fact, not completely wiped out at its capture by the Achaeans and that it was never even deserted. At any rate the Locrian maidens, beginning a little later, were sent every year.171 But this too is non-Homeric, for Homer knows not of the violation of Cassandra, but he says that she was a maiden at about that time,“for he172 slew Othryoneus, a sojourner in Troy from Cabesus, who had but recently come, following after the rumor of war,173 and he was asking Cassandra in marriage, the comeliest of the daughters of Priam, without gifts of wooing,
174 and yet he does not so much as mention any violation of her or say that the destruction of Aias in the shipwreck took place because of the wrath of Athena or any such cause; instead, he speaks of Aias as "hated by Athena,"175 in accordance with her general hatred (for since they one and all committed sacrilege against her temple, she was angry at them all), but says that he was destroyed by Poseidon because of his boastful speech.176 But the fact is that the Locrian maidens were first sent when the Persians were already in power. [41]

So the Ilians tell us, but Homer expressly states that the city was wiped out:“The day shall come when sacred Ilios shall perish;
177and“surely we have utterly destroyed the steep city of Priam,
178“by means of counsels and persuasiveness;
179“and in the tenth year the city of Priam was destroyed.
180And other such evidences of the same thing are set forth; for example, that the wooden image of Athena now to be seen stands upright, whereas Homer clearly indicates that it was sitting, for orders are given to "put" the robe“upon Athena's knees
181Hom. Il. 6.273(compare“that never should there sit upon his knees a dear child).
182For it is better to interpret it183 in this way than, as some do, to interpret it as meaning "to put the robe 'beside' her knees," comparing the words“and she sits upon the hearth in the light of the fire,
184which they take to mean "beside" the hearth. For how could one conceive of the dedication of a robe "beside" the knees? Moreover, others, changing the accent on γούνασιν185 accenting it γουνάσιν,186 like θυιάσιν187 (in whichever of two ways they interpret it), talk on endlessly. . . There are to be seen many of the ancient wooden images of Athena in a sitting posture, as, for example, in Phocaea, Massalia, Rome, Chios, and several other places. Also the more recent writers agree that the city was wiped out, among whom is the orator Lycurgus, who, in mentioning the city of the Ilians, says:“Who has not heard that once for all it was razed to the ground by the Greeks, and is uninhabited?”188 [42]

It is surmised that those who later thought of refounding the city regarded that site as ill-omened, either on account of its misfortune or also because, in accordance with an ancient custom, a curse had been laid upon it by Agamemnon, just as Croesus, after he destroyed Sidene, whither the tyrant Glaucias had fled for refuge, put a curse on any persons who should re-fortify the site; and that they therefore avoided that place and fortified another. Now the Astypalaeans who held possession of Rhoeteium were the first to settle Polium, now called Polisma, on the Simoeis River, but not on a well protected site; and therefore it was soon demolished. It was in the time of the Lydians that the present settlement189 was founded, as also the temple. It was not a city, however, and it was only after many ages, and gradually, as I have said,190 that it increased. But Hellanicus, to gratify the Ilians, "such is the spirit of that man,"191 agrees with them that the present Ilium is the same as the ancient. When the city was wiped out, its territory was divided up between the inhabitants of Sigeium and Rhoeteium and several other neighboring peoples, but the territory was given back when the place was refounded. [43]

The epithet "many fountained"192 is thought to be especially applied to Mt. Ida because of the great number of rivers that flow from it, particularly in those parts below it where lie the territory of Dardanus—even as far as Scepsis—and the region of Ilium. Demetrius, who as a native was acquainted with the topography of the country, says in one place as follows: There is a hill of Ida called Cotylus; and this hill lies about one hundred and twenty stadia above Scepsis; and from it flow the Scamander, the Granicus, and the Aesepus, the two latter flowing towards the north and the Propontis and constituting a collection of streams from several sources, while the Scamander flows towards the west from only one source; and all the sources lie close together, being comprised within a distance of twenty stadia; but the end of the Aesepus stands farthest away from its beginning, approximately five hundred stadia. But it is a matter of argument what the poet means when he says:“And they came to the two fair-flowing streams, where well up the two springs of eddying Scamander; for the one flows with soft water
193(that is, with "hot water"), and the poet adds,“and round about a smoke arises from it as if from a blazing fire, whereas the other even in summer flows forth cold as hail or chill snow.
194But, in the first place, no hot waters are now to be found at the site,195 and, secondly, the source of the Scamander is not to be found there, but in the mountain; and it has only one source, not two. It is reasonable to suppose, therefore, that the hot spring has given out, and that the cold one is evacuated from the Scamander through an underground passage and rises to the surface here, or else that because of the nearness of the Scamander this water is called a source of the Scamander; for people are wont to ascribe several sources to one and the same river in this way. [44]

The Scamander is joined by the Andirus, which flows from Caresene, a mountainous country settled with many villages and beautifully cultivated; it extends alongside Dardania as far as the regions of Zeleia and Pityeia. It is said that the country was named after the Caresus River, which is named by the poet,“Rhesus, Heptaporus, Caresus, and Rhodius,
196and that the city of the same name as the river was torn down. Again, Demetrius says as follows: "The Rhesus River is now called Rhoeites, unless it be that the river which empties into the Granicus is the Rhesus. The Heptaporus, also called Polyporus, is crossed seven times by one travelling from the region of the Beautiful Pine to the village called Melaenae and the Asclepieium that was founded by Lysimachus. Concerning the Beautiful Pine, King Attalus the First writes as follows: "Its circumference is twenty-four feet; and its trunk rises to a height of sixty-seven feet from the root and then splits into three forks equidistant from one another, and then contracts again into one head, thus completing a total height of two plethra and fifteen cubits."197 It is one hundred and eighty stadia distant from Adramyttium, to the north of it. The Caresus flows from Malus, a place situated between Palaescepsis and the Achaeïum, the part of the mainland that belongs to the Tenedians;198 and it empties into the Aesepus. The Rhodius flows from Cleandria and Gordus, which are sixty stadia distant from the Beautiful Pine; and it empties into the Aenius.199 [45]

In the dale of the Aesepus, on the left of the stream, one comes first to Polichna, a place enclosed by walls; and then to Palaescepsis; and then to Alizonium (this last name having been fabricated200 to support the hypothesis about the Halizones, whom I have already discussed);201 and then to Caresus, which is deserted, and Caresene, and the river of the same name,202 which also forms a notable dale, though smaller than that of the Aesepus; and next follow the plains and plateaux of Zeleia, which are beautifully cultivated. On the right of the Aesepus, between Polichna and Palaescepsis, one comes to Nea203 Come and Argyria,204 and this again is a name fabricated to support the same hypothesis, in order to save the words,“where is the birthplace of silver.
205Now where is Alybe, or Alope, or however they wish to alter the spelling of the name?206 For having once made their bold venture, they should have rubbed their faces207 and fabricated this name too, instead of leaving it lame and readily subject to detection. Now these things are open to objections of this kind, but, in the case of the others, or at least most of them, I take it for granted that we must give heed to him208 as a man who was acquainted with the region and a native of it, who gave enough thought to this subject to write thirty books of commentary on a little more than sixty lines of Homer, that is, on the Catalogue of the Trojans.209 He says, at any rate, that Palaescepsis is fifty stadia distant from Aenea and thirty from the Aesepus River, and that from this Palaescepsis210 the same name was extended to several other sites. But I shall return to the coast at the point where I left off. [46]

After the Sigeian Promontory and the Achilleium one comes to the Achaeïum, the part of the mainland that belongs to the Tenedians;211 and to Tenedos itself, which is not more than forty stadia distant from the mainland. It is about eighty stadia in circumference, and has an Aeolian city and two harbors and a temple of Sminthian Apollo, as the poet testifies:“And dost rule mightily over Tenedos, O Sminthian.
212Round it lie several small islands, in particular two, which are called the Calydnae and are situated on the voyage to Lectum. And some give the name Calydna to Tenedos itself, while others call it Leucophrys. In it is laid the scene of the myth of Tennes,213 after whom the island was named, as also that of Cycnus, a Thracian by birth and, according to some, father of Tennes and king of Colonae.214 [47]

Both Larisa and Colonae used to be adjacent to the Achaeïum, formerly being on the part of the mainland that belonged to the Tenedians; and then one comes to the present Chrysa, which was founded on a rocky height above the sea, and to Hamaxitus, which lies below Lectum and adjacent to it. At the present time Alexandreia is adjacent to the Achaeïum; and those other towns, like several others of the strongholds, have been incorporated with Alexandreia, among them Cebrene and Neandria; and Alexandreia holds their territory. But the site on which Alexandreia now lies used to be called Sigia. [48]

In this Chrysa is also the temple of Sminthian Apollo; and the symbol which preserves the etymology of the name,215 I mean the mouse, lies beneath the foot of his image. These are the works of Scopas of Paros; and also the history, or myth, about the mice is associated with this place: When the Teucrians arrived from Crete (Callinus the elegiac poet was the first to hand down an account of these people, and many have followed him), they had an oracle which bade them to "stay on the spot where the earth-born should attack them"; and, he says the attack took place round Hamaxitus, for by night a great multitude of field-mice swarmed out of the ground and ate up all the leather in their arms and equipment; and the Teucrians remained there; and it was they who gave its name to Mt. Ida, naming it after the mountain in Crete. Heracleides of Pontus says that the mice which swarmed round the temple were regarded as sacred, and that for this reason the image was designed with its foot upon the mouse. Others say that a certain Teucer came from the deme of Troes, now called Xypeteones, in Attica, but that no Teucrians came from Crete. As a further sign of the close relationship of the Trojans with the people of Attica they record the fact the Erichthonius was one of the original founders on both tribes. Now this is the account of the more recent writer; but more in agreement with Homer are the traces to be seen in the plane of Thebe and in the Chrysa which was once founded there, which I shall soon discuss. The name of Smintheus is used in many places, for in the neighborhood of Hamaxitus itself, apart from the Sminthium at the temple, there are two places called Sminthia; and there are others in the neighboring territory of Larisa. And also in the territory of Parium there is a place called Sminthia, as also in Rhodes and in Lindus and in many other places. And they now call the temple Sminthium. Apart, at any rate,216 lie both the Halesian Plain, of no great size, and inland from Lectum, and the Tragasaean salt-pan near Hamaxitus, where salt is naturally caused to congeal by the Etesian winds. On Lectum is to be seen an altar of the twelve gods, said to have been founded by Agamemnon. These places are all in sight of Ilium, at a distance of about two hundred stadia or a little more; and the same is the case with the places round Abydus on the other side, although Abydus is a little closer. [49]

On doubling Lectum one comes next to the most notable cities of the Aeolians, and to the Gulf of Adramyttium, on which the poet obviously places the majority of the Leleges, as also the Cilicians, who were twofold.217 Here too is the shore-land of the Mitylenaeans, with certain villages218 belonging to the Mitylenaeans who live on the mainland. The same gulf is also called the Idaean Gulf, for the ridge which extends from Lectum to Mt. Ida lies above the first part of the gulf, where the poet represents the Leleges as first settled.219 [50]

But I have already discussed these matters.220 I must now add that Homer speaks of a Pedasus, a city of the Leleges, as subject to lord Altes:“Of Altes, who is lord over the war-loving Leleges, who hold steep Pedasus on the Satnioeis.
221And the site of the place, now deserted, is still to be seen. Some write, though wrongly, "at the foot of Satnioeis,"222 as though the city lay at the foot of a mountain called Satnioeis; but there is no mountain here called Satinoeis, but only a river of that name, on which the city is situated; but the city is now deserted. The poet names the river, for, according to him, “he wounded Satnius with a thrust of his spear, even the son of Oenops, whom a peerless Naiad nymph bore unto Oenops, as he tended his herds by the banks of the Satnioeis;
223and again:“And he dwelt by the banks of the fair-flowing Satnioeis in steep Pedasus.
224And in later times it was called Satnioeis, though some called it Saphnioeis. It is only a large winter torrent, but the naming of it by the poet has made it worthy of mention. These places are continuous with Dardania and Scepsia, and are, as it were, a second Dardania, but it is lower-lying. [51]

To the Assians and the Gargarians now belong all the parts as far as the sea off Lesbos that are surrounded by the territory of Antandrus and that of the Cebrenians and Neandrians and Hamaxitans; for the Antandrians are situated above Hamaxitus, like it being situated inside Lectum, though farther inland and nearer to Ilium, for they are one hundred and thirty stadia distant from Ilium. Higher up than these are the Cebrenians, and still higher up than the latter are the Dardanians, who extend as far as Palaescepsis and Scepsis itself. Antandrus is called by Alcaeus "city of the Leleges":“First, Antandrus, city of the Leleges
225 but it is placed by the Scepsian among the cities adjacent to their territory,226 so that it would fall within the territory of the Cilicians; for the territory of the Cilicians is continuous with that of the Leleges, the former, rather than the latter, marking off the southern flank of Mt. Ida. But still the territory of the Cilicians also lies low and, rather than that of the Leleges, joins the part of the coast that is near Adramyttium.227 For after Lectum one comes to a place called Polymedium, at a distance of forty stadia; then, at a distance of eighty,228 to Assus, slightly above the sea; and then, at a distance of one hundred and twenty,229 to Gargara, which lies on a promontory230 that forms the Adramyttene Gulf, in the special sense of that term; for the whole of the coast from Lectum to Canae is also called by this same name, in which is also included the Elaïtic Gulf. In the special sense of the term, however, only that part of it is called Adramyttene which is enclosed by that promontory on which Gargara lies and the promontory called Pyrrha, on which the Aphrodisium231 is situated. The breadth of the mouth across from promontory to promontory is a distance of one hundred and twenty stadia. Inside is Antandrus, above which lies a mountain called Alexandreia, where the Judgment of Paris is said to have taken place, as also Aspaneus, the market for the timber from Mt. Ida; for here people bring it down and sell it to those who want it. And then comes Astyra, a village with a precinct sacred to the Astyrene Artemis. And quite near Astyra is Adramyttium, a city colonized by the Athenians, which has both a harbor and a naval station. Outside the gulf and the promontory called Pyrrha lies Cisthene, a deserted city with a harbor. Above it, in the interior, lie the copper mine and Perperene and Trarium and other settlements like these two. On the next stretch of coast one comes to the villages of the Mitylenaeans, I mean Coryphantis and Heracleia; and after these places to Attea, and then to Atarneus and Pitane and the outlets of the Caïcus River; and here we have already reached the Elaïtic Gulf. On the far side of the river lie Elaea and the rest of the gulf as far as Canae. But let me go back and discuss in detail the several places, if anything worthy of mention has been passed over; and first of all, Scepsis. [52]

Palaescepsis lies above Cebren near the highest part of Mt. Ida, near Polichna; and it was then called Scepsis (whether for another reason or from the fact that the place is visible all round, if it is right to derive from Greek words names then used by barbarians),232 but later the inhabitants were removed sixty stadia233 lower down to the present Scepsis by Scamandrius the son of Hector and Ascanius the son of Aeneias; and their two families are said to have held the kingship over Scepsis for a long time. After this they changed to an oligarchy, and then Milesians settled with them as fellow-citizens;234 and they began to live under a democracy. But the heirs of the royal family none the less continued to be called kings and retained certain prerogatives. Then the Scepsians were incorporated into Alexandreia by Antigonus; and then they were released by Lysimachus and went back to their home-land. [53]

Demetrius thinks that Scepsis was also the royal residence of Aeneias, since it lies midway between the territory subject to Aeneias and Lyrnessus, to which latter he fled, according to Homer's statement, when he was being pursued by Achilles. At any rate, Achilles says:“Dost thou not remember how from the kine, when thou wast all alone, I made thee run down the Idaean mountains with swift feet? And thence thou didst escape to Lyrnessus, but I rushed in pursuit of thee and sacked it.
235However, the oft-repeated stories of Aeneias are not in agreement with the account which I have just given of the founders of Scepsis. For according to these stories he survived the war because of his enmity to Priam:“For always he was wroth against goodly Priam, because, although he was brave amid warriors, Priam would not honor him at all;
236and his fellow-rulers, the sons of Antenor and Antenor himself, survived because of the hospitality shown Menelaüs at Antenor's house. At any rate, Sophocles237 says that at the capture of Troy a leopard's skin was put before the doors of Antenor as a sign that his house was to be left unpillaged; and Antenor and his children safely escaped to Thrace with the survivors of the Heneti, and from there got across to the Adriatic Henetice,238 as it is called, whereas Aeneias collected a host of followers and set sail with his father Anchises and his son Ascanius; and some say that he took up his abode near the Macedonian Olympus, others that he founded Capyae near Mantineia in Arcadia, deriving the name he gave the settlement from Capys, and others say that he landed at Aegesta in Sicily with Elymus the Trojan and took possession of Eryx and Lilybaeum, and gave the names Scamander and Simoeis to rivers near Aegesta, and that thence he went into the Latin country and made it his abode, in accordance with an oracle which bade him abide where he should eat up his table, and that this took place in the Latin country in the neighborhood of Lavinium, where a large loaf of bread was put down for a table, for want of a better table, and eaten up along with the meats upon it. Homer, however, appears not to be in agreement with either of the two stories, nor yet with the above account of the founders of Scepsis; for he clearly indicates that Aeneias remained in Troy and succeeded to the empire and bequeathed the succession thereto to his sons' sons, the family of the Priamidae having been wiped out:“For already the race of Priam was hated, by the son of Cronus; and now verily the mighty Aeneias will rule over the Trojans, and his sons' sons that are hereafter to be born.
239And in this case one cannot even save from rejection the succession of Scamandrius.240 And Homer is in far greater disagreement with those who speak of Aeneias as having wandered even as far as Italy and make him die there. Some write,“the family of Aeneias will rule over all,241 and his sons' sons,
”meaning the Romans. [54]

From Scepsis came the Socratic philosophers Erastus and Coriscus and Neleus the son of Coriscus, this last a man who not only was a pupil of Aristotle and Theophrastus, but also inherited the library of Theophrastus, which included that of Aristotle. At any rate, Aristotle bequeathed his own library to Theophrastus, to whom he also left his school; and he is the first man, so far as I know, to have collected books and to have taught the kings in Egypt how to arrange a library. Theophrastus bequeathed it to Neleus; and Neleus took it to Scepsis and bequeathed it to his heirs, ordinary people, who kept the books locked up and not even carefully stored. But when they heard bow zealously the Attalic kings242 to whom the city was subject were searching for books to build up the library in Pergamum, they hid their books underground in a kind of trench. But much later, when the books had been damaged by moisture and moths, their descendants sold them to Apellicon243 of Teos for a large sum of money, both the books of Aristotle and those of Theophrastus. But Apellicon was a bibliophile rather than a philosopher; and therefore, seeking a restoration of the parts that had been eaten through, he made new copies of the text, filling up the gaps incorrectly, and published the books full of errors. The result was that the earlier school of Peripatetics who came after Theophrastus had no books at all, with the exception of only a few, mostly exoteric works, and were therefore able to philosophize about nothing in a practical way, but only to talk bombast about commonplace propositions, whereas the later school, from the time the books in question appeared, though better able to philosophise and Aristotelise, were forced to call most of their statements probabilities, because of the large number of errors.244 Rome also contributed much to this; for, immediately after the death of Apellicon, Sulla, who had captured Athens, carried off Apellicon's library to Rome, where Tyrannion the grammarian, who was fond of Aristotle, got it in his hands by paying court to the librarian, as did also certain booksellers who used bad copyists and would not collate the texts—a thing that also takes place in the case of the other books that are copied for selling, both here245 and at Alexandria. However, this is enough about these men. [55]

From Scepsis came also Demetrius, whom I often mention, the grammarian who wrote a commentary on The Marshalling of the Trojan Forces, and was born at about the same time as Crates and Aristarchus; and later, Metrodorus, a man who changed from his pursuit of philosophy to political life, and taught rhetoric, for the most part, in his written works; and he used a brand-new style and dazzled many. On account of his reputation he succeeded, though a poor man, in marrying brilliantly in Chalcedon; and he passed for a Chalcedonian. And having paid court to Mithridates Eupator, he with his wife sailed away with him to Pontus; and he was treated with exceptional honor, being appointed to the judgeship from which there was no appeal to the king. However, his good fortune did not continue, but he incurred the enmity of men less just than himself and revolted from the king when he was on the embassy to Tigranes the Armenian.246 And Tigranes sent him back against his will to Eupator, who was already in flight from his ancestral realm; but Metrodorus died on the way, whether by order of the king247 or from disease; for both accounts are given of his death. So much for the Scepsians. [56]

After Scepsis come Andeira and Pioniae and the territory of Gargara. There is a stone in the neighborhood of Andeira which, when burned, becomes iron, and then, when heated in a furnace with a certain earth, distils mock-silver;248 and this, with the addition of copper, makes the "mixture," as it is called, which by some is called "mountaincopper."249 These are the places which the Leleges occupied; and the same is true of the places in the neighborhood of Assus. [57]

Assus is by nature strong and well-fortified; and the ascent to it from the sea and the harbor is very steep and long, so that the statement of Stratonicus the citharist in regard to it seems appropriate:“Go to Assus, in order that thou mayest more quickly come to the doom of death.
250 The harbor is formed by a great mole. From Assus came Cleanthes, the Stoic philosopher who succeeded Zeno of Citium as head of the school and left it to Chrysippus of Soli. Here too Aristotle tarried, because of his relationship by marriage with the tyrant Hermeias. Hermeias was a eunuch, the slave of a certain banker;251 and on his arrival at Athens he became a pupil of both Plato and Aristotle. On his return he shared the tyranny with his master, who had already laid hold of the districts of Atarneus and Assus; and then Hermeias succeeded him and sent for both Aristotle and Xenocrates and took care of them; and he also married his brother's daughter to Aristotle. Memnon of Rhodes, who was at that time serving the Persians as general, made a pretence of friendship for Hermeias, and then invited him to come for a visit, both in the name of hospitality and at the same time for pretended business reasons; but he arrested him and sent him up to the king, where he was put to death by hanging. But the philosophers safely escaped by flight from the districts above-mentioned, which were seized by the Persians. [58]

Myrsilus252 says that Assus was founded by the Methymnaeans; and Hellanicus too calls it an Aeolian city, just as also Gargara and Lamponia belonged to the Aeolians. For Gargara was founded by the Assians; but it was not well peopled, for the kings brought into it colonists from Miletopolis when they devastated that city, so that instead of Aeolians, according to Demetrius of Scepsis, the inhabitants of Gargara became semi-barbarians. According to Homer, however, all these places belonged to the Leleges, who by some are represented to be Carians, although by Homer they are mentioned apart:“Towards the sea are the Carians and the Paeonians of the curved bow and the Leleges and the Cauconians.
253They were therefore a different people from the Carians; and they lived between the people subject to Aeneias and the people whom the poet called Cilicians, but when they were pillaged by Achilles they migrated to Caria and took possession of the district round the present Halicarnassus.254 [59]

However, the city Pedasus, now abandoned by them, is no longer in existence; but in the inland territory of the Halicarnassians there used to be a city Pedasa, so named by them; and the present territory is called Pedasis. It is said that as many as eight cities were settled in this territory by the Leleges, who in earlier times were so numerous that they not only took possession of that part of Caria which extends to Myndus and Bargylia, but also cut off for themselves a large portion of Pisidia. But later, when they went out on expeditions with the Carians, they became distributed throughout the whole of Greece, and the tribe disappeared. Of the eight cities, Mausolus255 united six into one city, Halicarnassus, as Callisthenes tells us, but kept Syangela and Myndus as they were. These are the Pedasians of whom Herodotus256 says that when any misfortune was about to come upon them and their neighbors, the priestess of Athena would grow a beard; and that this happened to them three times. And there is also a small town called Pedasum in the present territory of Stratoniceia. And throughout the whole of Caria and in Miletus are to be seen tombs, fortifications, and traces of settlements of the Leleges. [60]

After the Leleges, on the next stretch of coast, lived the Cilicians, according to Homer; I mean the stretch of coast now held by the Adramytteni and Atarneitae and Pitanaei, as far as the outlet of the Caïcus. The Cilicians, as I have said,257 were divided into two dynasties,258 one subject to Eëtion and one to Mynes. [61]

Now Homer calls Thebe the city of Eëtion:“We went into Thebe, the sacred city of Eëtion;
259and he clearly indicates that also Chrysa, which had the temple of Sminthian Apollo, belonged to Eëtion, if it be true that Chryseïs was taken captive at Thebe, for he says,“We went into Thebe, and laid it waste and brought hither all the spoil. And this they divided aright among themselves, but they chose out Chryseïs for the son of Atreus;
260and that Lyrnessus belonged to Mynes, since Achilles“laid waste Lyrnessus and the walls of Thebe
261and slew both Mynes and Epistrophus; so that when Briseïs says,“thou wouldst not even let me,262 when swift Achilles slew my husband and sacked the city of divine Mynes,
263Homer cannot mean Thebe (for this belonged to Eëtion), but Lyrnessus. Both were situated in what was afterwards called the Plain of Thebe, which, on account of its fertility, is said to have been an object of contention between the Mysians and Lydians in earlier times, and later between the Greeks who colonized it from Aeolis and Lesbos. But the greater part of it is now held by the Adramytteni, for here lie both Thebe and Lyrnessus, the latter a natural stronghold; but both places are deserted. From Adramyttium the former is distant sixty stadia and the latter eighty-eight, in opposite directions.264 [62]

In the territory of Adramyttium lie also Chrysa and Cilla. At any rate there is still today a place near Thebe called Cilla, where is a temple of the Cillaean Apollo; and the Cillaeus River, which runs from Mt. Ida, flows past it. These places lie near the territory of Antandrus. The Cillaeum in Lesbos is named after this Cilla; and there is also a Mt. Cillaeum between Gargara and Antandrus. Daës of Colonae says that the temple of the Cillaean Apollo was first founded in Colonae by the Aeolians who sailed from Greece; it is also said that a temple of Cillaean Apollo was established at Chrysa, though it is not clear whether he is the same as the Sminthian Apollo or distinct from him. [63]

Chrysa was a small town on the sea, with a harbor; and near by, above it, lies Thebe. Here too was the temple of the Sminthian Apollo; and here lived Chryseïs. But the place is now utterly deserted; and the temple was transferred to the present Chrysa near Hamaxitus when the Cilicians were driven out, partly to Pamphylia265 and partly to Hamaxitus. Those who are less acquainted with ancient history say that it was at this Chrysa that Chryses and Chryseïs lived, and that Homer mentions this place; but, in the first place, there is no harbor here, and yet Homer says,“And when they had now arrived inside the deep harbor;
266and, secondly, the temple is not on the sea, though Homer makes it on the sea;“and out from the seafaring ship stepped Chryseïs. Here then did Odysseus of many wiles lead to the altar, and place in the arms of her dear father;
267neither is it near Thebe, though Homer makes it near; at any rate, he speaks of Chryseïs as having been taken captive there. Again, neither is there any place called Cilla to be seen in the territory of the Alexandreians, nor any temple of Cillaean Apollo; but the poet couples the two,“who dost stand over Chrysa and sacred Cilla.
268But it is to be seen near by in the Plain of Thebe. And the voyage from the Cilician Chrysa to the Naval Station is about seven hundred stadia, approximately a day's voyage, such a distance, obviously, as that sailed by Odysseus;269 for immediately upon disembarking he offered the sacrifice to the god, and since evening overtook him he remained on the spot and sailed away the next morning. But the distance from Hamaxitus is scarcely a third of that above mentioned, so that Odysseus could have completed the sacrifice and sailed back to the Naval Station on the same day. There is also a tomb of Cillus in the neighborhood of the temple of the Cillaean Apollo, a great barrow. He is said to have been the charioteer of Pelops and to have ruled over this region; and perhaps it was after him that Cilicia was named, or vice versa. [64]

Now the story of the Teucrians and the mice—whence the epithet "Sminthian,"270 since "sminthi" means "mice"—must be transferred to this place. And writers excuse this giving of epithets from small creatures by such examples as the following: It is from locusts,271 they say, which the Oetaeans call "cornopes," that Heracles is worshipped among the Oetaeans as "Cornopion," for ridding them of locusts; and he is worshipped among the Erythraeans who live in Mimas as "Ipoctonus,"272 because he is the destroyer of the vine-eating ips;273 and in fact, they add, these are the only Erythraeans in whose country this creature is not to be found. And the Rhodians, who call erysibe274 "erythibe," have a temple of Apollo "Erythibius" in their country; and among the Aeolians in Asia a certain month is called Pornopion, since the Boeotians so call the locusts, and a sacrifice is offered to Apollo Pornopion. [65]

Now the territory round Adramyttium is Mysian, though it was once subject to the Lydians; and today there is a gate in Adramyttium which is called the Lydian Gate because, as they say, the city was founded by Lydians. And they say that the neighboring village Astyra belongs to Mysia. It was once a small town, where, in a sacred precinct, was the temple of the Astyrene Artemis, which was superintended, along with holy rites, by the Antandrians, who were its nearer neighbors. It is twenty stadia distant from the ancient Chrysa, which also had its temple in a sacred precinct. Here too was the Palisade of Achilles. And in the interior, fifty stadia away, is Thebe, now deserted, which the poet speaks of as "beneath wooded Placus";275 but, in the first place, the name "Placus" or "Plax" is not found there at all, and, secondly, no wooded place lies above it, though it is near Mt. Ida. Thebe is as much as seventy stadia distant from Astyra and sixty from Andeira. But all these are names of deserted or scantily peopled places, or of winter torrents; and they are often mentioned only because of their ancient history. [66]

Both Assus and Adramyttium are notable cities. But misfortune befell Adramyttium in the Mithridatic War, for the members of the city council were slaughtered, to please the king, by Diodorus276 the general, who pretended at the same time to be a philosopher of the Academy, a dispenser of justice, and a teacher of rhetoric. And indeed he also joined the king on his journey to Pontus; but when the king was overthrown he paid the penalty for his misdeeds; for many charges were brought against him, all at the same time, and, being unable to bear the ignominy, he shamefully starved himself to death, in my own city. Another inhabitant of Adramyttium was the famous orator Xenocles,277 who belonged to the Asiatic school and was as able a debater a ever lived, having even made a speech on behalf of Asia before the Senate,278 at the time when Asia was accused of Mithridatism. [67]

Near Astyra is an abysmal lake called Sapra, which has an outbreak into a reefy seashore. Below Andeira is a temple sacred to the Andeirene Mother of the gods, and also a cave that runs underground as far as Palaea. Palaea is a settlement so named,279 at a distance of one hundred and thirty stadia from Andeira. The underground passage became known through the fact that a goat fell into the mouth of it and was found on the following day near Andeira by a shepherd who happened to have come to make sacrifice. Atarneus is the abode of the tyrant Hermeias; and then one comes to Pitane, an Aeolic city, which has two harbors, and the Evenus River, which flows past it, whence the aqueduct has been built by the Adramytteni. From Pitane came Arcesilaüs, of the Academy, a fellow-student with Zeno of Citium under Polemon. In Pitane there is also a place on the sea called "Atameus below Pitane," opposite the island called Eleussa. It is said that in Pitane bricks float on water, as is also the case with a certain earth280 in Tyrrhenia, for the earth is lighter than an equal bulk of water, so that it floats. And Poseidonius says that in Iberia he saw bricks moulded from a clay-like earth, with which silver is cleaned, and that they floated on water. After Pitane one comes to the Caïcus River, which empties at a distance of thirty stadia into the Elaïtic Gulf, as it is called. On the far side of the Caïcus, twelve stadia distant from the river, is Elaea, an Aeolic city, which also is a seaport of the Pergamenians, being one hundred and twenty stadia distant from Pergamum. [68]

Then, at a distance of a hundred stadia, one comes to Cane, the promontory which rises opposite Lectum and forms the Adramyttene Gulf, of which the Elaïtic gulf is a part. Canae is a small town of Locrians from Cynus, and lies in the Canaean territory opposite the southernmost ends of Lesbos. This territory extends as far as the Arginussae Islands and the promontory above them, which some call Aega, making it the same as the word for the animal;281 but the second syllable should be pronounced long, that is, "Aega," like Acta and Archa, for Aega used to be the name of the whole of the mountain which is now called Cane or Canae. The mountain is surrounded on the south and west by the sea, and on the east by the plain of the Caïcus, which lies below it, and on the north by the territory of Elaea. This mountain forms a fairly compact mass off to itself, though it slopes towards the Aegaean Sea, whence it got its name.282 Later the promontory itself was called Aega, as in Sappho,283 but the rest was called Cane or Canae. [69]

Between Elaea, Pitane, Atarneus, and Pergamum lies Teuthrania, which is at no greater distance than seventy stadia from any of them and is this side the Caïcus River; and the story told is that Teuthras was king of the Cilicians and Mysians. Euripides284 says that Auge, with her child Telephus, was put by Aleus, her father, into a chest and submerged in the sea when he had detected her ruin by Heracles, but that by the providence of Athena the chest was carried across the sea and cast ashore at the mouth of the Caïcus, and that Teuthras rescued the prisoners, and treated the mother as his wife and the child as his own son.285 Now this is the myth, but there must have been some other issue of fortune through which the daughter of the Arcadian consorted with the king of the Mysians and her son succeeded to his kingdom. It is believed, at any rate, that both Teuthras and Telephus reigned as kings over the country round Teuthrania and the Caïcus, though Homer goes only so far as to mention the story thus:“But what a man was the son of Telephus, the hero Eurypylus, whom he slew with the bronze; and round him were slain many comrades, Ceteians, on account of a woman's gifts.
286The poet thus sets before us a puzzle instead of making a clear statement; for we neither know whom we should understand the poet to mean by the "Ceteians" nor what he means by "on account of the gifts of a woman";287 but the grammarians too throw in petty myths, more to show their inventiveness than to solve questions. [70]

However, let us dismiss these; and let us, taking that which is more obvious, say that, according to Homer, Eurypylus clearly reigned in the region of the Caïcus, so that perhaps a part of the Cilicians were subject to him, in which case there were three dynasties among them and not merely two.288 This statement is supported by the fact that there is to be seen in the territory of Elaea a torrential stream called the Ceteius; this empties into another like it, and this again into another, and they all end in the Caïcus. But the Caïcus does not flow from Ida, as Bacchylides289 states; neither is Euripides correct in saying that Marsyas“dwells in widely famed Celaenae, in the farthermost region of Ida;
290 for Celaenae is very far from Ida, and the sources of the Caïcus are also very far, for they are to be seen in a plain. Temnus is a mountain which forms the boundary between this plain and the Plain of Apia, as it is called, which lies in the interior above the Plain of Thebe. From Temnus flows a river called Mysius, which empties into the Caïcus below its sources; and it was from this fact, as some interpret the passage, that Aeschylus said at the opening of the prologue to the Myrmidons,“Oh! thou Caïcus and ye Mysian in-flows.
291Near the sources is a village called Gergitha, to which Attalus transferred the Gergithians of the Troad when he had destroyed their place.

1 The translator must here record his obligations to Dr. Walter Leaf for his monumental works on the Troad: his Troy, Macmillan and Co., 1912, and his Strabo on the Troad, Cambridge, 1923, and his numerous monographs in classical periodicals. The results of his investigations in the Troad prove the great importance of similar investigations, on the spot, of various other portions of Strabo's "Inhabited World." The reader will find a map of Asia Minor in Vol. 5. of the Loeb edition.

2 On the position of this promontory, see Leaf, Ann. Brit. School of Athens, XXII, p. 37, and Strabo on the Troad, p. xxxviii.

3 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. xli.

4 Pausanius (3. 2. 1) spells his name "Echelas."

5 Hom. Il. 2.824 See section 9 following.

6 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 47.

7 Whether city or river (see 13. 1. 21).

8 See Leaf's definition of the Troad. (Troy, p. 171).

9 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 48.

10 On the meaning of the term Hellespont, see Book VII, Frag. 57(58), and Leaf (Strabo on the Troad, p. 50.

11 A genus of myriapods including some of the largest centipedes.

12 Hom. Il. 14.283

13 Hom. Il. 12.19

14 The Granicus, Aesepus, Scamander, and Simoeis.

15 Hom. Il. 14. 284

16 Hom. Il. 2.824

17 Hom. Il. 14.292, 352; 15.152

18 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. xliv.

19 13. 1. 2 (see Leaf's article cited in footnote there).

20 Strabo refers to his discussion of the meridian line drawn by Eratosthenes through Byzantium, Rhodes, Alexandria, Syene, and Meroe (see 2. 5. 7 and the Frontispiece in Vol. I of the Loeb text).

21 Strabo refers to Demetrius of Scepsis and his followers.

22 Hom. Il. 9.328

23 Hom. Il. 20.92

24 Hom. Od. 11.518

25 Hom. Il. 9.129

26 Hom. Il. 20.92

27 Hom. Il. 2.691

28 Hom. Il. 2.690

29 Hom. Il. 19.295

30 Hom. Il. 1.366

31 Hom. Il. 1.369

32 The epithet means "'neath Placus."

33 Hom. Il. 6.395

34 Hom. Il. 22.477

35 Hom. Il. 21.86

36 Hom. Il. 2.816

37 Hom. Il. 2.819

38 Hom. Il. 20.83

39 Aphneiï is now taken merely as an adjective, meaning "wealthy" men, but Strabo seems to concur in the belief that the people in question were named "Aphneiï" after Lake "Aphnitis" (see 13. 1. 9).

40 Hom. Il. 2.824

41 Whether city or river (see 13. 1. 21).

42 On Arisbe, see Leaf, Troy, 193 ff.

43 Hom. Il. 2.835

44 Hom. Il. 4.499

45 i.e., the kine belonged to Priam. This son of Hicetaon, a kinsman of Hector (Hom. Il. 15.545), "dwelt in the house of Priam, who honored him equally with his own children" (Hom. Il. 15.551).

46 Hom. Il. 15.546

47 Hom. Il. 2.831

48 The Trojan Cilicia (see 13. 1. 70).

49 See 13. 1. 60-61.

50 The eight dynasties were (1) that of Mynes, (2) that of Eëtion, (3) that of Altes, (4) that of Hector, (5) that of Aeneias, (6) that of Pandarus, (7) that of Asius, and (8) that of the two sons of Merops. If, however, there were nine dynasties (see 13. 1. 2), we may assume that the ninth was that of Eurypylus (see 13. 1. 70), unless, as Choiseul-Gouffier (Voyage Pittoresque de Ia Grèce, vol. ii, cited by Gossellin think, it was that of the island of Lesbos.

51 Hom. Il. 24.534 The quotation is incomplete without the following words of Homer: "o'er all these, old sire, thou wast preeminent, they say, because of thy wealth and thy sons.

52 Leaf (Strabo on the Troad, p. 61 makes a strong case for emending "Dryopes" to "Doliones," but leaves the Greek text (p. 7) unchanged.

53 See 13. 1. 1, and p. 40 of Leaf's article cited in footnote there.

54 See footnote on Aphneii in 13. 1. 7.

55 Hom. Il. 2.824

56 See 13. 1. 7.

57 On the site of Zeleia, see Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 66.

58 Hom. Il. 2.828

59 The places in question appear to have belonged to Zeleia. Leaf (op. cit., p. 65 translates: "are commanded by Zeleia"; but the present translator is sure that, up to the present passage, Strabo has always used ὑποπίπτω in a purely geographical sense (e.g., cf. 9. 1. 15, and especially 12. 4. 6, where Strabo makes substantially the same statement concerning Zeleia as in the present passage). But see Leaf's note (op. cit.), p. 67.

60 On this river see Leaf, work last cited p. 67.

61 Strabo does not mean that the Heptaporus was crossed twenty times. The name itself means the river of "seven fords" (or ferries).

62 Hom. Il. 12. 20

63 i.e., Elis, in the Peloponnesus.

64 The text is corrupt; and "Scarthon," whether it applies to a river or a people, is otherwise unknown. However, this whole passage, "And the river that flows from Nicomedeia . . . crossed seventy-five times," appears to be a gloss, and is ejected from the text by Kramer and Meineke (see Leaf's Strabo and the Troad, p. 65, note 4).

65 The number of stadia has fallen out of the MSS.

66 See Leaf, work last cited, p. 70.

67 The root "harpag-" means "snatch away."

68 On the site of Priapus, see Leaf, p. 73.

69 On the site of Adrasteia, see Leaf, p. 77.

70 Three words in the Greek text here are corrupt. Strabo may have said that this temple was "on the shore," or "in the direction of Pityeia" (the same as Pitya; see section 15 following), or "in the direction of Pactye".

71 This altar was a stadium (about 600 feet) in length (10. 5. 7).

72 A not uncommon appellation of the gods.

73 Note the variant spelling of the name.

74 "Serpent-born."

75 See Leaf, work last cited, p. 85.

76 See 17. 1. 44.

77 See Fraser, Totemism and Exogamy, 1. 20, 2. 54 and 4. 178.

78 According to the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (1933), cited by Leaf (Troy, p. 187, "Lampsacus was formerly called Pityeia, or, as others spell it, Pitya. Some say that Phrixus stored his treasure there and that the city was named after the treasure, for the Thracian word for treasure is 'pitye'" (but cf. the Greek word "pitys," "pine tree"). Strabo, however, places Pitya to the east of Parium, whereas Lampsacus lies to the west (see Leaf, l.c., pp. 185 ff.; and his Strabo on the Troad, p. 87). In section 18 (following) Strabo says that "Lampsacus was formerly called Pityussa."

79 Leaf (l.c.) translates, "hill shaped like a pine tree," adding (p. 187) that "the resemblance to a pine tree, so far as my personal observation went, means no more than that the hill slopes gently up to a rounded top." However, the Greek adjective probably means in the present passage "pine covered" (cf. the use of the same adjective in 8. 6. 22, where it applies to a sacred precinct on the Isthmus of Corinth).

80 i.e., buildings, statues, and other marble structures (see 5. 2. 5 and 5. 3. 8, and the footnotes on "works of art").

81 See 1. 2. 10, and Hdt. 4.13

82 The mountain mentioned in the Hom. Il. 2.829

83 Xen. Hell. 4.1.15 speaks of royal hunting grounds, "some in enclosed parks, others in open regions."

84 Now Lapsaki. On the site, see Leaf, p. 92.

85 Hom. Il. 2.828

86 Hom. Il. 5.612

87 On the site of Colonae, see Leaf (Strabo on the Troad), p. 101.

88 King of Colonae, slain by Achilles in the Trojan War.

89 On Gergithium, see Leaf, p. 102.

90 Fl. in the Alexandrian period; author of works entitled Glosses and On Epigrams.

91 Early historian; author of Persian History and Annals of the Lampsaceni.

92 Known only as courtier of Demetrius Poliorcetes.

93 See Frazer's note on Paus. 6.18.2

94 "The Lake" seems surely to be the Stagnum Agrippae mentioned by Tac. Ann. 15.37, i.e., the Nemus Caesarum on the right bank of the Tiber (see A. Häbler, Hermes 19 (1884), p. 235). "The Stagnum Agrippae was apparently a pond constructed by Agrippa in connection with the Aqua Virgo and the canal called Euripus in the neighborhood of the Pantheon" (C. G. Ramsay, Annals of Tacitus, 15.37), or, as Leaf (op. cit., p. 108 puts it, "The Euripus is the channel filled with water set up by Caesar round the arena of the Circus Maximus at Rome to protect the spectators from the wild beasts."

95 Hom. Il. 2.835

96 i.e., Arisbe, Percote, and the Sellëeis. Strabo himself locates the Practius (13.1. 4, 7, 8, 21). On the sites of these places, see Leaf's Troy, pp. 188 ff., his note in Jour. Hellenic Studies, XXXVII (1917), p. 26, and his Strabo on the Troad, pp. 108 ff.

97 Homer's Percote, on the sea.

98 i.e., as well as the Sellëeis.

99 Hom. Il. 2.522

100 Hom. Il. 2.854

101 Obviously in the lost portion of Book VII.

102 Hom. Il. 16.717

103 On the site of Abydus, see Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 117.

104 i.e., "Strait of seven stadia."

105 i.e., "Land-island" or "Peninsula."

106 On its site, see Leaf, work last cited, p. 119.

107 i.e., "Place of Disembarkation."

108 See Book 7 Frags. 51, 55b, and 51a, 52, and 53.

109 i.e., about 200 feet (in breadth).

110 According to Leaf (l.c., p. 135, the shortest course of a vessel between Abydus and the mouth of the Aesepus measures just about 700 stadia. Hence Strabo's authorities for his statement are in error if, as usual, the longer voyage is a coasting voyage, following the sinuosities of the gulfs, as against the shorter, or more direct, voyage. Leaf, however, forces the phrase "by straight sailing" to mean "a straight course wholly over the land," adding that "the meaning must be that it would be shorter if one would sail straight," and that "the expression is singularly infelicitous as applied to a journey by land in contrast to one by sea."

111 Hom. Il. 2.819

112 Hom. Il. 8.173

113 Hom. Il. 20.215

114 On the boundaries of Dardania, see Leaf (l.c., p.137).

115 Plat. Laws 677-679

116 Plat. Laws 3.680

117 Hom. Od. 9.109-114 (quoted by Plato in Plat. Laws 3.680).

118 Hom. Il. 20.216 (quoted by Plat. Laws 3.681).

119 Plat. Laws 3.682

120 Hom. Il. 11.166

121 Schliemann's excavations, however, identify Hissarlik as the site of Homer's Troy. Hence "the site of Homer's Troy at 'the village of Ilians' is a mere figment" (Leaf, l.c., p. 141).

122 King of Lydia, 560-546 B.C.

123 The first of the three battles by which he overthrew the Persian empire (334 B.C.).

124 e.g., like the Olympic Games. But his untimely death prevented the fulfillment of this promise.

125 Either Strabo, or his authority, Demetrius of Scepsis, or the Greek text as it now stands, seems guilty of inconsistency in the passage "devoted especial attention to the city . . . and then cities bearing their own." Grote (Vol. I, chapter xv rearranges the Greek text in the following order: "devoted especial attention to Alexandreia" (not Ilium), "which had indeed already been founded by Antigonus and called Antigonia, but changed its name (for it was thought to be . . . then cities bearing their own name), and he built a temple . . . forty stadia in circuit." He omits "at that time he had already devoted attention to Alexandreia," and so does Leaf (op. cit., p. 142; but the latter, instead of rearranging the text, simply inserts "Alexandreia" after "city" in the first clause of the passage. Leaf (p. 143) adds the following important argument to those of Grote: "There is no trace whatever of any great wall at Ilium, though remains of one 40 stades in length could hardly have escaped notice. But there is at Alexandreia such a wall which is exactly the length mentioned by Strabo, and which is clearly referred to."

126 i.e., in 86 B.C. by Cinna the consul, the leader of the popular party at Rome.

127 Julius Caesar.

128 According to Plut. Alexander 8, "Alexander took with him Aristotle's recension of the poem, called the Iliad of the Casket, and always kept it lying beside his dagger under his pillow, as Onesicritus informs us"; and "the casket was the most precious of the treasures of Dareius" (ibid. 26).

129 i.e., of the Julians gens.

130 13. 1. 11.

131 See "Cyno-Sema."

132 Hom. Il. 12.20

133 On the site of Ophrynium, see Leaf, p. 153.

134 Leaf, p. 154, following Calvert, emends "Lake" to "Harbor."

135 Cleopatra.

136 "Mouth-of-the-marsh."

137 "Eleussa" appears to be an error for "Eleus."

138 Book 7, Fr. 51, 54, 55.

139 Hom. Il. 5.642

140 Hom. Il. 5. 640

141 To appease the anger of Poseidon, Laomedon exposed his daughter Hesione on the promontory Agameia (see Stephanus s.v.) to be devoted by a sea-monster. Heracles promised to kill the monster and save Hesione if Laomedon would give him his immortal horses. Laomedon agreed. Heracles fulfilled his promise, but Laomedon refused to give up the horses, and hence the war.

142 Hom. Il. 5.641

143 12. 8. 7, 13. 1. 7.

144 So the name is spelled in section 47, but "Cebren" in section 52.

145 Paris.

146 Hom. Il. 16.738

147 "Fig-tree." Hom. Il. 6.433

148 Hom. Il. 2.793

149 Hom. Il. 2.813

150 Hom. Il. 10.415

151 See 13. 1. 31 and footnote.

152 These spurs forming a semi-circular line, as stated above.

153 i.e., the uncial letter written backwards. See Leaf's diagram, p. 175.

154 i.e., a little further inland than the country which has the shape of the letter in question.

155 Hom. Il. 20.51

156 Hom. Il. 10.430

157 See footnote on "Erineus," section 34 above.

158 Hom. Il. 6.433

159 Oak tree.

160 Hom. Il. 9.352

161 Hom. Od. 14.469

162 Hom. Od. 14.496

163 Hom. Il. 10.209

164 Hom. Il. 18.254

165 Hom. Il. 2.792

166 See Hom. Il. 2.812

167 The Athenian general.

168 Only this fragment (Bergk.) of Alcaeus' poem, addressed to Melanippus (see Hdt. 5.95), is preserved. But the text has been so badly mutilated by the copyists that none of the conjectural restorations can with certainty be adopted; and hence the translator can give only the general sense of the passage. However, the whole reference to Alcaeus appears to be merely a note that has crept into the text from the margin (Meineke and Leaf omit the whole passage).

169 See 13. 1. 4.

170 i.e., the campaign of Paches, the Athenian general, who in 427 B.C. captured Mitylene (see Thuc. 3.18-49).

171 To appease the wrath of Athena, caused after the Trojan War by the sacrilege of Aias the Locrian in her temple (he dragged Cassandra away from the altar of the Palladium), the Locrians were instructed by an oracle from Delphi to send to her temple (as temple slaves) at Ilium two maidens every year for a thousand years. It appears that the servitude of the maidens lasted for only one year, each pair being released at the end of the year when the next pair arrived, but that upon their return home they were forced to remain unmarried (see Leaf, Annual of the British School at Athens, XXI, p. 148-154).

172 Idomeneus, son of Minos and King of Crete; one of the bravest heroes of the war.

173 Or perhaps "in quest of war's renown" (Leaf).

174 Hom. Il. 13.363. Homer mentions Cassandra in only two other places, Hom. Il. 24. 699 and Odyssey 11. 422

175 Hom. Od. 4.502

176 Hom. Od. 4.500 ff

177 Hom. Il. 6.448

178 Hom. Od. 3.130

179 This phrase is not found in the Iliad or Odyssey, but once before (1. 2. 4) Strabo has ascribed it to Homer.

180 Hom. Il. 12.15

181 Hom. Il. 6.92

182 Hom. Il. 9.455

183 i.e., the Greek preposition ἐπί, which more naturally means "upon" rather than "beside."

184 Hom. Od. 6.305

185 "Knees."

186 They obviously took γουνάσιν, if there ever was such a word, to mean "female suppliants."

187 "Maenads."

188 Against Leocrates, 62.

189 i.e., of Ilium.

190 13. 1. 26.

191 A quotation from Hom. Il. 15.94

192 Cf. 13. 1. 5.

193 Hom. Il. 22.147

194 Hom. Il. 22.149

195 i.e., of Troy.

196 Hom. Il. 12.20

197 About 225 feet.

198 See end of section 32.

199 "Aenius" appears to be an error for "Aesepus," as suggested by Kramer. See Leaf, p. 207.

200 i.e., by Demetrius.

201 12. 3. 20-27.

202 The Caresus, of course.

203 Leaf emends "Nea" ("New") to "Aenea".

204 Silvertown.

205 Hom. Il. 2.857

206 See 12. 3. 21.

207 i.e., to make them red and thus conceal their blushes of shame.

208 i.e., Demetrius of Scepsis.

209 Hom. Il. 2.816-877

210 "Old Scepsis".

211 See end of section 32.

212 Hom. Il. 1.38

213 For this myth, see Paus. 10.14.1

214 On the myth of Cycnus, see Leaf, p. 219.

215 Sminthian means "Mouse-god."

216 The Greek for these four words seems to be corrupt.

217 See 13. 1. 7, 60.

218 Coryphantis and Heracleia are named in section 51.

219 Hom. Il. 10.429

220 13. 1. 7.

221 Hom. Il. 21.86

222 i.e., ὑπό for ἐπί in the Homeric passage quoted.

223 Hom. Il. 14.443

224 Hom. Il. 6.34

225 Alcaeus Fr. 65 (Bergk). Leaf translates: "Antandros, first city of the Leleges".

226 Leaf translates: "But Demetrios puts it in the district adjacent (to the Leleges), so that it would fall within the territory of the Kilikes"; and in his commentary (p. 255) he says: "as the words stand, Strabo says that 'Demetrios places Antandros (not at Antandros but) in the neighborhood of Antandros.' That is nonsense however we look at it." Yet the Greek cannot mean the Demetrius transfers Antandrus, "a fixed point," to "the adjacent district," as Leaf interprets, but that he includes it among the cities (ταῖς παρακειμέναις) which he enumerates as Cilician.

227 The interpretation of the Greek for this last sentence is somewhat doubtful. Cf. translation and commentary of Leaf (pp. 254-255, who regards the text as corrupt.

228 i.e., eighty stadia from Polymedium, not from Lectum, as thought by Thatcher Clark (American Journal of Archaeology, 4. 291 ff., quoted by Leaf. His interpretation, neither accepted nor definitely rejected by Leaf (p. 257, is not in accordance with Strabo's manner of enumerating distances, a fact apparently overlooked by both scholars.

229 See preceding footnote.

230 So Clark; or "on a height," as Leaf translates (see his note).

231 Temple of Aphrodite.

232 The Greek word "scepsis" means "a viewing," "an inspection."

233 Leaf emends to "two hundred and sixty stadia".

234 See 14. 1. 6.

235 Hom. Il. 20.188

236 Hom. Il. 13.460

237 Soph. Fr. 10 (Nauck)

238 As distinguished from that in Paphlagonia (see 5. 1. 4).

239 Hom. Il. 20.306

240 The son of Hector, who, along with Ascanius, was said to have been king of Scepsis (section 52).

241 i.e., they emend "Trojans" (Τρώεσσιν to "all" (πάντεσσιν) in the Homeric passage.

242 Strabo refers to Eumenes II, who reigned 197-159 B.C.

243 Died about 84 B.C.

244 i.e., errors in the available texts of Aristotle.

245 i.e., at Rome.

246 For the story see Plut. Lucullus 22

247 Tigranes.

248 i.e., zinc.

249 The Latin term is orichaleum.

250 A precise quotation of Hom. Il. 6.143 except that Homer's ἆσσον ("nearer") is changed to Ἄσσον ("to Assus").

251 Eubulus.

252 The historian of Methymna, who appears to have flourished about 300 B.C.; only fragments of his works remain.

253 Hom. Il. 10.428

254 Cf. 7. 7. 2.

255 King of Caria 377-353 B.C. The first "Mausoleum" was so named after him.

256 1. 175, 8. 104.

257 13. 1. 7, 49.

258 But cf. 13. 1. 70.

259 Hom. Il. 1.366

260 Hom. Il. 1.366 ff

261 Hom. Il. 2.691

262 sc. "weep."

263 Hom. Il. 19.295

264 The site of Thebe has been definitely identified with that of the modern Edremid (see Leaf, p. 322). But that of Lyrnessus is uncertain. Leaf (p. 308, regarding the text as corrupt, reads merely "eighty" instead of "eighty-eight," and omits "in opposite directions".

265 Cf 14. 4. 1.

266 Hom. Il. 1.432

267 Hom. Il. 1.438

268 Hom. Il. 1.37

269 See Hom. Il. 1.430 ff

270 i.e., the "Sminthian" Apollo (Hom. Il. 1.39).

271 "Parnopes."

272 "Ips-slayer."

273 A kind of cynips.

274 "Mildew."

275 Hom. Il. 6.396

276 This Diodorus is otherwise unknown.

277 This Xenocles is otherwise unknown except for a reference to him by Cicero Brutus 91.

278 The Roman Senate.

279 i.e., "Old Settlement."

280 "Rotten-stone."

281 i.e., Ἄιξ, "goat."

282 It is not clear in the Greek whether Strabo says that the Aegean Sea got its name from Aega or vice versa. Elsewhere (8. 7. 4) he speaks of "Aegae in Boeotia from which it is probable that the Aegean Sea got its name."

283 A fragment otherwise unknown (Sappho Fr. 131 (Bergk)).

284 Eur. Fr. 696 (Nauck)

285 Cf. 12. 8. 2, 4.

286 Hom. Od. 11.521

287 On the variant myths of Auge and Telephus see Estathius Hom. Od. 11.521; also Leaf's note and references (p. 340).

288 Cf. 13. 1. 7, 67.

289 A fragment otherwise unknown (Bacchyl. Fr. 66 (Bergk)).

290 Eur. Fr. 1085 (Nauck)

291 Aesch. Fr. 143 (Nauck)

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