previous next

The voyage of the Susan of London to Constantinople, wherein the worshipfull M. William Harborne was sent first Ambassadour unto Sultan Murad Can, the great Turke, with whom he continued as her Majesties Ligier almost sixe yeeres.

THE 14 of November 1582, we departed from Blackewall, bound for the Citie of Constantinople, in the tall shippe called the Susan of London: the Master whereof was Richard Parsons, a very excellent and skilfull man in his facultie. But by occasion of contrary weather we spent two moneths before we could recover the Kowes in the Isle of Wight. Where the 14 of January following we tooke in the worshipfull M. William Hareborne her Majesties Ambassadour to the Turke, and his company, and sailed thence to Yarmouth in the foresayd Isle of Wight. The 19 we put from Wight. The 26 we did see Cavo de Sant Vincente. The same day we were thwart of Cavo Santa Maria. The 27 we passed by Tariffa, and Gibraltar . The 28 in the morning we passed by Velez Malaga: and that night were thwart of Cavo de Gates. The 29 at night we had sight of Cavo de Palos. The 30 in the morning we did see the high land of Denia , in the kingdome of Valentia , and that night we had sight of the Iland Formentera. The 31 in the morning appeared the Iland of Cabrera. The first of February we put into a Port in Mallorca , called Porto de Sant Pedro: where they would have evill intreated us for comming into the Harbour: we thought we might have bene as bolde there as in other places of Christendome, but it proved farre otherwise. The first man we met on land was a simple Shepheard, of whom we demanded whether we might have a sheepe or such like to refresh our selves, who tolde us yea. And by such conference had with him, at the last he came aboord once or twise, and had the best cheare that we could make him: and our Ambassadour himselfe talked with him, and still he made us faire promises, but nothing at all meant to performe the same, as the end shewed. In the meane time came in a shippe of Marseils, the Master whereof did know our Ambassadour very well, with whom our Ambassadour had conference, and with his Marchants also. They came from Alger in Barbarie, which is under the governement of the Great Turke. They did present our Ambassadour with an Ape, where fore he made very much of them, and had them often aboord. By them I suppose, he was bewrayed of his purpose as touching his message, but yet still we had faire words of the Shepheard aforesayd, and others. So that upon their words, our Purser and another man went to a Towne which was three or foure miles from the port, and there were well entertained, and had of the people very faire speeches, and such small things as could be gotten upon the sudden, and so returned to the shippe that day. Then wee were emboldened, and thought all had bene well, according to their talke. The next day, being the sixth day of Februarie, two of our Gentlemen, with one of our Marchants, and the Purser, and one of the Ambassadours men went to the Towne aforesayd, thinking to doe as the Purser and the other had done before, but it prooved contrary: for at their comming thither they had faire wordes a while, and had bread and wine, and such necessaries for their money, untill such time as they were beset with men, and the Majorcans never shewed in their countenance any such matter, but as the maner of all the people in the dominions of Spaine is, for the most part to be trecherous to us, if they thinke they have any advantage. For upon the sudden they layed handes on them, and put them in holde, as sure as might be in such a simple Towne. Then were they well guarded with men both day and night, and still deluded with faire words, & they sayd to our men it was for no hurt, but that the Viceroy of the Iland would come aboord to see the shippe. But they presently sent the Purser to the Towne of Majorca, where he was examined by the Viceroy very straightly, what their shippe and captaine were, and what voyage they intended, but he confessed nothing at all. In the meane time they in the Towne were likewise straightly examined by a Priest and other officers upon their othes: who for their othes sake declared the whole estate of their voyage. The Ambassadours man was a French man, and therefore was suffered to goe to the shippe on a message, but he could tell the Ambassadour none other newes, but that the Viceroy would come aboord the shippe, and that our men should come with him, but they had another meaning. For the Marseilian Marchants were stayed in like maner in the Towne, onely to make a better shew unto us. But in the meane time, being there three or foure dayes, there came men unto us every day, more or lesse, but one day especially there came two men on horsebacke, whom we tooke to be officers, being lusty men, and very well horsed. These men desired to speake with our Captaine (for all things that passed there were done in the name of our Captaine John Gray) for it was sayd by us there, that he was Captaine of one of her Majesties shippes: wherefore all things passed in his name: and the Ambassadour not seene in any thing but rather concealed, and yet did all, because of his tongue and good inditing in that language. For he himselfe went on land clothed in Velvet, and talked with these men, and with him ten or twelve lusty fellowes well weaponed, ech one having a Boarespeare or a Caliver, the Captaine John Gray being one of them, and our boat lying by very warely kept and ready. For then wee began to suspect, because the place was more frequented with men then it was woont. The men on horsebacke were in doubt to come neere, because hee came so well weaponed. But they bade him welcome, and gave him great salutations in words as their maner is: and demanded why he came so strong, for they sayd he needed not to feare any man in the Iland. Answere was made, that it was the maner of English Captaines to goe with their guard in strange places. Then they tolde our Ambassador (thinking him to be the Captaine) that they were sent from the Viceroy to know what they did lacke, for they promised him beefe or mutton, or any thing that was in the Iland to be had, but their purpose was to have gotten more of our men if they could, and they sayde that wee should have our men againe the next day: with such prety delusions they fed us still. Then our Ambassadour did write a letter to the Viceroy in her Majesties name, and in our Captaine John Grayes name, and not in his owne, and sent it by them, desiring him to send his men, and not to trouble him in his voyage, for he had given him no such cause, nor any of his. So these men departed with great courtesie in words on both parts. And in all this time we did see men on horsebacke and on foot in the woods and trees more then they were accustomed to be, but we could perceive nothing thereby. The next day, or the second, came either foure or sixe of the best of them as wee thought (the Viceroy excepted) and very many men besides in the fieldes, both on foot and on horse, but came not neere the water side. And those in like order desired to speake with the Captaine, and that when he came on land the trumpets might sound : but then the Ambassadour, whom they thought to be Captaine, would not goe, nor suffer the trumpets to be sounded (for that he thought it was a trappe to take himselfe, and more of his company.) But did send one of the principall of the Marchants to talke with them. And the Captaine John Gray went also with him, not being knowen of the Spaniards, for he went as a souldiour. Thus they received of those men the like wordes as they had of the other before mentioned, who sayd we should have our men againe, for they meant us no hurt. Then our Ambassadour did write another letter, and sent it by them to the Viceroy, in like order as he did before, but he received no answere of any of them. In all this time they had privily gathered together the principall men of the Iland, and had laboured day and night to bring downe ordinance, not making any shew of their trecherie towards us. But the same night following, we saw very many lights passe in the woods among the trees. And in the morning when the watch was broken up, being Saturday the ninth of Februarie, at faire day light, one of our men looked foorth, and saw standing on land the cariage of a piece: then was one commanded to goe into the toppe, and there he did descrie two or three pieces, and also many men on the shoare, with divers weapons that they brought. Then they suddenly tooke foure or five brasse pieces, and placed them on either side of the harborough where we should go out, and hid them with stones and bushes that we should not see them. Now I thinke the harborough not to be above the eight part of a mile over. Thus perceiving their meaning which was most plaine: wee agreed to take up our anker and goe out, and leave our men there, having none other way to take. Then our Ambassadour intreated the Master of the Marseilian, his friend, to goe on land with his boat, and to know the trueth: who satisfied his request. And at his returne he tolde us that it was very true, that they would lay holde of us if they could. Then we weighed our ankers: but having little winde, we towed the shippe forward with the boat. The Viceroy. himselfe was at the water side with more then five hundred men on both sides of the harbour as we thought. And when we came out with our shippe as far as their ordinance, our Ambassadour and the Cap taine being in their armour, the Master commanding of the company, and trimming of the sailes, the Pilot standing on the poope, attending to his charge, with other very well furnished, and every man in order about their businesse very ready, they on land on the contrary part having a very faire piece mounted on the North side openly in all our sights, as the shippe passed by, they traversed that piece right with the maine mast or after-quarter of the shippe, and a Gunner standing by, with a lint-stocke in his hand, about foureteene or fifteene foot long, being (as we thought) ready to give fire. Our whole noise of trumpets were sounding on the poope with drumme and flute, and a Minion of brasse on the summer decke, with two or three other pieces, alwayes by our Gunners traversed mouth to mouth with theirs on land, still looking when they on land should shoot, for to answere them againe. The Pilot standing on the poope, seeing this readinesse, and the shippe going very softly, because of the calmenesse of the winde, he called to them on the South side, where the Viceroy was, and sayd unto him: Have you warres with us? If you have, it is more then we know; but by your provision it seemeth so: if you have, shoot in Gods name, and spare not, but they held all fast and shot not. Then the Viceroy himselfe held up a paper, and sayd he had a letter for our Captaine, and desired us to stay for it. Then we answered and sayd we would not, but willed him to send it by the Marseilians boat, and our men also. All this while, our trumpets, drum and flute sounded, and so we passed out in the face of them all. When they perceived that they could lay no holde on us, they presently sent to the Towne for our men, whom within lesse then three houres after they sent aboord with the sayd letter, wherein he desired our Captaine and his company not to take it in ill part, for he meant them no harme, but would have seene our shippe. His letter did import these and such like faire speeches: for it altogether contained courteous salutations, saying that he might boldly come into any port within his Iland, and that he and his would shew him what friendship they might: and that the injury that was offered was done at the request of the Shepheards and poore people of the countrey, for the more safegard of their flockes, and because it was not a thing usuall to have any such shippe to come into that port, with many other deceitfull words in the sayd letter. Then our Ambassadour wrote unto him another letter to answere that, and gave him thanks for his men that he had sent him, and also for his good will, and sent him a present. This done, we shot off halfe a dozen pieces, hoised our sailes, and departed on our voyage. Then the Purser and the rest of our men that had beene in holde, tolde us that they did see the Captaine, and other gentlemen of the Iland, having their buskins and stockings torne from their legges, with labouring in the bushes day and night to make that sudden provision. The 12 of February we saw an Iland of Africa side called Galata, where they use to drag out of the Sea much Corall, and we saw likewise Sardinia , which is an Iland subject to Spaine. The 13 in the morning we were hard by Sardinia . The 15 we did see an Iland neere Sicilia , and an Iland on Africa side called Cysimbre. The same day likewise we saw an Iland called Pantalaria, and that night we were thwart the middle of Sicilia . The 16 at night we were as farre as Capo Passaro, which is the Southeast part of Sicilia . The 24 we were put into a port called Porto de Conte, in an Iland called Cephalonia : it is an out Iland in the dominions of Grecia , and now at this present governed by the Signory of Venice, as the rest of Grecia is under the Turke, for the most part. The 27 we came from thence, and that day arrived at Zante which is also in Grecia : for at this present wee entred the parts of Grecia . The second of March we came from Zante ; and the same day were thwart of an Iland called Prodeno: and the 4 we were thwart of an Iland called Sapientia. There standeth a faire Towne and a Castle on the maine over against it, called Modon . The same day by reason of contrary windes we put backe againe to Prodeno, because we could not fetch Sapientia. The ninth we came from thence, and were as farre as Sapientia againe. The tenth we were as farre shot as Cavo Matapan; and that day we entred the Archipelago, and passed thorow betweene Cerigo and Cavo Malio. This Cerigo is an Iland where one Menelaus did sometimes reigne, from whome was stollen by Paris faire Helena , and carried to Troy , as ancient Recordes doe declare. The same day we had sight of a little Iland called Bellapola, and did likewise see both the Milos , being Ilands in the Archipelago. The 11 in the morning we were hard by an Iland called Falconara, and the Iland of Antemila. The 12 in the morning we were betweene Fermenia and Zea, being both Ilands. That night wee were betweene Negroponte and Andri, being likewise Ilands. The 13 in the morning we were hard by Psara and Sarafo, being Ilands nine or tenne miles from Chio, and could not fetch Chio. So we put roome with a port in Metelin called Sigra, and about nine of the clocke at night we ankered there. The 15 we came from thence, the sixteenth we put into Porto Delfi. The port is 9 English miles to the Northward of the City of Chio, (and it may be twelve of their miles) this night we stayed in the sayd port, being in the Iland of Chio. Then went our Marchant and one or two with him to the City of Chio. And when the By, who is the governour of the Iland (and is in their language a Duke) had communed with the Marchant, and those that were with him, and understood of our arrivall within his dominion, the day following he armed his gallies, and came to welcome our Ambassadour, accompanied with the Ermine, that is, the Kings Customer, and also the French Consull, with divers of the chiefe of the City, and offered him as much friendship as he could or would desire: for he did offer to attend upon us, and towe us if need were to the Castles. The 21 we departed from thence, and that day passed by port Sigra againe. This Iland of Metelin is part of Asia, and is neere to Natolia. The 22 we passed by a head land called Baberno, and is also in Asia. And that day at night we passed by the Isle of Tenedo, part of Asia, and by another Iland called Maure. And the same day we passed thorow the straights of Galipoli, and by the Castles, and also by the Towne of Galipoli it selfe, which standeth in Europa. And that night we were in sight of Marmora which is neere Natolia, and part of Asia. The 23 in the morning we were thwart of Araclia, and that night we ankered in Silauria. The 24 in the morning the Marchant and the Pilot were set on land to goe to the City about the Ambassadours businesse, but there they could not land because we had the winde faire. That place of some is called Ponte grande, and is foure and twenty miles on this side of Constantinople, and because of the winde, they followed in the skiffe untill they came to a place called Ponte picola, andthere is a little bridge, it standeth eight Turkish miles from Constantinople, there the Marchant and the Pilot landed. At this bridge is an house of the great Turkes with a faire Garden belonging unto it, neere the which is a point called Ponta S. Stephano, and there the shippe ankered that day. The 26 day the ship came to the seven Towers, and the 27 we came neerer. The 29 there came three gallies to bring us up further: and when the shippe came against the great Turks palace, we shot off all our ordinance to the number of foure and thirty pieces. Then landed our Ambassadour, and then we discharged foure and twenty pieces, who was received with more then fifty or threescore men on horsebacke. The ninth of April he presented the great Bassa with sixe clothes, foure cannes of silver double gilt, and one piece of fine holland, and to three other Bassas, that is to say, the second Bassa, which is a gelded man, and his name is Mahomet Bassa, to the third who maried the great Turks sister, and to the fourth whom they call Abraham Bassa, to every one of these he gave foure clothes. Now, before the great Bassa, and Abraham Bassa, at their returne from the Court (and as we thinke at other times, but at that time for a certaine) there came a man in maner of a foole, who gave a great shout three or foure times, crying very hollowly, the place rebounded with the sound, and this man, say they, is a prophet of Mahomet, his armes and legges naked, on his feet he did weare woodden pattens of two sorts, in his hand, a flagge, or streamer set on a short speare painted, he carried a mat and bottels, and other trumpery at his backe, and sometimes under his arme, on his head he had a cappe of white Camels haire, flat like an helmet, written about with letters, and about his head a linnen rowle. Other servingmen there were with the sayd Bassas, with red attire on their heads, much like French hoods, but the long flappe somewhat smaller towardes the end, with scuffes or plates of mettall, like unto the chape of an ancient arming sword, standing on their foreheads like other Janisaries. These Bassas entertained us as followeth: First, they brought us into a hall, there to stand on one side, and our Ambassadour and gentlemen on the other side, who sate them downe on a bench covered with carpets, the Ambassadour in the midst; on his left hand sate our gentlemen, and on his right hand the Turkes, next to the doore where their master goeth in and out: the common sort of Turkes stayed in the Court yard, not suffered to come neere us. When our Ambassadour had sitten halfe an houre, the Bassas (who sate by themselves in an inner small roome) sent for him; to whom the Ambassadour and his gentlemen went: they all kissed his hand, and presently returned (the Ambassadour onely excepted, who stayed there, and a Turks chaus with him) with the Ambassadour and his gentlemen went in also so many of our men as there were presents to cary in, but these neither kissed his hand nor taried. After this I went to visit the church of Santa Sophia, which was the chiefe church when it was the Christians, and now is the chiefe see and church of primacie of this Turke present: before I entred I was willed to put off my shoes, to the end I should not prophane their church, I being a Christian. The pillers on both sides of the church are very costly and rich, their Pulpets seemely and handsome, two are common to preach in, the third reserved onely for their Paschall. The ground is covered with Mats, and the walles hanged with Tapistry. They have also Lamps in their churches, one in the middle of the church of exceeding greatnesse, and another in another part of the church of cleane golde, or double gilded, full as bigge as a barrel. Round about the church there is a gallery builded upon rich and stately pillers. That day I was in both the chappels, in one of the which lieth the Turkes father, and five of his sonnes in tombes right costly, with their turbents very white and cleane, shifted (as they say) every Friday, they be not on their heads, but stand on mouldes made for that purpose. At the endes, over, and about their tombes are belts, like girdles, beset with jewels. In the other chappell are foure other of his sonnes, and one daughter, in like order. In the first chappell is a thing foure foot high, covered with greene, beset with mother of pearle very richly. This is a relique of Mahomet, and standeth on the left side of the head of the great Turks tombe. These chappels have their floores covered, and their walles hanged with Tapistrie of great price, I could value the covering and hangings of one of the chappels, at no lesse then five hundred poundes, besides their lamps hanging richly gilded. These chappels have their roofes curiously wrought with rich stone, and gilded. And there lie the bookes of their Lawes for every man to reade. The 11 day of April the shippe came to the Key of the Custome house. The 16 the Ambassadour and we his men went to the Captaine Bassa, who is Admirall of the seas, his name is Uchali, he would not receive us into his house, but into his gallie, to deliver our present, which was as followeth: Foure pieces of cloth, and two silver pots gilt & graven. The poope or sterne of his gaily was gilded both within and without, and under his feet, and where he sate was all covered with very rich Tapistry. Our Ambassadour and his gentlemen kissed his hand, and then the gentlemen were commanded out, and our Ambassadour sate downe by him on his left hand, and the chaus stood before him. Our men might walke in the gaily fore and after, some of us taried, and some went out againe. The gaily had seven pieces of brasse in her prowe, small and great, she had thirty bankes or oares on either side, and at every banke or oare seven men to rowe. The 18 day the shippe went from the Key. And 21 the Admirall tooke his leave of the great Turke, being bound to the Sea with sixe and thirty gallies, very fairely beautified with gilding and painting, and beset with flags and streamers, all the which gallies discharged their ordinance: and we for his farewell gave him one and twenty pieces. Then he went to his house with his gallies, and the 22 he went to the Sea, and the Castle that standeth in the water gave him foureteene or sixteene pieces : and when he came against the Turks Seraglio he shot off all his calivers and his great pieces, and so hee went his way. The 24 our Ambassadour went to the Court, whose entertainement with the order thereof followeth. When wee came first on land there was way made for us by two or three Bassaes and divers chauses on horsebacke with their men on foot, to accompany our Ambassadour to the Court. Also they brought horses for him and his gentlemen for to ride, which were very richly furnished: and by the way there met with us other chauses to accompany us to the Court. When we came there wee passed thorow two gates, at the second gate there stood very many men with horses attending on their masters. When we came within that gate we were within a very faire Court yard, in compasse twise so bigge as Pauls Church-yard. On the right hand of the sayd Court was a faire gallerie like an Alley, and within it were placed railes and such other provision. On the left side was the like, halfe the Court over: it was divided into two parts, the innermost fairer then the other. The other part of that side is the place where the Councell doe usually sit, and at the inner end of that is a faire place to sit in, much like unto that place in Pauls Church-yard, where the Maior and his brethren use to sit, thither was our Ambassadour brought, and set in that place. Within that sayde place is another like open roome, where hee did eate. Assoone as wee came in, wee were placed in the innermost alley of the second roome, on the left side of the Court, which was spread with carpets on the ground fourescore or fourescore and tenne foot long, with an hundred and fiftie severall dishes set thereon, that is to say, Mutton boiled and rosted, Rice diversly dressed, Fritters of the finest fashion, and dishes daintily dight with pritty pappe, with infinite others, I know not how to expresse them. We had also rosted Hennes with sundry sorts of fowles to me unknowen. The gentlemen and we sate downe on the ground, for it is their maner so to feede. There were also Greekes and others set to furnish out the roome. Our drinke was made with Rose water and Sugar and spices brewed together. Those that did serve us with it had a great bagge tied over their showlders, with a broad belt like an arming belt full of plates of copper and gilt, with part of the sayd bagge under his arme, and the mouth in his hand: then he had a devise to let it out when he would into cuppes, when we called for drinke. The Ambassadour when hee had eaten, passed by us, with the chauses aforesayd, and sate him downe in an inner roome. This place where he sate was against the gate where we came in, and hard by the Councell chamber end, somewhat on the left side of the Court, this was at the East end of the Court, for we came in at the West. All this time our presents stood by us untill we had dined, and diner once ended, this was their order of taking up the dishes. Certaine were called in, like those of the Blacke gard in the Court of England, the Turks call them Moglans. These came in like rude and ravening Mastifs, without order or fashion, and made cleane riddance: for he whose hungry eye one dish could not fill turned two, one into the other, and thus even on the sudden was made a cleane riddance of all. Then came certaine chauses and brought our gentlemen to sit with the Ambassadour. Immediatly came officers & appointed Janisers to beare from us our presents, who caried them on the right side of the Court, and set them hard by the doore of the Privy chamber, as we call it: there all things stoode for the space of an houre. Thus the Ambassadour and his gentlemen sate still, and to the Southward of them was a doore whereas the great Turke himselfe went in and out at, and on the South side of that doore sate on a bench all his chiefe lordes and gentlemen, and on the North side of the West gate stood his gard, in number as I gesse them a thousand men. These men have on their heads round cappes of mettall like sculles, but sharpe in the toppe, in this they have a bunch of Ostridge feathers, as bigge as a brush, with the corner or edge forward: at the lower end of these feathers was there a smaller feather, like those that are commonly worn here. Some of his gard had smal staves, & most of them were weaponed with bowes and arrowes. Here they waited, during our abode at the Court, to gard their Lord. After the Ambassadour with his gentlemen had sitten an houre and more, there came three or foure chauses, and brought them into the great Turkes presence. At the Privy chamber doore two noble men tooke the Ambassadour by ech arme one, and put their fingers within his sleeves, and so brought him to the great Turke where he sumptuously sate alone. He kissed his hand and stood by untill all the gentlemen were brought before him in like maner, one by one, and ledde backewards againe his face towards the Turke; for they might neither tarry nor turne their backs, and in like maner returned the Ambassadour. The salutation that the Noble men did, was taking them by the hands. All this time they trode on cloth of golde, most of the Noble men that sate on the South side of the Privy chamber sate likewise on cloth of golde. Many officers or Janisaries there were with staves, who kept very good order, for no Turke whatsoever might goe any further then they willed him. At our Ambassadours entring they followed that bare his presents, to say, twelve fine broad clothes, two pieces of fine holland, tenne pieces of plate double gilt, one case of candlesticks, the case whereof was very large, and three foot high and more, two very great Cannes or pots, and one lesser, one basin and ewer, two poppinjayes of silver, the one with two heads: they were to drinke in: two bottles with chaines, three faire mastifs in coats of redde cloth, three spaniels, two bloodhounds, one common hunting hound, two greyhounds, two little dogges in coats of silke: one clocke valued at five hundred pounds sterling: over it was a forrest with trees of silver, among the which were deere chased with dogs, and men on horsebacke following, men drawing of water, others carrying mine oare on barrowes: on the toppe of the clocke stood a castle, and on the castle a mill. All these were of silver. And the clocke was round beset with jewels. All the time that we stayed at the Councell chamber doore they were telling or weighing of money to send into Persia for his Souldiours pay. There were carried out an hundred and three and thirty bags, and in every bagge, as it was tolde us, one thousand ducats, which amounteth to three hundred and thirty thousand * , and in sterling English money to fourescore and nineteene thousand pounds. The Captaine of the guard in the meane time went to the great Turke, and returned againe, then they of the Court made obeisance to him, bowing downe their heads, and their hands on their breasts, and he in like order resaluted them: he was in cloth of silver, he went and came with two or three with him and no more. Then wee went out at the first gate, and there we were commanded to stay untill the Captaine of the guard was passed by and all his guard with him, part before him and part behinde him, some on horsebacke and some on foot, but the most part on foot carrying on their shoulders the money before mentioned, and so we passed home. There was in the Court during our abode there, for the most part a foole resembling the first, but not naked as was the other at the Bassas: but he turned him continually, & cried Hough very hollowly. The third of May I saw the Turke go to the church: he had more then two hundred and fifty horses before and behinde him, but most before him. There were many empty horses that came in no order. Many of his Nobilitie were in cloth of golde, but himselfe in white sattin. There did ride behinde him sixe or seven youthes, one or two whereof carried water for him to drinke as they sayd. There were many of his guard running before him and behinde him, and when he alighted, they cried Hough very hollowly, as the aforesayd fooles.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Dates (automatically extracted)
Sort dates alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a date to search for it in this document.
November, 1582 AD (1)
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: