Translator's Preface

AT least two-thirds of this volume is the work of Professor Sage. At the time of his death he had prepared the text of Books XL—XLII complete, and had carried the translation through ch. xxi. of Book XLII. The General Editors and the new editor of this volume have not found it necessary to revise the text; in the translation, the latter part of which was a first draft, the phrasing has been at times altered, and a few additional notes to Book XLII supplied. Doctor Adalaide J. Wegner, colleague and collaborator of Professor Sage, has kindly supplied numerous notes, textual and factual, which were planned by Professor Sage but not incorporated in his draft of the whole. Beginning with ch. xxii. of Book XLII, the new editor has supplied the translation and its notes. He regrets his inability to furnish such a lucid introductory sketch as Professor Sage put at the beginning of his previous volumes. The maps, place-lists for which were compiled by the new editor, are intended to illustrate every geographical reference in the text which allows of graphic treatment; a list of peoples and places which cannot be located, except for the hints given by Livy, is offered with the maps. Kiepert's Atlas antiquus has been used in [p. viii] preparing these maps. Kiepert has been followed exactly, except that the Maedi are placed farther to the north-east than he shows them. The names with question-marks are those not given by Kiepert; the degree of doubt indicated by the question-mark is sometimes slight, but the following are highly conjectural: in Italy, Mutila; in Greece, Astraeum, Gitana, the Paroria, Tripolis Scaea; on the general map, the Balari and Ilienses can only be placed in the mountains of Sardinia, probably to the north, and occupy more map-space than they did territory. The map of Rome is taken from O. Richter, Topographie der Stadt Rom, München, Beck, 1901 (Iwan Müller, Handbuch, III, 3), by kind permission of the publishers. The buildings with a question-mark can only be placed in the general vicinity indicated, as is done in the Richter text. Two Spanish towns on the unplaced list are sometimes placed in Farther Spain, Aebura being interpreted as Ebora in Lusitania, and Certima, as Cartima on the southern coast; Munda, according to this interpretation, is the site of Caesar's victory in the south. This theory assumes an error on Livy's part in placing the campaigns described in XL. xxx.—xxxiii. and xlvii.—l; both editors prefer to hold to the manuscript text.

The following was written by Professor Sage:

In this volume the textual problem becomes more acute since Books XLI—XLV are preserved, and that not entire, in only one manuscript V (Codex Vindobonensis Lat. 15). This manuscript, belonging to either the end of the fifth century or the beginning of the sixth, has suffered serious [p. ix] losses. In its original form it probably contained the entire fifth decade, since the subscription to Book XLV now reads “titi livi ab urbe condita lib. XLV exp. inc. lib. XLVI feliciter.” The loss of the five last books must have occurred before the eighth century, for the signature of Theubertus, an eighth-century bishop, appears at the close of Book XLV where the manuscript now ends. Before the eighth century the first quater nion and folios 1 and 8 of quaternions XXX and XXXIV were lost. The other losses to the manuscript, with the exception of the second quaternion, occurred between the time of Theubertus and 1531, when Grynaeus brought out the first edition of these books (ed. Frobeniana 1531). Some time between 1531 and 1669 the second quaternion, containing the text from XLI. 1— XLI. 9. 10 (edic) was lost.

Critical notes have been supplied upon those passages where it has been necessary to use the restorations and conjectures of sixteenth-century scholars. The apparatus of Giarratano (Titi Livi Ab Urbe Condita Libri XLI—XLV, Rome 1933) furnishes additional suggestions for these passages.

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