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But as we are now about to leave the garden plants, we will take this opportunity of describing a very famous preparation extracted from them as an antidote against the stings of all kinds of venomous animals: it is inscribed in verse1 upon a stone in the Temple of Æsculapius at Cos.

Take two denarii of wild thyme, and the same quantity of opopanax and meum respectively; one denarius of trefoil seed; and of aniseed, fennel-seed, ammi, and parsley, six denarii respectively, with twelve denarii of meal of fitches. Beat up these ingredients together, and pass them through a sieve; after which they must be kneaded with the best wine that can be had, and then made into lozenges of one victoriatus2 each: one of these is to be given to the patient, steeped in three cyathi of wine. King Antiochus3 the Great, it is said, employed this theriaca4 against all kinds of venomous animals, the asp excepted.

SUMMARY.—Remarkable facts, narratives, and observations, one thousand, five hundred, and six.

ROMAN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Cato5 the Censor, M. Varro,6 Pompeius Linnæus,7 C. Valgius,8 Hyginus,9 Sextius Niger10 who wrote in Greek, Julius Bassus11 who wrote in Greek, Celsus,12 Antonius Castor.13

FOREIGN AUTHORS QUOTED.—Democritus,14 Theophrastus,15 Orpheus,16 Monander17 who wrote the "Biochresta," Pythagoras,18 Nicander.19

MEDICAL AUTHORS QUOTED.—Chrysippus,20 Diocles,21 Ophelion,22 Heraclides,23 Hicesius,24 Dionysius,25 Apollodorus26 of Citium, Apollodorus27 of Tarentum, Praxagoras,28 Plistoni- cus,29 Medius,30 Dieuches,31 Cleophantus,32 Philistion,33 Asclepiades,34 Crateuas,35 Petronius Diodotus,36 lollas,37 Erasistratus,38 Diagoras,39 Andreas,40 Mnesides,41 Epicharmus,42 Damion,43 Dalion,44 Sosimenes,45 Tlepolemus,46 Metrodo- rus,47 Solo,48 Lycus,49 Olympias50 of Thebes, Philinus,51 Petrichus,52 Micton,53 Glaucias,54 Xenocrates.55

1 Galen gives these lines, sixteen in number, in his work De Antidot. B. ii. c. 14; the proportions, however, differ from those given by Pliny.

2 Half a denarius; the weight being so called from the coin which was stamped with the image of the Goddess of Victory. See B. xxxiii. c. 13.

3 Antiochus II.. the father of Antiochus Epiphanes.

4 Or "antidote." In this term has originated our word "treacle," in the Elizabethan age spelt "triacle." The medicinal virtues of this com- position were believed in, Fée remarks, so recently as the latter half of the last century. The most celebrated, however, of all the "theriacæ" of the ancients, was the "Theriaca Andromachi," invented by Androma- chus, the physician of the Emperor Nero, and very similar to that com- posed by Mithridates, king of Pontus, and by means of which he was ren- dered proof, it is said, against all poisons. See a very learned and inter- esting account of the Theriacæ of the ancients, by Dr. Greenhill, in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. His articles "Pharmaceu- tica," an "Therapeutica," will also be found well worth attention by the reader of Pliny.

5 See end of B. iii.

6 See end of B. ii.

7 See end of B. xiv.

8 He is also mentioned in B. xxv. c. 2, as having commenced a treatise on Medicinal Plants, which he did not live to complete. It is not im- probable that he is the same Valgius that is mentioned in high terms by Horace B. i. Sat. 10.

9 See end of B. iii.

10 See end of B. xii.

11 Supposed by some to be the same with the Bassus Tullius mentioned by ancient writers as the friend of Niger, possibly the Sextius Niger here mentioned.

12 See end of B. vii.

13 He lived at Rome in the first century of the Christian era, and possessed a botanical garden, probably the earliest mentioned. He lived more than a hundred years, in perfect health both of body and mind. See B. xxv. c. 5.

14 See end of B. ii.

15 See end of B. iii.

16 A mystic personage of the early Grecian Mythology, under whose name many spurious works were circulated. Pliny says, B. xxv. c. 2, that he was the first who wrote with any degree of attention on the subject of Plants.

17 See end of B. xix.

18 See end of B. ii.

19 See end of B. viii.

20 Probably Chrysippus of Cnidos, a pupil of Eudoxus and Philistion, father of Chrysippus, the physician to Ptolemy Soter, and tutor to Erasistratus. Others, again, think that the work "on the Cabbage," mentioned by Pliny in c. 33, was written by another Chrysippus, a pupil of Erasistratus, in the third century B.C.

21 A native of Carystus, in Eubœa, who lived in the fourth century B.C. He belonged to the medical sect of the Dogmatici, and wrote several medical works, of which the titles only and a few fragments remain.

22 Of this writer nothing whatever is known.

23 For Heraclides of Heraclea, see end of B. xii.; for Heraclides of Pontus, see end of B. iv.; and for Heraclides of Tarentum, see end of B. xii. They were all physicians.

24 See end of B. xv.

25 See end of B. xii.

26 It was probably this personage, or the one next mentioned, who wrote to Ptolemy, one of the kings of Egypt, giving him directions as to what wines he should drink. See B. xiv. c. 9. A person of this name wrote a work on Ointments and Chaplets, quoted by Athenæus, and another on Venomous Animals, quoted by the same author. This last is probably the work referred to by Pliny, B. xxi. cc. 15, 29, &c. It has been suggested also, that the proper reading here is "Apollonius" of Citium, a pupil of Zopyrus, a physician of Alexandria.

27 See the preceding Note.

28 A celebrated physician, a native of the island of Cos. He belonged to the medical sect of the Dogmatici, and flourished probably in the fourth century B.C. He was more particularly celebrated for his comparatively accurate knowledge of anatomy. The titles only and a few fragments of his works survive.

29 A pupil of Praxagoras. He appears to have written a work on Anatomy, quoted more than once by Galen.

30 A pupil of Chrysippus of Cnidos, and who lived probably in the fourth and third centuries B.C. Galen speaks of him as being held in great repute among the Greeks.

31 He flourished in the fourth century B.C., and belonged to the medical sect of the Dogmatici. He wrote some medical works, of which no- thing but a few fragments remain.

32 He lived probably about the beginning of the third century B.C., as he was the tutor of Antigenes and Mnemon. He seems to have been famous for his medicinal prescriptions of wine, and the quantities of cold water which he gave to his patients.

33 Born either in Sicily or at Locri Epizephyrii, in Italy. He is supposed to have lived in the fourth century B.C. By some persons he was thought to have been one of the founders of the sect of the Empirici. He wrote works on Malteria Medica and Cookery, and is several times quoted by Pliny and Galen.

34 See end of B. vii.

35 A Greek herbalist, who lived about the beginning of the first cen- tury B.C. He is mentioned by Galen as one of the most eminent writers on Materia Medica. Another physician of the same name is supposed to have lived in the time of Hippocrates.

36 A Greek physician, supposed to have lived in or before the first century B.C. Dioscorides and Saint Epiphanius speak of Petronius and Dio- dotus, making them different persons; and it is not improbable that the true reading in c. 32 of this Book, is "Petronius et Diodotus."

37 See end of B. xii.

38 See end of B. xi.

39 See end of B. xii.

40 It is probable that there were several Greek physicians of this name; but the only one of whom anything certain is known is the physician to Ptolemy Philopater, king of Egypt, in whose tent he was killed by Theodotus, the Ætolian, B.C. 217. He was probably the first writer on hydrophobia. Eratosthenes is said to have accused him of plagiarism.

41 See end of B. xii.

42 It is doubtful if the person of this name to whom Pliny attributes a work on the Cabbage, in cc. 34 and 36 of this Book, was the same individual as Epicharmus of Cos, the Comic poet, born B.C. 540. It has been suggested that the botanical writer was a different personage, the brother of the Comic poet Demologus.

43 Possibly the same person as the Damon mentioned at the end of B. vii. He is mentioned in c. 40 of this Book, and in B. xxiv. c. 120, and wrote a work on the Onion.

44 See end of B. vi.

45 Beyond the mention made of him in c. 73 of this Book, nothing whatever is known relative to this writer.

46 Beyond the mention made of him in c. 73, nothing is known of him. Some read "Theopolemus."

47 Probably Metrodorus of Chios, a philosopher, who flourished about B. C. 330, and professed the doctrine of the Sceptics. Cicero, Acad. ii. 23, § 73, gives a translation of the first sentence of his work "On Nature."

48 A physician of Smyrna. He is called Solon the Dietetic, by Galen; but nothing further seems to be known of his history.

49 See end of B. xii.

50 A Theban authoress, who wrote on Medicine; mentioned also by Plinius Valerianus, the physician, and Pollux.

51 A Greek physician, a native of Cos, the reputed founder of the sect of the Empirici. He probably lived in the third century B.C. From Athenæus we learn that he wrote a work on Botany. A parallel has been drawn between Philinus and the late Dr. Hahnemann, by F. F. Brisken, Berlin, 1834.

52 See end of B. xix.

53 The Scholiast on Nicander mentions a treatise on Botany written by a person of this name: and a work of his on Medicine is mentioned by Labbe as existing in manuscript in the Library at Florence.

54 A Greek physician of this name belonging to the sect of the Empirici, lived probably in the third or second century B.C. Galen mentions him as one of the earliest commentators on the works of Hippocrates. It is uncertain, however, whether he is the person so often quoted by Pliny.

55 A physician of Aphrodisias, in Cilicia, who lived in the reign of Tiberius. He wrote some pharmaceutical works, and is censured by Galen for his disgusting remedies, such as human brains, flesh, urine, liver, excrements, &c. There is a short essay by him still in existence, on the Aliments derived from the Aquatic Animals.

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