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Now that I have traversed the regions of Old Italy1 as far as Metapontium, I must speak of those that border on them. And Iapygia borders on them. The Greeks call it Messapia, also, but the natives, dividing it into two parts, call one part (that about the Iapygian Cape)2 the country of the Salentini, and the other the country of the Calabri. Above these latter, on the north, are the Peucetii and also those people who in the Greek language are called Daunii, but the natives give the name Apulia to the whole country that comes after that of the Calabri, though some of them, particularly the Peucetii, are called Poedicli also. Messapia forms a sort of peninsula, since it is enclosed by the isthmus that extends from Brentesium3 as far as Taras, three hundred and ten stadia. And the voyage thither4 around the Iapygian Cape is, all told, about four hundred5 stadia. The distance from Metapontium6 is about two hundred and twenty stadia, and the voyage to it is towards the rising sun. But though the whole Tarantine Gulf, generally speaking, is harborless, yet at the city there is a very large and beautiful harbor,7 which is enclosed by a large bridge and is one hundred stadia in circumference. In that part of the harbor which lies towards the innermost recess,8 the harbor, with the outer sea, forms an isthmus, and therefore the city is situated on a peninsula; and since the neck of land is low-lying, the ships are easily hauled overland from either side. The ground of the city, too, is low-lying, but still it is slightly elevated where the acropolis is. The old wall has a large circuit, but at the present time the greater part of the city—the part that is near the isthmus—has been forsaken, but the part that is near the mouth of the harbor, where the acropolis is, still endures and makes up a city of noteworthy size. And it has a very beautiful gymnasium, and also a spacious market-place, in which is situated the bronze colossus of Zeus, the largest in the world except the one that belongs to the Rhodians. Between the marketplace and the mouth of the harbor is the acropolis, which has but few remnants of the dedicated objects that in early times adorned it, for most of them were either destroyed by the Carthaginians when they took the city or carried off as booty by the Romans when they took the place by storm.9 Among this booty is the Heracles in the Capitol, a colossal bronze statue, the work of Lysippus, dedicated by Maximus Fabius, who captured the city. [2]

In speaking of the founding of Taras, Antiochus says: After the Messenian war10 broke out, those of the Lacedaemonians who did not take part in the expedition were adjudged slaves and were named Helots,11 and all children who were born in the time of the expedition were called Partheniae12 and judicially deprived of the rights of citizenship, but they would not tolerate this, and since they were numerous formed a plot against the free citizens; and when the latter learned of the plot they sent secretly certain men who, through a pretence of friendship, were to report what manner of plot it was; among these was Phalanthus, who was reputed to be their champion, but he was not pleased, in general, with those who had been named to take part in the council. It was agreed, however, that the attack should be made at the Hyacinthian festival in the Amyclaeum13 when the games were being celebrated, at the moment when Phalanthus should put on his leather cap (the free citizens were recognizable by their hair 14); but when Phalanthus and his men had secretly reported the agreement, and when the games were in progress, the herald came forward and forbade Phalanthus to put on a leather cap; and when the plotters perceived that the plot had been revealed, some of them began to run away and others to beg for mercy; but they were bidden to be of good cheer and were given over to custody; Phalanthus, however, was sent to the temple of the god15 to consult with reference to founding a colony; and the god responded, "I give to thee Satyrium, both to take up thine abode in the rich land of Taras and to become a bane to the Iapygians." Accordingly, the Partheniae went thither with Phalanthus, and they were welcomed by both the barbarians and the Cretans who had previously taken possession of the place. These latter, it is said, are the people who sailed with Minos to Sicily, and, after his death, which occurred at the home of Cocalus in Camici,16 set sail from Sicily; but on the voyage back17 they were driven out of their course to Taras, although later some of them went afoot around the Adrias18 as far as Macedonia and were called Bottiaeans. But all the people as far as Daunia, it is said, were called Iapyges, after Iapyx, who is said to have been the son of Daedalus by a Cretan woman and to have been the leader of the Cretans. The city of Taras, however, was named after some hero. [3]

But Ephorus describes the founding of the city thus: The Lacedaemonians were at war with the Messenians because the latter had killed their king Teleclus when he went to Messene to offer sacrifice, and they swore that they would not return home again until they either destroyed Messene or were all killed; and when they set out on the expedition, they left behind the youngest and the oldest of the citizens to guard the city; but later on, in the tenth year of the war, the Lacedaemonian women met together and sent certain of their own number to make complaint to their husbands that they were carrying on the war with the Messenians on unequal terms, for the Messenians, staying in their own country, were begetting children, whereas they, having abandoned their wives to widowhood, were on an expedition in the country of the enemy, and they complained that the fatherland was in danger of being in want of men; and the Lacedaemonians, both keeping their oath and at the same time bearing in mind the argument of the women, sent the men who were most vigorous and at the same time youngest, for they knew that these had not taken part in the oaths, because they were still children when they went out to war along with the men who were of military age; and they ordered them to cohabit with the maidens, every man with every maiden, thinking that thus the maidens would bear many more children; and when this was done, the children were named Partheniae. But as for Messene, it was captured after a war of nineteen years, as Tyrtaeus says: "About it they fought for nineteen years, relentlessly, with heart ever steadfast, did the fathers of our fathers, spearmen they; and in the twentieth the people forsook their fertile farms and fled from the great mountains of Ithome." Now the Lacedaemonians divided up Messenia among themselves, but when they came on back home they would not honor the Partheniae with civic rights like the rest, on the ground that they had been born out of wedlock; and the Partheniae, leaguing with the Helots, formed a plot against the Lacedaemonians and agreed to raise a Laconian cap in the market-place as a signal for the attack. But though some of the Helots had revealed the plot, the Lacedaemonians decided that it would be difficult to make a counter-attack against them, for the Helots were not only numerous but were all of one mind, regarding themselves as virtually brothers of one another, and merely charged those who were about to raise the signal to go away from the marketplace. So the plotters, on learning that the undertaking had been betrayed, held back, and the Lacedaemonians persuaded them, through the influence of their fathers, to go forth and found a colony, and if the place they took possession of sufficed them, to stay there, but if not, to come on back and divide among themselves the fifth part of Messenia. And they, thus sent forth, found the Achaeans at war with the barbarians, took part in their perils, and founded Taras. [4]

At one time the Tarantini were exceedingly powerful, that is, when they enjoyed a democratic government; for they not only had acquired the largest fleet of all peoples in that part of the world but were wont to send forth an army of thirty thousand infantry, three thousand cavalry, and one thousand commanders of cavalry. Moreover, the Pythagorean philosophy was embraced by them, but especially by Archytas,19 who presided over the city for a considerable time. But later, because of their prosperity, luxury prevailed to such an extent that the public festivals celebrated among them every year were more in number than the days of the year; and in consequence of this they also were poorly governed. One evidence of their bad policies is the fact that they employed foreign generals; for they sent for Alexander20 the Molossian to lead them in their war against the Messapians and Leucanians, and, still before that, for Archidamus,21 the son of Agesilaüs, and, later on, for Cleonymus,22 and Agathocles,23 and then for Pyrrhus,24 at the time when they formed a league with him against the Romans. And yet even to those whom they called in they could not yield a ready obedience, and would set them at enmity. At all events, it was out of enmity that Alexander tried to transfer to Thurian territory the general festival assembly of all Greek peoples in that part of the world—the assembly which was wont to meet at Heracleia in Tarantine territory, and that he began to urge that a place for the meetings be fortified on the Acalandrus River. Furthermore, it is said that the unhappy end which befell him25 was the result of their ingratitude. Again, about the time of the wars with Hannibal, they were deprived of their freedom, although later they received a colony of Romans, and are now living at peace and better than before. In their war against the Messapians for the possession of Heracleia, they had the co-operation of the king of the Daunians and the king of the Peucetians. [5]

That part of the country of the Iapygians which comes next is fine, though in an unexpected way; for although on the surface it appears rough, it is found to be deep-soiled when ploughed, and although it is rather lacking in water, it is manifestly none the less good for pasturage and for trees. The whole of this district was once extremely populous; and it also had thirteen cities; but now, with the exception of Taras and Brentesium, all of them are so worn out by war that they are merely small towns. The Salentini are said to be a colony of the Cretans. The temple of Athene, once so rich, is in their territory, as also the look-out-rock called Cape Iapygia, a huge rock which extends out into the sea towards the winter sunrise,26 though it bends approximately towards the Lacinium, which rises opposite to it on the west and with it bars the mouth of the Tarantine Gulf. And with it the Ceraunian Mountains, likewise, bar the mouth of the Ionian Gulf; the passage across from it both to the Ceraunian Mountains and to the Lacinium is about seven hundred stadia. But the distance by sea from Taras around to Brentesium is as follows: First, to the small town of Baris, six hundred stadia; Baris is called by the people of today Veretum, is situated at the edge of the Salentine territory, and the trip thither from Taras is for the most part easier to make on foot than by sailing. Thence to Leuca eighty stadia; this, too, is a small town, and in it is to be seen a fountain of malodorous water; the mythical story is told that those of the Giants who survived at the Campanian Phlegra27 and are called the Leuternian Giants were driven out by Heracles, and on fleeing hither for refuge were shrouded by Mother Earth, and the fountain gets its malodorous stream from the ichor of their bodies; and for this reason, also, the seaboard here is called Leuternia. Again, from Leuca to Hydrus,28 a small town, one hundred and fifty stadia. Thence to Brentesium four hundred; and it is an equal distance to the island Sason,29 which is situated about midway of the distance across from Epeirus to Brentesium. And therefore those who cannot accomplish the straight voyage sail to the left of Sason and put in at Hydrus; and then, watching for a favorable wind, they hold their course towards the harbors of the Brentesini, although if they disembark, they go afoot by a shorter route by way of Rodiae,30 a Greek city, where the poet Ennius was born. So then, the district one sails around in going from Taras to Brentesium resembles a peninsula, and the overland journey from Brentesium to Taras, which is only a one day's journey for a man well-girt, forms the isthmus of the aforesaid peninsula;31 and this peninsula most people call by one general name Messapia, or Iapygia, or Calabria, or Salentina, although some divide it up, as I have said before.32 So much, then, for the towns on the seacoast. [6]

In the interior are Rodiae and Lupiae, and, slightly above the sea, Aletia; and at the middle of the isthmus, Uria, in which is still to be seen the palace of one of the chieftains. When Herodotus33 states that Hyria is in Iapygia and was founded by the Cretans who strayed from the fleet of Minos when on its way to Sicily,34 we must understand Hyria to be either Uria or Veretum. Brentesium, they say, was further colonized by the Cretans, whether by those who came over with Theseus from Cnossus or by those who set sail from Sicily with Iapyx (the story is told both ways), although they did not stay together there, it is said, but went off to Bottiaea.35 Later on, however, when ruled by kings, the city lost much of its country to the Lacedaemonians who were under the leadership of Phalanthus; but still, when he was ejected from Taras, he was admitted by the Brentesini, and when he died was counted by them worthy of a splendid burial. Their country is better than that of the Tarantini, for, though the soil is thin, it produces good fruits, and its honey and wool are among those that are strongly commended. Brentesium is also better supplied with harbors; for here many harbors are closed in by one mouth; and they are sheltered from the waves, because bays are formed inside in such a way as to resemble in shape a stag's horns;36 and hence the name, for, along with the city, the place very much resembles a stag's head, and in the Messapian language the head of the stag is called "brentesium."37 But the Tarantine harbor, because of its wide expanse, is not wholly sheltered from the waves; and besides there are some shallows in the innermost part of it.38 [7]

In the case of those who sail across from Greece or Asia, the more direct route is to Brentesium, and, in fact, all who propose to go to Rome by land put into port here. There are two roads39 from here: one, a mule-road through the countries of the Peucetii (who are called Poedicli),40 the Daunii, and the Samnitae as far as Beneventum; on this road is the city of Egnatia,41 and then, Celia,42 Netium,43 Canusium, and Herdonia.44 But the road by way of Taras, lying slightly to the left of the other, though as much as one day's journey out of the way when one has made the circuit,45 what is called the Appian Way, is better for carriages. On this road are the cities of Uria and Venusia, the former between Taras and Brentesium and the latter on the confines of the Samnitae and the Leucani. Both the roads from Brentesium meet near Beneventum and Campania. And the common road from here on, as far as Rome, is called the Appian Way, and passes through Caudium,46 Calatia,47 Capua,48 and Casilinum to Sinuessa.49 And the places from there on I have already mentioned. The total length of the road from Rome to Brentesium is three hundred and sixty miles. But there is also a third road, which runs from Rhegium through the countries of the Brettii, the Leucani, and the Samnitae into Campania, where it joins the Appian Way; it passes through the Apennine Mountains and it requires three or four days more than the road from Brentesium. [8]

The voyage from Brentesium to the opposite mainland is made either to the Ceraunian Mountains and those parts of the seaboard of Epeirus and of Greece which come next to them, or else to Epidamnus; the latter is longer than the former, for it is one thousand eight hundred stadia.50 And yet the latter is the usual route, because the city has a good position with reference both to the tribes of the Illyrians and to those of the Macedonians. As one sails from Brentesium along the Adriatic seaboard, one comes to the city of Egnatia, which is the common stopping-place for people who are travelling either by sea or land to Barium;51 and the voyage is made with the south wind. The country of the Peucetii extends only thus far52 on the sea, but in the interior as far as Silvium.53 All of it is rugged and mountainous, since it embraces a large portion of the Apennine Mountains; and it is thought to have admitted Arcadians as colonists. From Brentesium to Barium is about seven hundred stadia, and Taras is about an equal distance from each. The adjacent country is inhabited by the Daunii; and then come the Apuli, whose country extends as far as that of the Frentani. But since the terms "Peucetii" and "Daunii" are not at all used by the native inhabitants, except in early times, and since this country as a whole is now called Apulia, necessarily the boundaries of these tribes cannot be told to a nicety either, and for this reason neither should I myself make positive assertions about them. [9]

From Barium to the Aufidus River, on which is the Emporium of the Canusitae54 is four hundred stadia and the voyage inland to Emporium is ninety. Near by is also Salapia,55 the seaport of the Argyrippini. For not far above the sea (in the plain, at all events) are situated two cities, Canusium56 and Argyrippa,57 which in earlier times were the largest of the Italiote cities, as is clear from the circuits of their walls. Now, however, Argyrippa is smaller; it was called Argos Hippium at first, then Argyrippa, and then by the present name Arpi. Both are said to have been founded by Diomedes.58 And as signs of the dominion of Diomedes in these regions are to be seen the Plain of Diomedes and many other things, among which are the old votive offerings in the temple of Athene at Luceria—a place which likewise was in ancient times a city of the Daunii, but is now reduced—and, in the sea near by, two islands that are called the Islands of Diomedes, of which one is inhabited, while the other, it is said, is desert; on the latter, according to certain narrators of myths, Diomedes was caused to disappear, and his companions were changed to birds, and to this day, in fact, remain tame and live a sort of human life, not only in their orderly ways but also in their tameness towards honorable men and in their flight from wicked and knavish men. But I have already mentioned the stories constantly told among the Heneti about this hero and the rites which are observed in his honor.59 It is thought that Sipus60 also was founded by Diomedes, which is about one hundred and forty stadia distant from Salapia; at any rate it was named "Sepius" in Greek after the "sepia"61 that are cast ashore by the waves. Between Salapia and Sinus is a navigable river, and also a large lake that opens into the sea; and the merchandise from Sipus, particularly grain, is brought down on both. In Daunia, on a hill by the name of Drium, are to be seen two hero-temples: one, to Calchas, on the very summit, where those who consult the oracle sacrifice to his shade a black ram and sleep in the hide, and the other, to Podaleirius, down near the base of the hill, this temple being about one hundred stadia distant from the sea; and from it flows a stream which is a cure-all for diseases of animals. In front of this gulf is a promontory, Garganum, which extends towards the east for a distance of three hundred stadia into the high sea; doubling the headland, one comes to a small town, Urium, and off the headland are to be seen the Islands of Diomedes. This whole country produces everything in great quantity, and is excellent for horses and sheep; but though the wool is softer than the Tarantine, it is not so glossy. And the country is well sheltered, because the plains lie in hollows. According to some, Diomedes even tried to cut a canal as far as the sea, but left behind both this and the rest of his undertakings only half-finished, because he was summoned home and there ended his life. This is one account of him; but there is also a second, that he stayed here till the end of his life; and a third, the aforesaid mythical account, which tells of his disappearance in the island; and as a fourth one might set down the account of the Heneti, for they too tell a mythical story of how he in some way came to his end in their country, and they call it his apotheosis. [10]

Now the above distances are put down in accordance with the data of Artemidorus;62 but according to the Chorographer,63 the distances from Brentesium as far as Garganum64 amount to one hundred and sixty-five miles, whereas according to Artemidorus they amount to more; and thence to Ancona two hundred and fifty-four miles according to the former, whereas according to Artemidorus the distance to the Aesis River, which is near Ancona, is one thousand two hundred and fifty stadia, a much shorter distance. Polybius states that the distance from Iapygia has been marked out by miles, and that the distance to the city of Sena65 is five hundred and sixty-two miles, and thence to Aquileia one hundred and seventy-eight. And they do not agree with the commonly accepted distance along the Illyrian coastline, from the Ceraunian Mountains to the recess of the Adrias,66 since they represent this latter coasting voyage as over six thousand stadia,67 thus making it even longer than the former, although it is much shorter. However, every writer does not agree with every other, particularly about the distances, as I often say.68 As for myself, where it is possible to reach a decision, I set forth my opinion, but where it is not, I think that I should make known the opinions of others. And when I have no opinion of theirs, there is no occasion for surprise if I too have passed something by, especially when one considers the character of my subject; for I would not pass by anything important, while as for little things, not only do they profit one but slightly if known, but their omission escapes unnoticed, and detracts not at all, or else not much, from the completeness of the work.69 [11]

The intervening space, immediately after Cape Garganum, is taken up by a deep gulf; the people who live around it are called by the special name of Apuli, although they speak the same language as the Daunii and the Peucetii, and do not differ from them in any other respect either, at the present time at least, although it is reasonable to suppose that in early times they differed and that this is the source of the three diverse names for them that are now prevalent. In earlier times this whole country was prosperous, but it was laid waste by Hannibal and the later wars. And here too occurred the battle of Cannae, in which the Romans and their allies suffered a very great loss of life. On the gulf is a lake; and above the lake, in the interior, is Teanum Apulum,70 which has the same name as Teanum Sidicinum. At this point the breadth of Italy seems to be considerably contracted, since from here to the region of Dicaearcheia71 an isthmus is left of less than one thousand stadia from sea to sea. After the lake comes the voyage along the coast to the country of the Frentani and to Buca;72 and the distance from the lake either to Buca or to Cape Garganum is two hundred stadia. As for the places that come next after Buca, I have already mentioned them.73

1 i.e., Oenotria (see 6. 1. 15 and 5. 1. 1).

2 Cape Leuca.

3 See 5. 3. 6 and footnote.

4 From Brentesium to Taras.

5 This figure is wrong. Strabo probably wrote 1,200; Groskurd thinks that he wrote 1,400, but in section 5 (below) the figures for the intervals of the same voyage total 1,220 stadia.

6 To Taras.

7 Mare Piccolo.

8 i.e., the part that is immediately to the east of the city, as Tozer (op. cit., p. 183) points out.

9 Tarentum revolted from Rome to Hannibal during the Second Punic War, but was recaptured (209 B.C.) and severely dealt with.

10 743-723 B.C.

11 On the name and its origin, see 8. 5. 4; also Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encycl. s.v. "Heloten."

12 "Children of Virgins."

13 The temple of Amyclaean Apollo.

14 i.e., by the length of it. According to Plut. Lys. 1 the wearing of long hair by the Spartans dated back to Lycurgus (the ninth century B.C.), but according to Hdt. 1.82 they wore their hair short till the battle of Thyrea (in the sixth century B.C.), when by legal enactment they began to wear it long.

15 At Delphi.

16 Cp. 6. 2. 6.

17 Back to Crete.

18 The Adriatic.

19 Archytas (about 427-347 B.C.), besides being chosen seven times as chief magistrate ("strategus") of Tarentum, was famous as general, Pythagorean philosopher, mathematician, and author. Aristotle and Aristoxenus wrote works on his life and writings, but both of these works are now lost.

20 Alexander I was appointed king of Epeirus by Philip of Macedonia about 342 B.C., and was killed by a Luecanian about 330 B.C. (cp. 6. 1. 5).

21 Archidamus III, king of Sparta, was born about 400 B.C. and lost his life in 338 B.C. in this war.

22 Little is know of this Cleonymus, save that he was the son of Cleomenes II, who reigned at Sparta 370-309 B.C.

23 Agathocles (b. about 361 B.C.—d. 289 B.C.) was a tyrant of Syracuse. He appears to have led the Tarantini about 300 B.C.

24 Pyrrhus (about 318-272 B.C.), king of Epeirus, accepted the invitation of Tarentum in 281 B.C.

25 6. 1. 5.

26 i.e., south-east.

27 See 5. 4. 4 and 5. 4. 6.

28 Also called Hydruntum; now Otranto.

29 Now Sasena.

30 Also called Rudiae; now Rugge.

31 6. 3. 1.

32 6. 3. 1.

33 7. 170.

34 Cp. 6. 3. 2.

35 Cp. 6. 3. 2, where Antiochus says that some of them went to Bottiaea.

36 So, too, the gulf, or bay, at Byzantium resembles a stag's horn (7. 6. 2).

37 Stephanus Byzantinus says: "According to Seleucus, in his second book on Languages, 'brentium' is the Messapian word for 'the head of the stag.'" Hence the editors who emend "brentesium" to "brentium" are almost certainly correct.

38 Here, as in 6. 3. 1., Strabo is speaking of the inner harbor (Mare Piccolo), not the outer, of which, as Tozer (p. 184) says, Strabo takes no account.

39 On these roads see Ashby and Gardner, The Via Trajana, Paper of the British School at Rome, 1916, Vol.VIII, No. 5, pp. 107 ff.

40 Cp. 6. 3. 1.

41 Also spelled Gnathia, Gnatia, and Ignatia; now Torre d'Agnazzo.

42 Also spelled Caelia; now Ceglie di Bari.

43 Now Noja.

44 Now Ordona.

45 i.e., to the point where it meets the other road, near Beneventum.

46 Now Montesarchio.

47 Now Galazze.

48 The old Santa Maria di Capua, now in ruins; not the Capua of today, which is on the site of Casilinum.

49 Now Mondragone.

50 Strabo has already said the the voyage from Brentesium to Epeirus by way of Sason (Saseno) was about 800 stadia (6. 3. 5). But Strabo was much out of the way, and apparently was not on the regular route. Again, Epidamnus (now Durazzo) is in fact only about 800 stadia distant, not 1,800 as the text makes Strabo say. It is probable, therefore, that Strabo said either simply " for it is 800 stadia," or "for it is 1,000 stadia, while the former is 800.

51 Now Bari.

52 To Barium.

53 Silvium appears to have been on the site of what is now Garagone.

54 This Emporium should probably be identified with the Canne of today (see Ashby and Gardner, op. cit., p. 156).

55 Now Salpi.

56 Now Canosa.

57 Now Arpino.

58 Cp. 5. 1. 9.

59 Cp. 5. 1. 9.

60 In Latin, Sipontum; now in ruins, near Santa Maria di Siponto.

61 Cuttle-fish.

62 Artemidorus (flourished about 100 B.C.), of Ephesus, was an extensive traveller and a geographer of great importance. He wrote a geography of the inhabited world in eleven books, a Periplus of the Mediterranean, and Ionian Historical Sketches. But his works, except numerous fragments preserved in other authors, are now lost.

63 See 5. 2. 7 and footnote.

64 Monte Gargano.

65 Sena Gallica; now Sinigaglia.

66 The Adriatic.

67 Polybius here gives the total length of the coastline on the Italian side as 740 miles, or 6,166 stadia (8 1/3 stadia to the mile; see 7. 7. 4), and elsewhere (2. 4. 3) Strabo quotes him as reckoning the length of the Illyrian coastline from the Ceraunian Mts. only to Iapygia (not including Istria) as 6,150 stadia. Cp. also 7. 5. 3, 4, 10.

68 Cp. 1. 2. 13; 2. 1. 7-8, and 2. 4. 3.

69 Cp. 1. 1. 23.

70 Passo di Civita.

71 Puteoli.

72 Now Termoli.

73 5. 4. 2.

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Pozzuoli (Italy) (1)
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Ordona (Italy) (1)
Mother Earth (New Mexico, United States) (1)
Montesarchio (Italy) (1)
Mondragone (Italy) (1)
Lupiae (Italy) (1)
Ithome (Greece) (1)
Italy (Italy) (1)
Histria (Croatia) (1)
Herdonia (1)
Gnathia (Italy) (1)
Gargano (Italy) (1)
Ephesus (Turkey) (1)
Delphi (Greece) (1)
Crete (Greece) (1)
Cnossus (Greece) (1)
Civita (Italy) (1)
Ceglie (Italy) (1)
Canosa (Italy) (1)
Cannae (Italy) (1)
Cannae (Italy) (1)
Camici (Turkey) (1)
Caelia (Italy) (1)
Byzantium (Turkey) (1)
Bruttium (Italy) (1)
Asia (1)
Arpino (Italy) (1)
Arpi (Italy) (1)
Aquileia (Italy) (1)

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hide References (3 total)
  • Cross-references in notes to this page (1):
  • Cross-references in notes from this page (2):
    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.82
    • Plutarch, Lysander, 1
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