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Crete itself lies from east to west, the one side facing the south, the other the north, and is known to fame by the renown of its hundred cities. Dosiades says, that it took its name from the nymph Crete, the daughter of Hesperides1; Anaximander, from a king of the Curetes, Philistides of Mallus * * * * *; while Crates says that it was at first called Aëria, and after that Curetis; and some have been of opinion that it had the name of Macaron2 from the serenity of its climate. In breadth it nowhere exceeds fifty miles, being widest about the middle. In length, however, it is full 270 miles, and 589 in circumference, forming a bend towards the Cretan Sea, which takes its name from it. At its eastern extremity is the Promontory of Sammonium3, facing Rhodes, while towards the west it throws out that of Criumetopon4, in the direction of Cyrene.

The more remarkable cities of Crete are, Phalasarna, Etæa5, Cisamon6, Pergamum, Cydonia7, Minoium8, Apteron9, Pantomatrium, Amphimalla10, Rhithymna, Panormus, Cytæum, Apollonia, Matium11, Heraclea, Miletos, Ampelos, Hierapytna12, Lebena13, and Hierapolis; and, in the interior, Gortyna14, Phæstum, Cnossus15, Polyrrenium, Myrina, Lycastus, Rhamnus, Lyctus, Dium16, Asus, Pyloros, Rhytion, Elatos, Pharæ, Holopyxos, Lasos, Eleuthernæ17, Therapnæ, Marathusa, and Tylisos; besides some sixty others, of which the memory only exists. The mountains are those of Cadistus18, Ida, Dictynnæus, and Corycus19. This island is distant, at its promontory of Criumetopon, according to Agrippa, from Phycus20, the promontory of Cyrene, 125 miles; and at Cadistus, from Malea in the Peloponnesus, eighty. From the island of Carpathos21, at its promontory of Sammonium it lies in a westerly direction, at a distance of sixty miles; this last-named island is situate between it and Rhodes.

The other islands in its vicinity, and lying in front of the Peloponnesus, are the two isles known as Corycæ, and the two called Mylæ22. On the north side, having Crete on the right, and opposite to Cydonia, is Leuce23, and the two islands known as Budroæ24. Opposite to Matium lies Dia25; opposite to the promontory of Itanum26, Onisia and Leuce; and over against Hierapytna, Chrysa and Gaudos27. In the same neighbourhood, also, are Ophiussa, Butoa, and Aradus; and, after doubling Criumetopon, we come to the three islands known as Musagorus. Before the promontory of Sammonium lie the islands of Phocœ, the Platiæ, the Sirnides, Naulochos, Armedon, and Zephyre.

Belonging to Hellas, but still in the Ægean Sea, we have the Lichades28, consisting of Scarphia, Coresa, Phocaria, and many others which face Attica, but have no towns upon them, and are consequently of little note. Opposite Eleusis, however, is the far-famed Salamis29; before it, Psyttalia30; and, at a distance of five miles from Sunium, the island of Helene31. At the same distance from this last is Ceos32, which some of our countrymen have called Cea, and the Greeks Hydrussa, an island which has been torn away from Eubœa. It was formerly 500 stadia in length; but more recently four-fifths of it, in the direction of Bœotia, have been swallowed up by the sea. The only towns it now has left are Iulis and Carthæa33; Coresus34 and Pœëessa35 have perished. Varro informs us, that from this place there used to come a cloth of very fine texture, used for women's dresses.

1 Dalechamps suggests Hesperus.

2 The island "of the Blessed."

3 Now Capo Salomon.

4 From the Greek κριοῦ μέτωπον, "the ram's forehead"; now called Capo Crio.

5 Also called Elæa. Pococke speaks of it as a promontory called Chaule-burnau.

6 Hardouin calls it Chisamo.

7 The modern Khania. The quince derived its Latin name, "Malum Cydonium," from this district, to which it was indigenous. From its Latin name it was called melicotone by the writers of the Elizabethan period.

8 Now Minolo, according to Hardouin.

9 The port of Apteron, or Aptera, which Mr. Pashley supposes to be denoted by the ruins of Palæokastro; he also thinks that its port was at or near the modern Kalyres.

10 Now La Suda, according to Hardouin, who says that Rhithymna is called Retimo; Panormus, Panormo; and Cytæum, Setia.

11 Supposed by Ansart to have stood in the vicinity of the modern city of Candia.

12 Strabo says that it stood on the narrowest part of the island, opposite Minoa. Vestiges of it have been found at the Kastéle of Hierapetra. Its foundation was ascribed to the Corybantes.

13 Now Lionda.

14 Next to Cnossus in splendour and importance. Mr. Pashley places its site near the modern Haghius Dheka, the place of the martyrdom of the ten Saints, according to tradition, in the Decian persecution.

15 It has been remarked, that Pliny is mistaken here if he intends to enumerate Cnossus among the towns of the interior of Crete. The only remains of this capital of Crete, situate on the north of the island, are those seen at Makro-Teikho, or the "Long Walls," so called from the masses of Roman brick-work there seen.

16 Though an inland town, it probably stood in the vicinity of the headland or promontory of the same name, which is now called Kavo Stavro. Many of these names are utterly unknown.

17 One of the most important towns of Crete, on the N.W. slope of Mount Ida, about fifty stadia from the port of Astale. Mr. Pashley says that some remains probably of tills place are still to be seen on a hill near a place called Eletherna, five miles south of the great convent of Arkadhi.

18 The loftiest point of the mountain-range that traverses the island of Crete from west to east. Its head is covered with snow. The modern name is Psiloriti, looking down on the plain of Mesara. The word Ida is supposed to mean a mountain in which mines are worked, and the Idæi Dactyli of Crete were probably among the first workers in iron and bronze. The position of Mount Cadistus, belonging to the range of White Mountains, has been fixed by Hoeck at Cape Spadha, the most northerly point of the island. It is thought that Pliny and Solinus are in error in speaking of Cadistus and Dictynnæus as separate peaks, these being, both of them, names of the mountain of which the cape was formed; the latter name having been given in later times, from the worship and temple there of Dictynna.

19 Now Grabusa, the N.W. promontory of Crete.

20 Now Ras-al-Sem, or Cape Rasat, in Africa. The distance, according to Brotier, is in reality about 225 miles.

21 Now Skarpanto.

22 According to Hardouin, all of these are mere rocks rather than islands.

23 The modern Haghios Theodhoros.

24 According to Hoeck, they are now called Turlure.

25 Now called Standiu.

26 Now Capo Xacro, on the east, though Cape Salomon, further north, has been suggested. In the latter case, the Grandes islands would correspond with Onisia and Leuce, mentioned by Pliny.

27 Now Gaidurognissa. None of the other islands here mentioned seem to have been identified.

28 Between Eubœa and Locris. They are now called Ponticonesi.

29 Now Koluri. It is memorable for the naval battle fought off its coast, when Xerxes was defeated by the Greeks, B.C. 480.

30 Now called Lypsokutali.

31 Now Makronisi, or "the Long Island." Its ancient name was also Macris. Strabo identifies it with the Homeric Cranaë, to which Paris fled with Helen.

32 Usually called Cea, one of the Cyclades, about thirteen miles S.E. of Sunium. Its modern name is Zea. Iulis was the most important town, and the birth-place of the poets Simonides and Bacchylides, of the sophist Prodicus, the physician Erasistratus, and the Peripatetic philosopher Ariston. Extensive remains of it still exist.

33 There are considerable remains of this town, called by the inhabit- ants Stais Palais.

34 Or Coresia. It was the harbour of Iulis, to which place we learn from Strabo that its inhabitants were transferred.

35 On the S.W. side of the island. Its ruins are inconsiderable, but retain their ancient name.

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