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The Queenes Majesties letter to Theodore Ivanovich Emperour of Russia, 1591.

ELIZABETH by the grace of God Queene of England, France, and Ireland , defender of the faith, &c. to the right high, mighty, and right noble prince Theodore Ivanovich great Lord, King, and great Duke of all Russia , Volodemer, Mosco, Novogrod, King of Cazan, and Astracan, Lord of Vobsko, and great Duke of Smolensko, Otver, Ughory, Perme, Viatski, Bolgory, and other places: Lord and great Duke of Novogrod in the low countrey, of Chernigo, Rezan, Polotsky, Rostove, Yeraslave, Bealozero, and Lifland, of Oudorsky, Obdorsky, Condinsky, and commander of all Sibierland and the North coasts, great Lord over the countrey of Iversky, Grisinsky, Emperor of Kabardinsky, and of the countrey of Charkasky, and of the countrey of Gorsky, and Lord of many other countreys, our most deare and loving brother, greeting. Right noble and excellent prince, we have received your Majesties letters brought over by our merchants in their returne of their last voyage from your port of S. Nicholas; which letters we have advisedly read and considered, and thereby perceive that your Majesty doth greatly mislike of our late imployment of Jerome Horsey into your dominions as our messenger with our Highnesse letters, and also that your Majesty doth thinke that we in our letters sent by the sayd messenger have not observed that due order or respect which apperteined to your princely majesty, in the forme of the same letter, aswel touching the inlargement of your Majesties stile and titles of honor which your Majesty expected to have bene therein more particularly expressed, as also in the adding of our greatest scale or signet of armes to the letters which we send to so great a Prince as your Majesty is: in any of which points we would have bene very loth willingly to have given just cause of offence thereby to our most deare and loving brother. And as touching the sayd messenger Jerome Horsey we are sory that contrary to our expectation he is fallen into your Majesties displeasure, whom we minde not to mainteine in any his actions by which he hath so incurred your Majesties mislike: yet that we had reason at such time as we sent him to your Majesty to use his service as our messenger, we referre our selves to your princely judgement, praying your Majesty to reduce into your minde the especiall commendation, which in your letters written unto us in the yeere 1585, you made of the sayd Jerome Horsey his behaviour in your dominions: at which time your Majesty was pleased to use his service as your messenger to us, requiring our answere of your letters to be returned by him and by none other. That imployment, with other occasions taken by your Majesty to use the service of the sayd Jerome Horsey (as namely in the yeere 1587) when your Majesty sent him to us againe with your letters, and your liberall and princely priviledge at our request granted to our merchants (for which we have heretofore given thanks to your Majesty, so doe we hereby reiterate our thankefulnesse for the same) mooved us to be of minde, that we could not make choise of any of our subjects so fit a messenger to your Majesty as he, whom your Majesty had at severall times used upon your owne occasions into this our Realme. But least your highnesse should continue of the minde that the letters which you sent by our ambassador Giles Fletcher (wherein some mention was made of your conceived displeasure against the sayd Horsey) came not to our hands, and that wee were kept ignorant of the complaint which your Majesty made therein against the sayd Horsey, we do not deny but that we were acquainted aswell by our ambassadour as by those letters of some displeasure conceived against him by your Majesty: but your sayd letters giving onely a short generall mention of some misdemeanour committed by him, expressing no particulars, we were of opinion that this offence was not so hainous, as that it might utterly extinguish all your former princely favour towards him, but that upon his humble submission to your Majesty, or upon better examination of the matter of the displeasure conceived against him, the offence might have beene either remitted, or he thereof might have cleared himselfe. And to that end we were not onely by his great importunity long sollicited, but by the intercession of some of our Nobility giving credit to his owne defence, we were intreated on his behalfe to use his service once againe into Russia as our messenger to your Majesty, whereby he might have opportunity to cleare himselfe, and either by his answere or by his submission recover your Majesties former favour: whereunto our princely nature was mooved to yeeld, wishing the good of our subject so farre foorth as his desert might carry him, or his innocencie cleare him.

Thus noble Prince, our most loving and dearest brother, it may appeare unto your Majesty how we were induced to use the service of the sayd messenger, aswell for the recovery of your Majesties favor towards him (if he had bene found woorthy of it) as for experience of the maners and fashions of your countrey, where he hath bene much conversant. But sith by your Majesties letters it appeareth that he hath not cleared himselfe in your Majesties sight, we meane not to use him in any such price hereafter.

And as touching your Majesties conceit of the brevitie which we used in the setting downe of your Majesties stile and titles of honour: as nothing is further from us, then to abridge so great and mighty a Prince of the honour due unto him (whom we holde for his greatnesse to deserve more honour then we are able to give him) so shall we need no further nor surer argument to cleare us of the suspicion of the detracting from your Majesty any part of your just and princely honor and greatnesse, then the consideration of our owne stile, which is thus contracted, videlicet, Elizabeth by the grace of God Queene of England, France, and Ireland , defender of the faith &c. which kingdomes and dominions of ours are expressed by these generall words, videlicet, England, France, and Ireland : in every of which there are severall principalities, dukedomes, earledomes, provinces and countreys: which being severally expressed would enlarge much our stile, and make it of great length; which by our progenitours hath not bene used: notwithstanding, we thinke it no dishonour to us, compendiously to abridge the same in all our writings and letters written to what Prince, King, or Potentate soever. Whereupon we inferre, that holding your Majesties generall stile, we offer your Highnesse no dishonour in not expressing all the particular provinces: albeit we can willingly content our selfe, upon the knowledge of your usages and customes, to observe that course, which your selfe shall thinke most honourable. And for the sealing up of our letters which we write to all our allies, kinsemen, and friends, Kings and Princes, we have in use two severall seales; both which we esteeme alike honourable, being our princely seales. And as the volume of our letters falleth out to be great or small, so accordingly is our greater or lesser seale annexed to the sayd letters, without esteeming either of them more or lesse honourable then the other. So as, our most loving and dearest brother, in the said letters there was nothing done of purpose to detract from your Majesty any thing of the usuall regard, which our Highnesse was woont to yeeld unto your most noble father of famous memory Ivan Basilivich Emperor of al Russia , or to your selfe, our dearest brother. For the residue of the points of your Majesties letters concerning the entertainement of our ambassadour, and proceeding in the cause of Anthonie Marsh we holde our selfe satisfied with your princely answere, and doe therein note an honourable and princely care in your Majestie to prevent the like troubles, controversies and sutes, that Marshes cause stirred up betweene our merchants and your subjects, which is, that your Majestie doeth purpose from time to time to purge your Countrey of such straglers of our subjects, as doe or shall hereafter abide there, and are not of the Company of our merchants, but contemptuously depart out of our land without our Highnesse licence: of which sort there are presented unto us from our merchants the names of these severall persons, videlicet, Richard Cocks, Bennet Jackman, Rainold Kitchin, Simon Rogers, Michael Lane, Thomas Worsenham: whom it may please your Majesty by your princely order to dismisse out of your land, that they may be sent home in the next shippes, to avoid the mislike which their residence in those parts might breed to the disturbance of our brotherly league, and the impeaching of the entercourse.

And whereas, most loving and dearest brother, one William Turnebull a subject of ours is lately deceased in your kingdome, one with whom our merchants have had much controversie for great summes of money due unto them by him while he was their Agent in their affayres of merchandises: which differences by arbitrable order were reduced to the summe of 3000 rubbles, and so much should have beene payed by him as may appeare by your Majesties councell or magistrates of justice by very credible information and testimony: and whereas also the sayd Turnbull was further indebted by billes of his own hand to divers of our subjects, amounting in the whole, to the summe of 1326 pounds, which billes are exemplified under our great seale of England, and to be sent over with this bearer: of which summes he hath often promised payment: it may please your most excellent Majestie in your approoved love to justice, to give order to your favourable councell and magistrates, that those severall debts may be satisfied to our merchants and subjects out of the goods, merchandise, and debts which are due to the state of the sayd Turnbull: whereof your Majesties councell shalbe informed by the Agent of our merchants.

We trust we shall not need to make any new request by motion to your Majesty that some order might be taken for the finding out of the rest of our merchants goods seised to your majesties use in the hands and possession of John Chappel their servant, being a thing granted, and no doubt already performed by your Majesties order. We therfore intreat your Majesty, that as conveniently as may be, satisfaction or recompense be given to our said merchants towards the repairing of their sundry great losses aswell therein as otherwise by them of late sundry wayes sustained. And lastly, our most deare and loving brother, as nothing in all these our occasions is to be preferred before our entire league and amitie, descending upon us as an inheritance, in succession from both our ancestours and noble progenitours: so let us be carefull on both sides by all good meanes to holde and continue the same to our posterity for ever. And if any mistaking or errour of either side do rise, in not accomplishing of circumstances agreeable to the fashion of either of our countreys and kingdomes, let the same upon our enterchangeable letters be reconciled, that our league and amitie be no way impeached for any particular occasion whatsoever. And thus we recommend your Majesty to the tuition of the most High. From our royall Palace of Whitehall the 14 of January, anno Domini 1591.

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